"Bella ciao" (Italian pronunciation: [ˈbɛlla ˈtʃaːo]; "Goodbye beautiful") is an Italian song dedicated to the partisans of the Italian resistance, which fought against the occupying troops of Nazi Germany and the collaborationist Fascist forces during the liberation of Italy. It was based on a folk song of the late 19th century, sung by female workers of the paddy fields in Northern Italy (mondine) in protest against harsh working conditions. Versions of "Bella ciao" continue to be sung worldwide as a hymn of resistance.

"Bella ciao"
Song
LanguageItalian
English title"Goodbye Beautiful"
GenreFolk

History

edit

The origins of the song are unclear, although one hypothesis is that "Bella Ciao" was originally sung as "Alla mattina appena alzata" ("In the morning as soon as I woke up") by seasonal workers of paddy fields of rice, especially in Italy's Po Valley from the late 19th century to the first half of the 20th century, with different lyrics.[1] They worked at mondare (weeding) the rice fields in northern Italy, to help the healthy growth of young rice plants. This work was performed during the flooding of the fields, from the end of April to the beginning of June every year. During this time, the first stages of their development, the delicate shoots needed to be protected from the difference in temperature between the day and the night. It consisted of two phases: transplanting the plants and pruning the weeds.

 
Photograph of a mondina working in a field

Mondare was an extremely tiring task, carried out primarily by women known as mondine (plural; singular mondina), from the poorest social classes.[2] They would spend their workdays with bare feet in water up to their knees, and their backs bent continuously. The atrocious working conditions, long hours and very low pay led to constant dissatisfaction and, at times, to rebellious movements and riots in the early years of the 20th century.[3] The struggles against the supervising padroni were even harder, with plenty of clandestine workers ready to compromise even further the already low wages just to get work. Besides "Bella ciao", similar songs of the mondina women included "Sciur padrun da li beli braghi bianchi [it]" and "Se otto ore vi sembran poche [it]".

Other versions of the antecedents of "Bella ciao" appeared over the years, indicating that "Alla mattina appena alzata" must have been composed in the latter half of the 19th century.[4] The earliest written version is dated back to 1906 and comes from near Vercelli, Piedmont.[5]

As a partisan song

edit

There are no indications of the relevance of "Bella ciao" among the partisan brigades, nor of the very existence of the 'partisan version' prior to the first publication of the text in 1953. There are no traces in the documents of the immediate postwar period nor its presence in important songbooks. It is not, for example, in Pasolini's 1955 Canzoniere Italiano nor in the Canti Politici of Editori Riuniti of 1962. The 1963 version of Yves Montand shot to fame after the group Il Nuovo Canzoniere Italiano presented it at the 1964 Festival dei Due Mondi at Spoleto both as a song of the mondine and as a partisan hymn, and the latter so "inclusive" that it could hold together the various political souls of the national liberation struggle (Catholics, Communists, Socialists, Liberals...) and even be sung at the end of the Christian Democracy (Democrazia Cristiana) 1975 congress which elected the former partisan Zaccagnini as national secretary".[6]

As reported in the text by Roberto Battaglia History of the Italian Resistance[7] popular songs of the era were Fischia il vento and the aria of the famous Soviet folk song Katjuša, which became the official anthem of the Garibaldi Partisan Brigades.[8]

Bella ciao at U Fleků, Prague

Even the well-known journalist, former partisan and historian of the partisan struggle, Giorgio Bocca publicly stated:

"Bella ciao"... song of the Resistance, and "Giovinezza"... song of the Fascist period... Neither one nor the other born from partisans or fascists, one borrowed from a Dalmatian song, the other from the Tuscan student spirit and over the years it has become the official or de facto anthems of anti-fascist Italy and that of the Mussolini regime... In the twenty months of the partisan war I have never heard people sing "Bella ciao", an invention of the Spoleto Festival.

— Luigi Morrone, The true story of "Bella ciao," which was never sung in the Resistance, "Our Story," "Corriere della Sera," 10 July 2018.[9]

These statements were later certified by Carlo Pestelli in his book Bella ciao. The song of freedom, in which he reconstructs the origins and spread of the song.[10]

Even the historians of the Italian song Antonio Virgilio Savona and Michele Straniero have affirmed that "Bella ciao" was not sung or was rarely sung during the partisan war, but was widespread immediately after the Second World War.[11][12]

Only a few voices, such as that of the historians Cesare Bermani and Ruggero Giacomini, claim that some version of "Bella ciao" was sung by some brigades during the Resistance, although not necessarily in the now popular 'partisan version', of whose existence, as specified above, there is no documentary evidence until the 1950s.

