Belleville is a city in Ontario, Canada situated on the eastern end of Lake Ontario, located at the mouth of the Moira River and on the Bay of Quinte. Belleville is between Ottawa and Toronto, along the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. Its population as of the 2021 Canadian census was 55,071 (Census Metropolitan Area population 111,184). It is the seat of Hastings County, but politically independent of it, and is the centre of the Bay of Quinte Region.
|City of Belleville|
The Friendly City
|Incorporated||1836 (as police village)|
|Incorporated as city||1878|
|• Mayor||Neil Ellis|
|• Federal riding||Bay of Quinte|
|• Prov. riding||Bay of Quinte|
|• Land||247.21 km2 (95.45 sq mi)|
|• Metro||741.36 km2 (286.24 sq mi)|
|• City (single-tier)||55,071|
|• Density||222.8/km2 (577/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||83.1/km2 (215/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|Postal Code FSA|
K8N, K8P, K8R
|Area codes||613, 343, 753|
|GDP (Belleville CMA)||CA$4.6 billion (2016)|
|GDP per capita (Belleville CMA)||CA$44,930 (2016)|
The settlement was first called Singleton's Creek after an early settler, George Singleton. Next it was called Meyer’s Creek, after prominent settler and industrialist John Walden Meyers (1745–1821), one of the founders of Belleville. He built a sawmill and grist mill. After an 1816 visit to the settlement by colonial administrator Sir Francis Gore and his wife, Lady Annabella Gore, it was renamed as Belleville in her honour.
Henry Corby, who arrived in 1832 with his new wife Alma Williams (they had married before immigrating), settled in Belleville. He was a merchant, setting up a grocery store and other businesses. He founded the H. Corby Distillery, and promoted the municipality. He also represented it in Parliament.
Their son Henry Corby Jr. (Harry) took over the family business and continued to support the town: he donated funding to create the public library, helped develop the park at Massassaga Point, established the Corby Charitable Fund, helped raise funds to build the first bridge across the Bay of Quinte and donated the land and development of Corby Park.
In 1836 Belleville became an incorporated village. By 1846, it had a population of 2040. Several stone buildings were soon constructed, including a jail and court house, as well as some of the seven churches. Transportation to other communities was by stagecoach and, in summer, by steamboat along the lake. Two weekly newspapers were published. The post office received mail daily. Several court and government offices were located here. In addition to tradesmen, there was some small industry, three cloth factories, a paper mill, two grist mills, three tanneries and two breweries. The seventeen taverns outnumbered the churches and most businesses. The oldest surviving residence within the original boundaries, 67 South Front Street, was built by Alexander Oliphant Petrie in 1814.
With the completion of the Grand Trunk Railway in 1856, Belleville became an important railway junction. Added to a booming trade in lumber and successful farming in the area, the railway helped increase the commercial and industrial growth. Belleville was incorporated as a town in 1850.
In 1858 the iron bridge was completed over the Moira River at Bridge Street; it was the first iron bridge in Hastings County. By 1865, the population reached 6,000. Telephone service to 29 subscribers was in place by 1883; electricity became available in 1885 and in 1886, the town began to offer municipal water service. In 1870, Ontario's first school for the deaf was established in Belleville. Under Dr. Charles B. Coughlin, the school was recognized as making a significant contribution to special education. Originally called the Ontario Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb, the facility was renamed as Ontario School for the Deaf. In 1974, it was renamed as the Sir James Whitney School.
Belleville's city hall operates in a building first constructed in 1873 to house the public market and administrative offices. It was designed in the High Victorian Gothic style and retains much of its original appearance. In 1877, Belleville was legally incorporated as a city.
In 1998, the city was amalgamated with the surrounding Township of Thurlow to form an expanded City of Belleville as part of Ontario-wide municipal restructuring. The city also annexed portions of Quinte West to the west.
