The Beijing–Guangzhou railway or Jingguang railway (simplified Chinese: 京广铁路; traditional Chinese: 京廣鐵路; pinyin: Jīngguǎng tiělù) is a major trunk railway that connects Beijing in the north with Guangzhou in the south. This double-track electrified line has a total length of 2,324 kilometres (1,444 miles) and spans five provinces through north, central and south China. The line passes through the capitals of each of them: Shijiazhuang (Hebei), Zhengzhou (Henan), Wuhan (Hubei), Changsha (Hunan) and Guangzhou (Guangdong). The line's two terminals are the Beijing West railway station and the Guangzhou railway station.
|Beijing–Guangzhou railway |
|Locale||Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong|
|Line length||2,324 km (1,444 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Operating speed||150–200 kilometres per hour (93–124 mph)|
Due to abundance of large and medium-sized cites on its route, this railway is widely recognized as the most important conventional railway line in China.
The Jingguang railway was originally two independent companies: the Beijing–Hankou railway in the north from Beijing to Hankou, and the Guangdong–Hankou railway in the south from Wuchang to Guangzhou. Hankou and Wuchang were cities on opposite sides of the Yangtze River that became part of the present city of Wuhan in 1927.
The 1,215-kilometre (755 mi) long Beijing–Hankou railway (Jinghan railway) was built between 1897 and 1906. The concession was originally awarded to a Belgian company that was backed by French investors. A strong desire to bring the route under Chinese control led to the formation of the Bank of Communications to secure the financing needed to repatriate the railway. The successful redemption of the railway in 1909 enhanced the prestige of the Communications Clique, which became a powerful political force in the early Republic.
Construction of the Guangdong–Hankou railway (Yuehan railway) began in 1900 and progressed more slowly. The concession was originally awarded to the American China Development Company, but a diplomatic crisis erupted when the Belgians purchased a controlling interest in it. The concession was cancelled in 1904 to prevent Franco-Belgian interests from controlling the entire Beijing–Guangdong route. The Guangzhou–Sanshui branch line was completed in 1904. The Changsha–Zhuzhou section was then completed in 1911, followed by the Guangzhou–Shaoguan section in 1916, and the Wuchang–Changsha section in 1918. Work on the final section between Zhuzhou and Shaoguan began in 1929 but was not completed until 1936.
On 7 February 1923, workers of the Beijing-Wuhan Railway Workers' association launched a massive strike demanding better workers' rights and protesting oppression by warlords. The strike, organized by Shi Yang and Lin Xiangqian, was an early example of worker mobilization by the Communist Party of China.
From north to south:
|0||Beijing West or Fengtai|
Currently, the nonstop Beijing–Kowloon "Jingjiu" through train operates on this line. Prior to 2003, this train called at stops along the route before they were eliminated to create a through service directly from the capital to Hong Kong.
The Beijing–Kowloon railway, completed in 1996, is another "conventional" railway connecting Beijing with the Pearl River Delta. It runs mostly within a corridor 100–300 kilometres (60–190 miles) to the east of the Beijing–Guangzhou railway.
The Beijing–Guangzhou high-speed railway runs through the same major cities as the original railway, on a slightly different route that avoids built-up areas and has a greater curve radius allowing for higher speeds and a somewhat shorter overall length. In most cities along the line, the high-speed trains stop at different, purpose-built stations, rather than the older stations served by the original line. The Wuhan–Guangzhou section of the high-speed railway opened in 2009, and the Beijing–Wuhan section in 2012.
As consecutive sections of the Beijing–Guangzhou high-speed railway became operational, the railway authorities shifted much of passenger traffic from the original railway to the new high-speed line. This allowed an increase in the amount of freight volume transported over the original route. For example, according to preliminary estimates, after the entire Beijing–Guangzhou high-speed railway opens, the annual freight capacity of the northern half of the Beijing–Guangzhou railway (between its two main freight stations, Beijing's Fengtai West Station and Wuhan North railway station) would increase by 20 million tons.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Beijing-Guangzhou Railway.|
- 京广铁路. Tieliu.com.cn (in Chinese). 8 January 2007.
- Lee, En-han (1977). China's Quest for Railway Autonomy, 1904-1911: A Study of the Chinese Railway-Rights Recovery Movement. Singapore University Press.
- The Directory & Chronicle for China, Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Siam, Netherlands India, Borneo, the Philippines, &c. for the Year 1912. The Hongkong Daily Press Office. 1912. p. 1026.
Work upon the branch line from Canton to Samshui (about 30 miles) commenced in December, 1902, and a length of ten miles, as far as Fatshan, was opened on November 15, 1903. The line was extended to Samshui the following year.
- "Canton–Hankow Railway". The Sydney Morning Herald. 9 June 1936.
English newspapers announce that the last rail has been laid of the railway link between Hankow and Canton.
- "Anniversaries of important events -- Feb. 7 Great Strike"
- Hung, Wing-tat; Brunello, Lara; Bunker, Jonathan, Critical Issues of High Speed Rail Development in China (PDF), p. 4[permanent dead link]
- 京广高铁座位分四档 武汉赴京最低约500多元 Archived 22 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine (Seats on Beijing–Guangzhou high-speed railway will come in four classes; lowest Wuhan to Beijing fare around 500 yuan), 2012-12-15 (in Chinese)
- "Three killed in passenger train collision in C China". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on 28 July 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2009.