The text as sung today was first published in 1953 in the magazine La Lapa, and then in L'Unità in 1957.[citation needed]

Melody

edit

A possible origin of the melody was identified by researcher Fausto Giovannardi, following the discovery of a Yiddish melody (Koilen song) recorded by a Russian Klezmer accordionist, Mishka Ziganoff, in 1919 in New York. According to the scholar Rod Hamilton of The British Library in London, "Koilen" is a version of "Dus Zekele Koilen" (The bag of coal), of which there are various versions dating back to the 1920s.[13][14]

Italian folksinger Giovanna Daffini recorded the song in 1962.[15] The music is in quadruple meter.

 

Lyrics

edit

Mondine version

edit
Italian lyrics[16] English translation

Alla mattina appena alzata
o bella ciao bella ciao bella ciao, ciao, ciao
alla mattina appena alzata
in risaia mi tocca andar.

E fra gli insetti e le zanzare
o bella ciao bella ciao bella ciao ciao ciao
e fra gli insetti e le zanzare
un dur lavoro mi tocca far.

Il capo in piedi col suo bastone
o bella ciao bella ciao bella ciao ciao ciao
il capo in piedi col suo bastone
e noi curve a lavorar.

O mamma mia o che tormento
o bella ciao bella ciao bella ciao ciao ciao
o mamma mia o che tormento
io t'invoco ogni doman.

Ed ogni ora che qui passiamo
o bella ciao bella ciao bella ciao ciao ciao
ed ogni ora che qui passiamo
noi perdiam la gioventù.

Ma verrà un giorno che tutte quante
o bella ciao bella ciao bella ciao ciao ciao
ma verrà un giorno che tutte quante
lavoreremo in libertà.

In the morning I got up
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao (Goodbye beautiful)
In the morning I got up
To the paddy rice fields, I have to go.

And between insects and mosquitoes
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
and between insects and mosquitoes
a hard work I have to do.

The boss is standing with his cane
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
the boss is standing with his cane
and we work with our backs curved.

Oh my God, what a torment
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
oh my God, what a torment
as I call you every morning.

And every hour that we pass here
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
and every hour that we pass here
we lose our youth.

But the day will come when us all
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
but the day will come when we all
will work in freedom.

Partisan version

edit
Italian lyrics[17] English translation

Una mattina mi son svegliato,
o bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao!
Una mattina mi son svegliato
e ho trovato l'invasor.

O partigiano portami via,
o bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao
o partigiano portami via
che mi sento di morir.

E se io muoio da partigiano,
o bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao,
e se io muoio da partigiano
tu mi devi seppellir.

E seppellire lassù in montagna,
o bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao,
e seppellire lassù in montagna
sotto l'ombra di un bel fior.

E le genti che passeranno,
o bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao,
e le genti che passeranno
mi diranno «che bel fior.»

Questo è il fiore del partigiano,
o bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao,
questo è il fiore del partigiano
morto per la libertà

One morning I awakened,
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao! (Goodbye beautiful)
One morning I awakened
And I found the invader.

Oh partisan carry me away,
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
oh partisan carry me away
Because I feel death approaching.

And if I die as a partisan,
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
and if I die as a partisan
then you must bury me.

Bury me up in the mountain,
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
bury me up in the mountain
under the shade of a beautiful flower.

And all those who shall pass,
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
and all those who shall pass
will tell me "what a beautiful flower."

This is the flower of the partisan,
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
this is the flower of the partisan
who died for freedom

Covers

edit

One of the most famous recordings is that of the Italian folk singer Giovanna Daffini who recorded both the mondina and the partisan versions. It appears in her 1975 album Amore mio non piangere. Many artists have recorded the song, including Herbert Pagani, Mary Hopkin, Sandie Shaw, and Manu Chao.

International versions

edit

In addition to the original Italian, the song has been recorded by various artists in many different languages, including Albanian, Arabic, Armenian, Belarusian, Bosnian, Breton, Bengali, Bulgarian, Burmese, Catalan, Chinese, Croatian, Czech, Danish, English, Esperanto, Finnish, German, Greek, Hindi, Hungarian, Hebrew, Japanese, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Persian, Macedonian,[38] Malayalam, Marathi, Norwegian, Occitan, Punjabi,[39] Russian, Serbian, Sinhalese, Slovak, Spanish, Syriac, Swedish, Tagalog, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Tibetan, Turkish, Ukrainian and Yiddish.