Belleville is located at the mouth of the Moira River on the Bay of Quinte in southeastern Ontario between the cities of Quinte West to the west and Napanee to the east. These cities are connected by both Ontario's Highway 2 and the Macdonald-Cartier Freeway (Highway 401); The city is also served by Highway 37, running north–south from Belleville towards Tweed to the east of the Moira River; and Highway 62 (once Highway 14 south of 401), northwards towards Madoc, and southward to Prince Edward County over the Bay Bridge.
Belleville is located in a transitional zone which may be considered part of either the Central Ontario or Eastern Ontario regions by different sources. Officially, Belleville is properly considered part of the Central Ontario region as it is located west of the St. Lawrence River's starting point, but the city is popularly considered part of Eastern Ontario as it shares the eastern region's area code 613 and K postal code.
In addition to the Belleville city centre, the city of Belleville also comprises a number of villages and hamlets, including the following communities: Bayshore, Cannifton, Corbyville, Foxboro, Frink Centre, Gilead, Halloway, Honeywell Corners, Latta, Loyalist, Philipston, Plainfield, Pointe Anne, Roslin (partially), Thrasher's Corners, Thurlow, Thurlow South and Zion Hill.
Belleville's climate has four distinct seasons. The city's traditional humid continental climate (Dfb)(hot summers, cold winters) is moderated by its location near Lake Ontario. The lake moderates temperature extremes, cooling hot summer days and warming cold days during the fall and winter.  Because of this, winter snowfall is somewhat limited due to the increased frequency of precipitation falling as rain during the winter months. In the summer months, severe thunderstorm activity is usually limited because of the non-favourable lake breeze conditions. The city, being located on the north shore of Lake Ontario, is also in an unfavourable location for lake effect snow. One notable exception, however, was in December 2010 when 14 cm of snow occurred in one day as a result of a snow band from Lake Ontario. The summer months do not typically experience exceedingly hot temperatures, however, humidity levels can make daytime highs uncomfortable. Summer rainfall is usually modest and delivered by passing thunderstorms or warm fronts. Remnants of tropical systems do pass through on occasion towards summer's end, resulting in one or two days of consistently wet weather. The winter season is highly variable, with the record setting winter of 2007–08 experiencing near 270 cm of snow. Four years later, the winter of 2011–12 experienced only 60 cm of snow. Winter temperatures are also highly variable, even in one season. Air masses change frequently, and while a few days may see above freezing temperatures at a time in January, the next week may bring cold and snowfall. Autumn is usually mild, with an increase in precipitation starting in late September as conditions for fall storms develop. The highest temperature ever recorded in Belleville was 104 °F (40.0 °C) on 9 July 1936. The coldest temperature ever recorded was −39 °F (−39.4 °C) on 9 February 1934.
|Climate data for Belleville, 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1866−present|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.5
|Average high °C (°F)||−2.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−6.7
|Average low °C (°F)||−11.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−37.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||67.3
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||30.6
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||36.8
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||15.4||11.8||12.0||12.2||12.4||11.6||9.7||10.5||11.3||13.5||14.0||14.2||148.6|
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)||5.3||4.9||7.4||11.0||12.3||11.6||9.7||10.5||11.3||13.4||11.4||7.5||116.2|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)||11.7||8.5||6.4||2.1||0.04||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.12||3.7||8.8||41.2|
|Source: Environment Canada|
| The 1991 and 1996 populations are 44,858 and 45,069 respectively when adjusted to the 2001 boundaries. The 2001 population is 46,029 when adjusted to the 2006 boundaries.|
In the 2021 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Belleville had a population of 55,071 living in 23,536 of its 24,582 total private dwellings, a change of 8.6% from its 2016 population of 50,716. With a land area of 247.15 km2 (95.43 sq mi), it had a population density of 222.8/km2 (577.1/sq mi) in 2021.
At the census metropolitan area (CMA) level in the 2021 census, the Belleville - Quinte West CMA had a population of 111,184 living in 46,213 of its 48,274 total private dwellings, a change of 7.5% from its 2016 population of 103,401. With a land area of 1,337.5 km2 (516.4 sq mi), it had a population density of 83.1/km2 (215.3/sq mi) in 2021.
