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Beloš (Serbian Cyrillic: Белош[a]; Greek: Βελούσης fl. 1141–1163), was a Serbian prince and Hungarian palatine who served as the regent of Hungary from 1141 until 1146, alongside his sister Helena, mother of the infant King Géza II. Beloš held the title of duke (dux), and served as ban of Croatia from 1142 until 1158 and briefly in 1163. Beloš, as a member of the Serbian Vukanović dynasty, also briefly ruled his patrimony as the Grand Prince of Serbia in 1162. He lived during a period of Serbian-Hungarian alliance, amid a growing threat from the Byzantines, who had earlier been the overlords of Serbia.

Beloš
Grand Prince of Serbia
Comes palatinus of Hungary
Ban of Croatia
Grand Prince of Serbia
Reign1162
PredecessorUroš II
SuccessorDesa
Ban of Croatia
Reign1146–1158
PredecessorAleksije
SuccessorArpa
Regent of Hungary
Reign1141–1146
PredecessorBéla II
SuccessorGéza II
Bornafter 1083
Diedbefore 1198
Hungary
Issuedaughter
DynastyVukanović
FatherUroš I
MotherAnna Diogenissa
ReligionEastern Orthodox Christian

Contents

OriginEdit

Beloš was the middle son of Uroš I, the Grand Prince of Serbia (r. ca 1112-1145), and Anna Diogenissa, the granddaughter of Romanos IV Diogenes, the Byzantine Emperor (r. 1068–1071). He had two brothers, Uroš II Primislav and Desa, and two sisters, Helen (the mother of King Géza II of Hungary) and Maria. Zavida, the father of future Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja, is possibly a fourth brother, this is however undisclosed.

Hungarian RegencyEdit

Helen
Géza II

His sister Helen, married the Hungarian heir apparent, Béla II in 1129. In 1131, Béla II was crowned the King of Hungary, succeeding the child-less Stephen II. Beloš joined his sister at the Hungarian court, and received the title of dux (Duke, Herzog). Béla II died on 13 February 1141, and the eldest son and heir Géza II was still a child, thus Helen and Beloš became regents in his place. The brother and sister governed the Kingdom of Hungary until Géza II's coming of age, in September 1146. In 1145, he received the title of comes palatinus (Count palatine), the highest court title of the Kingdom. During his time as tutor to Géza II, the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus attacked Hungary, supporting the rival Boris Kalamanos (son of Coloman), however Beloš successfully managed to defend Hungary.

Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia, Grand Prince of SerbiaEdit

Beloš received the title of Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia (the latter is later given to a younger son of the dynasty), as a viceroy in Croatia, in 1142. In 1149, Géza II and Beloš aids Uroš II in the attacks of Emperor Manuel I on Serbia. In 1154, he assists Ban Borić of Bosnia to conquer Braničevo from the Byzantines.

In 1158 he leaves Hungary and returns to Serbia. When Manuel I had removed his brother Uroš II in 1161, Beloš came to rule briefly in 1162, then gave the throne to his younger brother Desa. He returns to Croatia, once again serving as Ban of Croatia. After the death of Géza II in 1162, Byzantines wanted to instate a member of the dynasty, Stephen IV, who had lived in Constantinople. Beloš ousts Stephen IV after he briefly rules, taking him as prisoner. He releases Stephen IV to the Byzantines after an agreement.

Later yearsEdit

He married his daughter to the Russian prince Vladimir III Mstislavich in 1150. He founded a monastery in present-day Banoštor (then known as Kewe), which made the locals call the town Banov manastir (Ban's Monastery, Hungarian: Ban monostra), hence the modern name Banoštor. Throughout his tenure in Hungary, he maintained excellent relations with Serbia, which was ruled by his brothers. After 1163 there are no more mentions of him.

See alsoEdit

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Uroš II
Grand Prince of Serbia
1162
Succeeded by
Desa
Political offices
Preceded by
(?) Saulus
Palatine of Hungary
1146–1157
Succeeded by
Héder
Preceded by
Alexius
Ban of Slavonia
1146–1157
Succeeded by
Apa
Preceded by
Apa
Ban of Slavonia
1163
Succeeded by
Ampud

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Name: His given name was Beloš (Белош), also rendered as Beluš or Bjeloš, while in Latin as Albeus. He was the son of Uroš, and a descendant of the Vukanović, hence, his name according to the name system was Beloš Urošević Vukanović.

ReferencesEdit

SourcesEdit

  • Kalić, J. 1997, "Le joupan Belos", Zbornik radova Vizantološkog instituta, no. 36, pp. 63–81.
  • V. Klaić, Hrvatski bani za Arpadovića (1102—1301), u Vjesniku kraljevskog zemaljskog arhiva, l (1899), 129—138;
  • Dr. M. Wertner, Ungarns Palatine und Bane im Zeit-alter der Arpaden (Ungarische Revue, 14, 1894, 129—177).