  • A rewritten version of the song can be heard on Chumbawamba's acoustic album A Singsong and a Scrap.
  • Guadeloupean punk band The Bolokos recorded a version in Creole and French called "Bel Aw" on their eponymous album inspired by the Ramoneurs de Menhirs version.
  • Another version of the song was recorded by the punk rock band Dog Faced Hermans[42] on their album, Every Day Time Bomb.
  • Former Yugoslav punk rock bands KUD Idijoti and later Goblini recorded their versions of the track.
  • Hungarian punk rock band Aurora has performed the song.
  • Folk musician Leslie Fish has written and performed several versions of the song, one of which can be found on the album Smoked Fish.
  • Folk artist Mirah lent her voice to this song on her 2004 album, To All We Stretch the Open Arm.
  • Anita Lane recorded a version in English for her 2001 album, Sex O'Clock.
  • Breton folk punk band Les Ramoneurs de menhirs recorded a version in Breton and French but called it "BellARB".
  • Swedish progg group Knutna nävar included a version in Swedish named I Alla Länder on their album De svarta listornas folk [sv] from 1973.
  • Danish psychedelic rock group The Savage Rose have recorded a version of this song on the albums En Vugge Af Stål from 1982 and Ild Og Frihed (1989).
  • San Francisco punk band La Plebe perform "Bella Ciao" on their album, Brazo en Brazo.
  • French-born musician of Spanish origin Manu Chao has also recorded a version of the song.
  • Kurdish Singer Ciwan Haco has included the song in his album Çaw Bella 1989 – Bochum – Germany. He sang it in Kurmanji Kurdish He added the Kurmanji masculine vocative case article 'lo' to the lyrics to give it some locality.[43]
  • Kurdish music band Koma Dengê Azadî has also included the song with a different style in their album Çaw Bella 1991 – Istanbul – Turkey. The song was revived during ISIS attack on Kobane 2014.[44]
  • The tune has been used in the song "Pilla Chao" from the 2011 Telugu language film Businessman, composed by S. Thaman and also dubbed as "Penne Chaavu" in the Malayalam version of the same film.[45]
  • The 2013 Hindi language film Besharam starring Ranbir Kapoor uses the tune in the song "Love Ki Ghanti."[45]
  • Italian ska punk band Talco recorded the song on their 2006 album Combat Circus.
  • The Norwegian group Samvirkelaget (a collaboration between rap group Gatas Parlament and ska band Hopalong Knut) released a version of the song on their 2007 album Musikk.
  • German Liedermacher Hannes Wader recorded a German version on Wader, Hannes (1977). Hannes Wader singt Arbeiterlieder [sings workers' songs] (in German). Mercury.
  • Konstantin Wecker and Hannes Wader performed it live on their collaboration album Was für eine Nacht.
  • Turkish band Grup Yorum have recorded a Turkish translation of the song on their 1988 album Haziranda Ölmek Zor / Berivan.[46]
  • Turkish band Bandista has recorded a Turkish version, "Hoşçakal", on their album Daima!, in 2011.[47]
  • Bosnian musician Goran Bregović has recorded one version on his album Champagne for Gypsies (2012).[48]
  • German folk duo Zupfgeigenhansel recorded a free adaptation on their 1982 album Miteinander[49] that, instead of glorifying the death of the partisan, paints him as a reluctant anti-hero who is scared and despises war, but feels he has no other choice because of the atrocities he has seen.[50]
  • Thai anti-fascist band Faiyen recorded a Thai version of the song called "Plodploy Plianplaeng" (Thai: ปลดปล่อย เปลี่ยนแปลง, "Liberate and Change").[51] It has been used by the Red Shirts anti-fascism group since 2011.
  • Spanish punk rock band Boikot recorded a modified version in Spanish.
  • An a cappella version was recorded by The Swingle Singers in 1991 on their album Folk Music Around The World.[52]
  • Belarusian folk punk band Dzieciuki recorded a modified version in Belarusian under the name "Трымайся, браце!" ("Hold fast, brother!").
  • Patric recorded "Bèla Ciaò", a version in Occitan for his 2010 album, Colors.
  • Mike Singer recorded an Electro dance version in June 2018.
  • In August 2018, Škampi na Žaru, an occasional musical project of Slovak Radio Expres, published the song with Slovak lyrics.[53]
  • Hardwell and Maddix released an EDM version of the song in 2018.
  • American DJ Steve Aoki and Marnik also made an EDM version in 2018.
  • Marc Ribot collaborated with Tom Waits to create their own version for 2018. It is the first song Tom Waits has done in 2 years. This appears on the Marc Ribot album Songs of Resistance 1942–2018.
  • In 2019, Extinction Rebellion modified the text to suit their mission and named their new version "Rebella Ciao".
  • In 2019, Spanish singer Najwa released her take on the Spanish version of the song, that later served as the music in the ending credits of the fourth season of Money Heist (in which she plays Alicia Sierra).
  • On 23 February 2020 Kashmiri version of the song was released by Zanaan Wanaan, an independent feminist collective based in Kashmir, to protest against the Indian government in the region of Kashmir.[54][55]
  • In September 2019, Lebanese singer Shiraz released her remixed version of the song that topped the Lebanese Singles Chart.
  • In October 2019, in CAA and NRC protests Poojan Sahil, made a Hindi version "Wapas Jao" (transl. Go Back) of Bella Ciao in Hindi.[56]
  • On 6 January 2020, a Hindi version of this song was used by protesters in Mumbai who were agitating against the Indian government (Citizenship Amendment Act protests).[57]
  • 2018: DJ Ötzi covered the song with German lyrics.[58]
  • In the 2020 Slim by-election, Barisan Nasional specifically Pergerakan Pemuda UMNO supporters adopted the song's melody, modified it in Malay under the name "Cukuplah Sekali Ditipu" ("It's enough to be cheated once") referring to the former Pakatan Harapan administration from 2018 to 2020.[59] The song, with rendition, later regained popularity among BN supporters in the 2022 Malaysian General Elections, which was uploaded on the official YouTube channel of UMNO.[60]
  • On 17 December 2020, during the 2020–2021 Indian farmers' protest, Poojan Sahil made a rendition of "Bella Ciao" in Punjabi against the new farm laws in India.[61][39]
  • During the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, a Bengali version of the song was created named "Lorey Jao" (trans : Continue to fight) to encourage the frontline workers in India.
  • In 2020, protest group Men In Black Denmark used the song's melody, renaming it "Mette Ciao", referring to Danish Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen.[62]
  • During the coronavirus pandemic in 2020 and inspired by the TV series La Casa de Papel, six Armenian pop stars – Nick Egibyan, Sofi Mkheyan, Hayko, Erik Karapetyan, Emmy, Nerses Avetisyan – came together to release the Armenian version of the song, with original lyrics by Aram Topchyan.[63]
  • Zin Linn, a Burmese student activist, wrote the Burmese version of the song and it was sung in several demonstrations in Myanmar, during the nationwide protest against the military coup in early 2021.
  • In 2021, a Bengali version of "Bella Ciao" was used by an Indian political party, BJP, to campaign against another party named TMC. The song was named "Pishi jao", which means "Aunty go!" in Bengali referring to TMC leader Mamata Banerjee.
  • In July 2022, Sri Lankan actress Samanalee Fonseka and Sri Lankan singer Indrachapa Liyanage together with the National People's Power released a Sinhalese cover "Enawado (එනවාදෝ)" ("Will you come?") during the 2022 Sri Lankan protests.[64][65]
  • In 2023, the Serbian version of "Bella Ciao", part of "Next to you" movie soundtrack, interpreted by Bojana Janković, was used as anthem of 2023 Serbian protests.
edit