Belleville's population is mostly of European descent. The racial make up of Belleville is as of 2021 is 85.1% White, 5.6% Indigenous and 9.3% visible minorities. The largest visible minority groups in Belleville are South Asian (3.9%), Black (1.3%), Filipino (0.9%) and Chinese (0.8%) .
89.7% of residents speak English as their mother tongue. Other common first languages are French (1.5%), Gujarati (0.7%), Punjabi (0.6%), Spanish (0.5%), and Chinese (0.5%). 1.1% list both English and a non-official language as mother tongues, while 0.4% list both English and French.
As of 2021, 53.4% of residents are Christian, down from 67.1% in 2011. 22.7% are Protestant, 19.8% are Catholic, 6.0% are Christian n.o.s. 4.9% are members of other Christian denominations or Christian-related traditions. 42.1% are non-religious or secular, up from 30.3% in 2011. The remaining 4.5% affiliate with another religion, up from 2.6% in 2011. The largest non-Christian religions are Hinduism (1.4%), Sikhism (1.0%) and Islam (0.8%).
|Ethnic and Cultural origins (2021)||Population||Percent|
|Caucasian (White) n.o.s+
|British Isles n.o.s||2,225||4.1%|
|First Nations (North American Indian) n.o.s.+
North American Indigenous, n.o.s.
|Note: a person may report more than one ethnic origin.|
Procter & Gamble, Kellogg's, Bardon Supplies Limited, Redpath, W.T. Hawkins Ltd, Sigma Stretch Film Canada, Hexo Cannabis, Autosystems Manufacturing (Magna International), Amer Sports Canada, and Avaya (formerly Nortel) are corporations operating in Belleville. Many other manufacturing sector companies operate within the City of Belleville, including Bioniche Life Sciences, Sprague Foods, Airborne Systems Canada Ltd, Berry Plastics Canada, CPK Interior Products, Hanon (formerly Halla) Climate Control Canada, Reid's Dairy, Parmalat Canada – Black Diamond Cheese Division and Norampac Inc.
Belleville is home to two shopping malls: The Bay View Mall in east-end Belleville and the Quinte Mall along Bell Boulevard (south of Highway 401) in North Belleville. In January 2017 a Shorelines Casino opened on Bell Boulevard.
Arts and culture edit
- Pinnacle Playhouse
- The Empire Theatre
- Moonpath Productions
- Quinte Ballet School of Canada
Annual events edit
- Civic Levee
- Downtown Docfest
- Quinte Sportsman Boat & RV Show
- Quinte Trash Bash
- 5k Fun Run
- Front Street Farmers Market
- Quinte Ballet School of Canada Spring Showcase
- Belleville's Canada D'Eh
- Waterfront and Ethnic Festival
- Belleville Poutine Feast
- Quinte Ballet School of Canada Summer Dance Intensive
Belleville Jazz Festival
- Quinte Ribfest
- Dragon Boat Festival
- Quinte Fall Fair and Exhibition
- Porchfest Belleville
- Belleville Festival of Trees
- Belleville Nighttime Santa Claus Parade
- Christmas at the Pier
- Quinte Ballet School of Canada performs Holiday Dance - experts from "The Nutcracker"
- Christmas at the Pier
The Belleville Senators play in the American Hockey League (AHL) and began play in the 2017–18 season as the top minor league affiliate of the National Hockey League's Ottawa Senators. They play at the CAA Arena, formally Yardmen Arena, located on 265 Cannifton Road.
Belleville Bulls played in the Ontario Hockey League from 1981 to 2015. The team was then sold and relocated to Hamilton, Ontario. Belleville was also previously home to two senior hockey teams, the Belleville Macs and the Belleville McFarlands. Belleville is also home the Bay of Quinte Yacht Club, which challenged for the America's Cup in 1881. Belleville also sports minor hockey league teams such as the Belleville Bearcats (female) and the Belleville Jr. Bulls (male).