As an internationally known hymn of freedom, it was intoned at many historic and revolutionary events. The song originally aligned itself with Italian partisans fighting against Nazi German occupation troops, but has since become to merely stand for the inherent rights of all people to be liberated from tyranny.[66][67]

Renewed popularity

edit

In 2017 and 2018, the song received renewed popularity due to the singing of "Bella ciao" multiple times in the Spanish television series Money Heist.[68] The character Tokyo recounts in one of her narrations, "The life of the Professor revolved around a single idea: Resistance. His grandfather, who had fought against the fascists in Italy, taught him the song and he taught us."[68] The song is played in emblematic moments in the series as a metaphor for freedom.[68]

Chart positions (2018)
Date Title Performer(s) Charts
FRA AUT BEL
(Fl)
BEL
(Wa)
GER NLD POL SWI
14 April 2018 Bella Ciao (La Casa de Papel Remix) Meder
14 April 2018 Bella Ciao Bella Ciao 119
14 April 2018 Bella Ciao The Bear 45
14 April 2018 Bella Ciao (1995 version) Thomas Fersen 153
14 April 2018 Bella Ciao Red Army Choir (Les Chœurs de l'Armée rouge) 147
21 April 2018 Bella Ciao Sound of Legend 29
21 April 2018 Bella Ciao
(Hugel Remix)
El Profesor 11 1 13 4
(Ultratip)
2 27
[69]
14
28 April 2018 Bella Ciao Ska J 159
5 May 2018 Bella Ciao Manu Pilas 27
12 May 2018 Bella Ciao Rémy 66 Tip
12 May 2018 Bella Ciao El Profesor & Berlin 4 35 21
(Ultratip)
19 May 2018 Bella Ciao Naestro, Maître Gims, Vitaa, Dadju, Slimane 1 13 57
25 May 2018 Bella Ciao Young Ellens 27
29 June 2018 Bella Ciao Mike Singer 59 44 80

Miscellaneous

edit

The Timbers Army, the supporters group for the American soccer club Portland Timbers, have long used the song (with modified lyrics) as a chant.

In April 2018, supporters from the Portuguese soccer club F.C. Porto adapted the song with the lyrics "Penta Xau" ("Bye bye fifth"), referring to the lost opportunity by rival club S.L. Benfica to win a fifth national championship in a row, a feat only F.C. Porto has achieved in the country.[70]

The song was also adapted by Brazilian fans during World Cup 2018 to tease and taunt Argentina about their possible exit in the first round, which eventually did not occur, with references to Argentine players Di María, Mascherano, and Messi (Brazil and Argentina have a well-known football rivalry).[71]

The song was the inspiration for the #EleNão movement against right wing Brazilian presidential candidate Jair Bolsonaro.[72]

During nationwide protests in Colombia in 2019, the anti-fascist song was adapted by demonstrators to oppose the government of Iván Duque of the Centro Democrático party, who have been for years questioned or investigated for systematic violations of the Constitution, the environment, Human Rights and Crimes against humanity. As the presidential period of Duque ends in 2022, since 2019 the song, dubbed as 'Duque Chao', is sung and interpreted in protests in Colombia and by the diáspora, also during the national strike demonstrations of April and May 2021, in which citizens have been killed, injured and disappeared by state police forces.[73][74][75]

In March 2020, the song once again gained international attention after Europeans and Italians in lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy and Europe sang "Bella ciao" from the balconies of their housing complexes.[76][77][78]

In the 2021 video game Far Cry 6, the song is adapted to Spanish as La Bella Ciao de Libertad with altered lyrics referring to the revolutionary movement of the game.

In 2023, unionists from the Italian General Confederation of Labour, Italian Confederation of Trade Unions, and Italian Labour Union sang "Bella Ciao" to protest Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni, who has been criticized for her party's neo-fascist origins.[79]

Filmography

edit

"Bella Ciao" has been used many times in soundtracks of films. Examples include:

See also

edit

References

edit
  1. ^ Silverman, Jerry (2011). Songs That Made History Around the World. Mel Bay Publications. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-61065-016-8. Archived from the original on 4 August 2023. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  2. ^ "The life of "Bella Ciao" – Italian American Heritage Society". Archived from the original on 15 February 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  3. ^ Lucarino-Diekmann, Diana. "Bella Ciao: Goodbye Beautiful". La Gazzetta Italiana. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  4. ^ Bermani, Cesare (2003). Guerra guerra ai palazzi e alle chiese [War war on palaces and churches] (in Italian). Odradek Edizioni.
  5. ^ D. Massa, R. Palazzi and S. Vittone: Riseri d'al me coeur
  6. ^ "La vera storia di 'Bella Ciao'" [The true story of 'Bella Ciao'] (in Italian). 17 October 2021. Archived from the original on 4 February 2023.
  7. ^ Roberto, Battaglia (1995). Storia della resistenza italiana [History of the Italian resistance] (in Italian). Vol. 165. Torino. ISBN 88-06-28571-8. OCLC 439626401. Archived from the original on 4 August 2023. Retrieved 2 September 2022. {{cite book}}: Unknown parameter |agency= ignored (help)CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  8. ^ "Intervista a due partigiani del comandante Felice Cascione, l'autore di "Fischia il vento"" [Interview with two partisans by Commander Felice Cascione, the author of "Fischia il vento"] (in Italian). Associazione Nazionale Partigiani d'Italia. Archived from the original on 25 February 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  9. ^ Morrone, Luigi (10 July 2018). "La vera storia di "Bella ciao", che non venne mai cantata nella Resistenza" [The true story of "Bella ciao", which was never sung in the Resistance]. Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  10. ^ Pestelli, Carlo (2016). La canzone della libertà [The song of freedom] (in Italian). Add editore. ISBN 9788867831135. {{cite book}}: Unknown parameter |agency= ignored (help)
  11. ^ Savona, A. Virgilio; Straniero, Michele L. (1985). Canti della Resistenza italiana [Songs of the Italian Resistance] (in Italian). Milano. {{cite book}}: Unknown parameter |agency= ignored (help)CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  12. ^ Bertelli, Gualtiero (2010). "Bella ciao: una battaglia!" [Bella ciao: a battle!] (PDF). L'Altra Musica Venezia (in Italian) (34). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  13. ^ "Archive for Mishka Ziganoff". yiddishsong.wordpress.com. Archived from the original on 6 July 2022. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  14. ^ "Da ballata yiddish a inno partigiano il lungo viaggio di Bella ciao". repubblica.it. 12 April 2008. Archived from the original on 5 February 2023. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  15. ^ Recording made by musicologists Gianni Bosio and Roberto Leydi in 1962. Giovanna Daffini: "Alla mattina appena alzata", from the CD: Giovanna Daffini: L'amata genitrice (1991)
  16. ^ "Bella Ciao (delle Mondine)". www.antiwarsongs.org. Archived from the original on 22 May 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  17. ^ "Una dichiarazione d'amore" (PDF). ANPI. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 November 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  18. ^ Ina.fr, Institut National de l'Audiovisuel-. "Yves Montand "Bella ciao"". Ina.fr. Archived from the original on 18 January 2021. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  19. ^ "The Guardian view on Italy's resistance anthem: sing it loud, sing it proud". theguardian.com. Guardian News & Media Limited. 21 September 2022. Archived from the original on 14 March 2023. Retrieved 14 March 2023. Yves Montand, whose family fled fascist Italy for France, enhanced its fame by recording it in 1964.
  20. ^ Fischer, Nikolas (24 April 2021). "Italian star singer Milva dies aged 81". dw.com. Translated by Hucal, Sarah. Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 13 March 2023. Retrieved 13 March 2023. The singer was open about her leftist political views and charmed the working-class milieu with her political chansons, including the famous partisan hymn "Bella Ciao," which was a constant in her repertoire.
  21. ^ Martínez, Cruz Bonlarron (7 December 2021). "Money Heist's 'Bella Ciao' Has Roots in Latin America as an Anthem of Resistance, Here's Where the Song Comes From". wearemitu.com. Latido Mitu Holdings LLC. Archived from the original on 13 March 2023. Retrieved 13 March 2023. The Chilean folk band Quilapayún famously included "Bella Ciao" in their album "Basta" just before the coup limited freedom of expression in the country.
  22. ^ "15 volte 'Bella ciao'" ['Bella ciao' 15 times]. www.rollingstone.it (in Italian). Rolling Stone LLC. 25 April 2022. Archived from the original on 13 March 2023. Retrieved 13 March 2023. Nato dall'omonima rivista che recupera la canzone popolare italiana in ottica socialista, il gruppo porta in giro per l'Italia a metà anni '60 uno spettacolo di canzoni popolari italiane che prende nome da Bella ciao. La canzone è qui interpretata da Giovanna Daffini che è stata mondina e la propone nella versione delle mondine. [Born from the magazine of the same name that recovers the Italian popular song from a socialist point of view, the group brought a show of Italian popular songs around Italy in the mid-60s, which takes its name from Bella ciao. The song is interpreted here by Giovanna Daffini who was a mondina and proposes it in the version of the mondine.]
  23. ^ "Bella Ciao – Modena City Ramblers". Archived from the original on 12 December 2021 – via YouTube.
  24. ^ "15 volte 'Bella ciao'" ['Bella ciao' 15 times]. www.rollingstone.it (in Italian). Rolling Stone LLC. 25 April 2022. Archived from the original on 13 March 2023. Retrieved 13 March 2023. Negli anni '90 una nuova generazione si rimpossessa del pezzo. La riscoperta del patrimonio folk italiano in chiave politica dà il via a una serie di versioni "combat" del pezzo. Quella dei Modena City Ramblers ne è il simbolo. I Ramblers ci mettono dentro un po' di Pogues e molto ritmo. [In the 90s a new generation took possession of the piece. The rediscovery of the Italian folk heritage in a political vein gives way to a series of "combat" versions of the piece. That of the Modena City Ramblers is its icon. The Ramblers throw in some Pogues and a lot of pace.]