The Belleville McFarlands were a men's senior ice hockey team in the Ontario Hockey Association Senior division from 1956 to 1961. The McFarlands were Allan Cup champions in 1958, defeating the Kelowna Packers four games to three, and the World Championship in 1959. The team name was revived by a later team in the Eastern Ontario Senior Hockey League from 2003 to 2006, known as the Belleville Macs.
Local government is represented by Belleville City Council with a mayor and eight councillors. There are two city wards with Ward 1 (Belleville) represented by six councillors and Ward 2 (Thurlow) by two councillors. Ward 1 consists of the historic city and Ward 2 was created in 1998 with the amalgamation of Township of Thurlow. City Council sits at Belleville City Hall.
Police Service edit
The city has had its own police force since 1834, and constables since 1790. The force has about 100 sworn members headed by a Chief of Police and a Deputy Chief. The service is stationed out of one location only. Policing on provincial highways (37, 62 and 401) are provided by the Ontario Provincial Police from the Centre Hastings detachment.
Belleville is serviced by the 401 highway system, and bus service to and from Toronto Pearson International Airport is provided by Megabus. Deseronto Transit provides public transportation services to destinations including Deseronto, Napanee, and Prince Edward County.
Belleville is located on the Toronto-Montreal main rail lines for both Canadian National Railway and Canadian Pacific Railway; both companies provide freight access. VIA Rail also operates five daily passenger services each way along its Quebec City–Windsor Corridor.
Major routes edit
- Highway 62
- Highway 37/Cannifton Road Parkway
- Highway 2/Dundas Street.
- Bell Boulevard/Adam Street
- College Street/Airport Parkway
Belleville General Hospital is located near Highway 2 and is Belleville's main healthcare facility. The hospital is one of the four hospitals in the region under Quinte Health Care. The corporate headquarters of Quinte Health Care is located in the Belleville location.
The Academy of Learning College is a local college located on the east end of Belleville.
Public schools edit
The public school system is served by the Hastings & Prince Edward District School Board. The Catholic School system is served by the Algonquin and Lakeshore Catholic District School Board.
- Susanna Moodie Elementary School
- Parkdale Public Elementary School
- Queen Elizabeth Elementary School
- Prince of Wales Elementary School
- Harry J. Clarke Elementary School (Offers French immersion)
- Queen Victoria Elementary School
- Sir John A Macdonald School
- Prince Charles Elementary School
- Foxboro Public School
- Bayside Elementary School] (Offers French immersion}
- Harmony Public School
Separate schools edit
The following are Belleville area schools managed by the Algonquin and Lakeshore Catholic District School Board.
- Our Lady of Fatima Catholic School
- St Michael's Catholic School (French immersion)
- St Joseph's Catholic School
- Georges Vanier Catholic School
- Holy Rosary Catholic School
- Saint Maracle Catholic School
Provincial demonstration schools edit
- Sir James Whitney School for the Deaf
- Sagonaska School
Private schools edit
- Academy of Learning College
- Quinte Ballet School of Canada
- Quinte Christian High School
- Belleville Christian School
- Belleville Montessori School
- Albert College
- Belleville Intelligencer (Tuesday thru Saturday)
- Community Press (Every Thursday)
|AM 800||CJBQ||CJBQ 800||Full service||Quinte Broadcasting|
|FM 90.3||CBO-FM-1||CBC Radio One||Talk radio, public radio||Canadian Broadcasting Corporation||Rebroadcaster of CBO-FM (Ottawa) |
|FM 91.3||CJLX-FM||91X||Campus radio||Loyalist College|
|FM 94.3||CJBC-1-FM||Ici Radio-Canada Première||Talk radio, public radio||Canadian Broadcasting Corporation||Rebroadcaster of CJBC (Toronto)|
|FM 95.5||CJOJ-FM||95.5 Hits FM||Adult hits||Starboard Communications|
|FM 97.1||CIGL-FM||Mix 97||Hot adult contemporary||Quinte Broadcasting|
|FM 100.1||CHCQ-FM||Cool 100.1||Country music||Starboard Communications|
|FM 102.3||CKJJ-FM||UCB Radio||Christian radio||United Christian Broadcasters Canada|
|FM 107.1||CJTN-FM||Rock 107||Classic rock||Quinte Broadcasting|
|OTA virtual channel (PSIP)||OTA actual channel||Call sign||Network||Notes|
|22.1||22 (UHF)||CICO-DT-53||TVOntario||Rebroadcaster of CICA-DT (Toronto)|
|OTA virtual channel (PSIP)||OTA actual channel||Call sign||Network||Notes|
|4 & 700||4 (Cable TV only)||YourTV Quinte||YourTV||Part of Cogeco Community TV|
- Quinte News
- QNet News
Sister cities edit
The City of Belleville has three sister city arrangements with communities outside of Canada which include:
Notable people edit
- Lee Aaron, hard rock and jazz singer. Best known for "Metal Queen"
- Marianne Ackerman, playwright, novelist, and journalist'
- Lauren Ash, actress best known for "Superstore"
- Drew Bannister, professional ice hockey defenceman
- Dennis Bock, novelist and short story writer
- Michael Botterill, professional Canadian football linebacker
- Sir MacKenzie Bowell, Canada's fifth Prime Minister
- Wilfred Leigh Brintnell, a pioneering Canadian aviator
- James Brown, politician
- Stevie Cameron, award-winning investigative journalist and best-selling author
- James Collip, co-discoverer of insulin
- Matt Cooke, NHL hockey player
- Nick Cousins, NHL player
- Brander Craighead, football player
- Bob Crawford, retired NHL hockey player
- Lou Crawford, former OHL and AHL head coach
- Marc Crawford, NHL head coach
- Jack Devine, CJBQ sports commentator, and president of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association
- Bob Dillabough, retired NHL player with the Detroit Red Wings, Boston Bruins and the Oakland Seals
- Herbert Henry Dow, Dow Chemical, Born February 26, 1866
- Rick Green, retired NHLer
- Ellie Anne Harvie, actress
- Bobby Hull, Hockey Hall of Fame member
- Brett Hull, son of Bobby, Hockey Hall of Fame member (inducted 2009)
- Dennis Hull, Bobby's younger brother, member of 1972 Team Canada
- Aislinn Hunter, poet and fiction writer
- Frances Itani, fiction writer, poet and essayist
- Avril Lavigne, Canadian singer/songwriter and actress, born in Belleville and lived here until age five.
- James Frederick Lister, lawyer
- Norm Maracle, hockey goaltender
- James Marker, inventor of Cheezies
- Rick Meagher, retired NHL player
- Rick Mofina, author of crime fiction and thriller novels
- Susanna Moodie (1803–1885), author, moved to Belleville with her husband in 1840 after several years spent "roughing it in the bush" near Lakefield, Ontario
- Riyo Mori, Miss Universe 2007, spent her teenage years in Belleville, studying at Centennial Secondary School and at Quinte Ballet School of Canada
- Farley Mowat, author, born in Belleville
- William Barton Northrup, lawyer and politician
- Brian Orser, figure skater and coach
- Shawn O'Sullivan, 1984 Olympic silver medalist boxer
- Graham Parkhurst, actor
- Pete Quaife, bassist for The Kinks in the 1960s, lived in Quinte Region from 1980 to 2005
- Peter Quinney, Canadian football player, Toronto Argonauts
- Andrew Raycroft, NHL goaltender
- Brad Richardson, NHL forward
- Wallace Havelock Robb, poet and naturalist
- Alexander Milton Ross, abolitionist and agent for the Underground Railroad
- Johnny Rutherford, former Major League Baseball pitcher
- Nancy Anne Sakovich, actress and former model
- Mike Schad, National Football League offensive lineman
- Martin Seemungal, Foreign Correspondent CBC, ABC, CTV, PBS Newshour
- Andrew Shaw, retired NHL player
- Derek Smith, NHL forward
- Harry Leslie Smith, British writer, political commentator and Royal Air Force veteran
- Matt Stajan, NHL forward resided in Belleville from 2000 to 2004
- Manly E. MacDonald, Semi-impressionistic painter
- Alex Stieda, former professional road bicycle racer
- Chris Valentine, former ice hockey player and coach
- Thomas Campbell Wallbridge, lawyer and politician
- John Weldon, animated movies director, Oscar Award winner (1979)
- Ed Westfall, retired NHL player
- The Wilkinsons, country music group
- Ty Wishart, professional ice hockey player
- Jerry Yanover, political advisor
See also edit
- Population is the sum of Belleville (city) 37,243, and Thurlow (township): 7,615
- Population is the sum of Belleville (city): 37,083, and Thurlow (township): 7,986
- "Belleville census profile". 2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2015-10-17. Retrieved 2012-02-29.