  25. ^ "Banda Bassotti – Bella Ciao". Archived from the original on 12 December 2021 – via YouTube.
  26. ^ Martínez, David (25 July 2022). "La noche más larga: una americanada 'made in Spain' que bebe de La Casa de Papel y 24" [The longest night: an American thing 'made in Spain' that takes from Money Heist and 24]. alicanteplaza.es (in Spanish). ALICANTE PLAZA SL. Archived from the original on 14 March 2023. Retrieved 13 March 2023. El boom de La casa de papel, exitazo inapelable en todo el mundo y que, entre otras cosas, ha descubierto Oh Bella Ciao para toda una generación que no vivió la segunda guerra mundial ni ha escuchado las versiones contemporáneas de los punks italianos Banda Bassotti. [The boom of Money Heist, an undeniable success in the whole world and that, between other things, has discovered Oh Bella Ciao for the generations that did not live through World War two nor listened to contemporary versions of the Italian punks Banda Bassotti.]
  27. ^ Cooper, Neil (18 May 2021). "Obituary: Anita Lane, Nick Cave collaborator and a major unsung talent of her time". heraldscotland.com. Newsquest Media Group Ltd. Archived from the original on 14 March 2023. Retrieved 14 March 2023. She closed the record with a funereal version of Italian protest song Bella Ciao. Whether intended or not, it marked Lane's own musical farewell.
  28. ^ "Talco – Bella Ciao". Archived from the original on 12 December 2021 – via YouTube.
  29. ^ "El grupo italiano "Talco" llega hoy a Oviedo con canciones "de frenesí"" [The Italian band "Talco" came to Oviedo today with songs "of frenzy"]. www.lne.es (in Spanish). Prensa Ibérica Media, S.L. 3 February 2023. Archived from the original on 14 March 2023. En los conciertos de "Talco" era común escuchar una popular versión del "Bella Ciao" revolucionario y que ahora se ha popularizado por una serie de televisión perdiendo parte de su esencia. "Cuando empezamos a tocarla lo hicimos con la intención de cantar un himno universal que contara un momento glorioso, ahora hay dos facciones con la canción, una refugiada en la no política y otra acostumbrada a las fiestas de alcohol que despoja a Bella Ciao de su significado", aseguró. [In the concerts of "Talco", it was common to hear a popular version of the revolutionary [song] "Bella Ciao" and that now has become popularized by a television series, losing part of its essence. "When we started performing it, we did it with the intention of singing a universal anthem that will tell of a glorious moment, now there are two factions with the song, one sheltered in the "non-political" and another accustomed to the alcohol parties that strips "Bella Ciao" of its meaning," he said.]
  30. ^ Barsanti, Sam (12 September 2018). "Tom Waits releases anti-fascist folk ballad, his first new song in 2 years". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on 14 December 2021. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  31. ^ Meadow, Matthew (10 June 2018). "Your EDM Premiere: Steve Aoki x Marnik – Bella Ciao (Money Heist)". youredm.com. Your EDM, LLC. Archived from the original on 15 March 2023. Retrieved 15 March 2023. [Steve Aoki]'s back again today to team up with Marnik for "Bella Ciao," a multi-layered main stage festival banger that hits hard, pulls back, and hits you again. As you could surmise from the title, the vocal samples in the track are all in Italian (where Marnik are from), with some especially Italian instrumentation thrown in to double down on the sound.
  32. ^ Bella Ciao – Flamenco Interpretation by Juan Pinilla and Amparanoia for the European Left Congress, archived from the original on 12 December 2021, retrieved 16 December 2019
  33. ^ "Tracklist – Official website Helmut Lotti". Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
  34. ^ Helmut Lotti - Bella Ciao | TIJD VOOR MAX. YouTube. Archived from the original on 11 December 2021.
  35. ^ "La versión del Bella Ciao de La Casa de Papel de Becky G: letra en español y vídeo" [Bella Ciao's version of Becky G's La Casa de Papel: lyrics in Spanish and video]. El Mundo (in European Spanish). 3 December 2021. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
  36. ^ Hearts of Iron IV: By Blood Alone - Official Behind-the-scene Trailer, archived from the original on 6 September 2022, retrieved 20 February 2023
  37. ^ Hearts of Iron IV: Bella Ciao [Full Version] (posted by the composer), archived from the original on 21 February 2023, retrieved 21 February 2023
  38. ^ "Mila znaj – O bella ciao na makedonski". YouTube. 21 September 2011. Archived from the original on 12 December 2021. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  39. ^ a b "'Bella Ciao', the anthem of resistance, goes Punjabi with sounds of farmers protesting". The Indian Express. Press Trust of India. 25 December 2020. Archived from the original on 27 December 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  40. ^ Magomayev interview at "Russian Week", 2005.
  41. ^ "Bella Ciao – Muslim Magomaev". YouTube. 3 October 2008. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  42. ^ "Dog Faced Hermans". Pyduc.com. 27 May 2010. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  43. ^ "Çaw Bella". Ciwan Haco. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  44. ^ "Çaw Bella (ji bo kobanê) – Ciao Bella for Kobani – Ciao Bella para Kobanê". YouTube. Archived from the original on 12 December 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  45. ^ a b Srinivasan, Karthik (7 August 2018). "What Connects Netflix's La Casa De Papel, Ranbir Kapoor and Mahesh Babu?". Film Companion. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  46. ^ "Grup Yorum – Çav Bella – [ Haziranda Ölmek Zor – Berivan 1988 Kalan Müzik ]". Archived from the original on 12 December 2021 – via www.youtube.com.