- "Belleville (Census agglomeration) census profile". 2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2014-03-18. Retrieved 2012-02-29.
- "Census Profile, 2021 Census: Belleville, City [Census subdivision], Ontario and Belleville [Census metropolitan area], Ontario". Statistics Canada.
- "Table 36-10-0468-01 Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices, by census metropolitan area (CMA) (x 1,000,000)". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 22 January 2021. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
- "Armoury - Recognized Federal Heritage Building - Belleville, Ontario". Parks Canada. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "Captain Jordan O. Malcom 1745-1821". OntarioPlaques.com. Alan L. Brown. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
- Boyce, Gerry (2008). Belleville - A Popular History. Dundurn. ISBN 9781770703667. Retrieved May 9, 2020.
- "Captain John W. Meyers 1745-1821". OntarioPlaques.com. Alan L. Brown. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
- Sangma, Benzie. "Swing bridge changed region". The Belleville Intelligencer. Archived from the original on April 27, 2017.
- "Corby Park (Plaque #18)". Wayne Cook. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011.
- "Belleville Ontario History". www.beautifulbelleville.com.
- Smith, Wm. H. (1846). Smith's Canadian Gazetteer - Statistical and General Information Respecting all Parts of The Upper Province, or Canada West. Toronto: H. & W. Rowsell. p. 14.
- Gerry Boyce, Belleville: A Popular History. Dundurn. 2009. p. 68
- "Belleville Historical Plaque". ontarioplaques.com.
- "The Ontario School for the Deaf". OntarioPlaques.com. Alan L. Brown. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
- "Belleville City Hall, Belleville". Ontario Heritage Trust. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
- "Belleville City Hall". OntarioPlaques.com. Alan L. Brown. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
- Berrang Ford, Lena (January 2009). "Climate Change and Health in Canada". McGill Journal of Medicine. 12 (1): 78–84. PMC 2687921. PMID 19753294.
- "Belleville, Ontario". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. 31 October 2011. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- "Daily Data Report for January 2013". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
- Statistics Canada: 1996, 2001, 2006 census
- "Population and dwelling counts: Canada, provinces and territories, census divisions and census subdivisions (municipalities), Ontario". Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022. Retrieved March 27, 2022.
- "Population and dwelling counts: Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations". Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
- Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2022-02-09). "Profile table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population - Belleville, City (CY) [Census subdivision], Ontario". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2023-01-14.
- Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2013-05-08). "2011 National Household Survey Profile - Census subdivision". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2019-07-17.
- Foote, Andrew (26 September 2016). "Senators moving minor league team to Belleville, Ont". CBC News Ottawa. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
- "History of the Belleville Police Service" (PDF). Belleville Police Service. October 25, 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
- "Transit". deseronto.ca. Town of Deseronto. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
- "Quinte Health Care Contact Us". Retrieved March 17, 2021.
- Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2021-176
- "Cultural Exchange Committee". City of Belleville. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- Ciarula Taylor, Lesley (2012-05-03). "Cheezies inventor dies in Belleville, Ont., at 90". Toronto Star. Retrieved 2012-05-15.
- "New Miss Universe studied in Ont". Cnews.canoe.ca. 2007-05-29. Archived from the original on July 11, 2012. Retrieved 2014-06-13.