  47. ^ "Bandista". Tayfabandista.org. Archived from the original on 21 September 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  48. ^ "Goran Bregovic – Official Website – Beta". Archived from the original on 8 March 2013.
  49. ^ "Zupfgeigenhansel – Miteinander (Vinyl, LP, Album) at Discogs". Discogs.com. 5 September 1982. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  50. ^ "Canzoni contro la guerra – Bella Ciao". Antiwarsongs.org. Archived from the original on 24 October 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  51. ^ "ปลดปล่อย..เปลี่ยนแปลง". YouTube. 8 May 2011. Archived from the original on 12 December 2021. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  52. ^ The Swingle Singers – Around The World – Folk Music – An A Cappela Song Collection (CD, Album) Archived 7 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine at Discogs
  53. ^ "Škampi na Žaru - Bella Ciao (Diego Moreno cover)". 20 August 2018. Archived from the original on 12 December 2021 – via YouTube.
  54. ^ Kashmiri Bella Ciao, archived from the original on 12 December 2021, retrieved 14 August 2021
  55. ^ "About Us". Zanaan Wanaan. Archived from the original on 22 November 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  56. ^ BELLA CIAO - Hindi Version | WAPAS JAO | Money Heist | Netflix, archived from the original on 10 September 2021, retrieved 10 September 2021
  57. ^ Hum Bharat Vaasi – The Banned, archived from the original on 12 December 2021, retrieved 7 January 2020
  58. ^ Schwarzer, Matthew (4 October 2018). "DJ Ötzi hat "Bella Ciao" gecovert - und es ist noch schlimmer als gedacht". de:Neue Westfälische (in German). Archived from the original on 18 March 2023. Retrieved 17 March 2023.
  59. ^ Ultras BN - Cukuplah Sekali Ditipu #PRKSlim, archived from the original on 16 November 2022, retrieved 16 November 2022
  60. ^ Cukuplah Sekali, archived from the original on 16 November 2022, retrieved 16 November 2022
  61. ^ "Poojan Sahil's Punjabi rendition of the Italian folk song Bella Ciao has become the protest anthem". Tribuneindia News Service. Archived from the original on 17 May 2023. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  62. ^ Nielsen, Karoline Lerche (11 January 2021). "Rapper om Mette Ciao-protest: 'Jeg kender inderkredsen af Men In Black'" [Rapper about Mette Ciao protest: 'I know the inner circle of Men In Black'] (in Danish) – via www.bt.dk.
  63. ^ BELLA CIAO (La Casa De Papel ) Official Challenge: Armenian Stars Cover Version, archived from the original on 30 August 2022, retrieved 30 August 2022
  64. ^ "'Open to the public': Sri Lankans create protest zones in occupied government buildings". The Observers - France 24. 11 July 2022. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  65. ^ Enawado ( එනවාදෝ ) - Samanalee Fonseka & Indrachapa Liyanage (Sinhala Cover song - Bella Ciao), retrieved 5 November 2023
  66. ^ "ATENE – Comizio di chiusura di Alexis Tsipras". Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  67. ^ "Non solo Tsipras: "Bella ciao" cantata in tutte le lingue del mondo Guarda il video – Corriere TV" [Not only Tsipras: "Bella ciao" sung in all languages of the world Watch the video - Corriere TV]. video.corriere.it (in Italian). Archived from the original on 26 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  68. ^ a b c ""Bella Ciao": música em "La Casa de Papel" é antiga, mas tem TUDO a ver com a série" ["Bella Ciao": Music in "La Casa de Papel" is old, but it has EVERYTHING to do with the series] (in Portuguese). 19 February 2018. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  69. ^ "AirPlay Top: 29.09. – 05.10.2018" (in Polish). ZPAV. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  70. ^ Ferreira, Marta Leite. "Com raízes na Alemanha, esta é a origem do novo cântico do FC Porto" [With roots in Germany, this is the origin of the new FC Porto song]. Observador. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  71. ^ "Brasileños adaptan 'Bella ciao' para burlarse y 'despedir' a Messi" [Brazilians adapt 'Bella ciao' to mock and 'fire' Messi]. MedioTiempo (in Spanish). 22 June 2018. Archived from the original on 7 October 2021. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  72. ^ Soares, Simone; Simão, Flavia (24 September 2018). "EleNão: Aprenda a letra da música dos atos da Primavera feminista" [NotHim: Learn the lyrics of the anthem of Feminist Spring] (in Portuguese). Esquerda On-line. Archived from the original on 9 April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  73. ^ "¡Que belleza, "Duque chao"!" [What a beauty, "Duke bye"!] (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 5 December 2021 – via Twitter.
  74. ^ "¿Qué cantó la gente que marchó el 21N en el paro nacional?" [What did the people who marched on 21N in the national strike sing?] (in Spanish). El Tiempo. Archived from the original on 17 January 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
  75. ^ "Versions of ¡Duque chao!" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 12 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021 – via YouTube.
  76. ^ "View from Rome's rooftops: Singing offers hope but it doesn't hide fear and frustration". thelocal.it. 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 4 December 2021. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  77. ^ "Coronavirus: Italy resists disaster with cultural pursuits". irishtimes.com. 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 25 November 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  78. ^ "Coronavirus, tedeschi dal balcone cantano "Bella ciao". "Amici italiani vi siamo vicini"" [Coronavirus, Germans sing "Bella ciao" from the balcony. "Italian friends we are close to you"] (in Italian). video.repubblica.it. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  79. ^ "Italian PM greeted with anti-fascist song Bella Ciao at convention". 17 March 2023. Archived from the original on 22 March 2023. Retrieved 23 March 2023.
  80. ^ "Bella Ciao!". Bella Ciao!. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  81. ^ "Bella Ciao!". Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2019 – via www.imdb.com.
edit