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"Bei Mir Bistu Shein" (Yiddish: בײַ מיר ביסטו שיין‎, [ˌbaj ˈmir ˌbistu ˈʃejn], "To Me You're Beautiful") is a popular Yiddish song composed by Jacob Jacobs (lyricist) and Sholom Secunda (composer) for a 1932 Yiddish language comedy musical, I Would If I Could (in Yiddish, Men Ken Lebn Nor Men Lost Nisht, "You could live, but they don't let you"), which closed after one season (at the Parkway Theatre in Brooklyn, New York City). The score for the song transcribed the Yiddish title as "Bay Mir Bistu Sheyn".[1] The original Yiddish version of the song (in C minor) is a dialogue between two lovers. Five years after its 1932 composition, the song became a worldwide hit when recorded under a Germanized title as "Bei Mir Bist Du Schön" by The Andrews Sisters in November 1937.[2][3]

"Bei Mir Bist Du Shein"
Bei Mir Bist Du Schoen.jpg
Original poster for the Yiddish show. New York, 1938.
Song
LanguageYiddish
English title"To Me You're Beautiful"
Written1932
Composer(s)Sholom Secunda
Lyricist(s)Jacob Jacobs (Yiddish)
Sammy Cahn and Saul Chaplin (English)

Neil W. Levin, a scholar of Jewish music, has contended that "Bei Mir Bistu Shein" is "the world's best-known and longest-reigning Yiddish theater song of all time."[4] Echoing these sentiments, writer Stephen J. Whitfield has further posited that the song's popularity and influence in pre-war America epitomizes how "a minority [immigrant] culture" can transform the popular arts of a large democratic nation.[5]

Contents

HistoryEdit

Yiddish originalEdit

Sholom Secunda was a cantor born in the Russian Empire in 1894. He immigrated to the United States as a boy in 1906.[5] When composing tunes for Yiddish theater as a young man, Secunda purportedly spurned a youthful George Gershwin as a musical collaborator in favor of Jacob Jacobs,[6][5] an "actor-director connected with the Parkway Theater."[6] Together, Secunda and lyricist Jacobs created "Bei Mir Bistu Shein" for a Yiddish operetta called I Would If I Could,[7] written in 1932 by Abraham Blum.[4][8][9] The plot of Blum's operetta was allegedly trite and underwhelming:

"Jake, a shoe factory worker who is fired for union organizing activity is in love with the owner's daughter, Hene. In response to her concern about the endurance of his commitment to her, he sings Bay mir bistu sheyn to her at some point in the first act. Despite a series of predictable attempts to thwart the marriage, they are, of course, wed in the end."[4]

The song itself featured only fleetingly in this original musical production and was performed as a lovers duet by Aaron Lebedeff and Lucy Levin.[4][9] Nevertheless, the song became a well-known crowd-pleaser in Yiddish musical theater and at Jewish enclaves in the Catskills.[5] It was a favorite among Jewish bandstands of the Second Avenue milieu.[4] When I Would If I Could closed after one season, Secunda attempted to sell the publishing rights of the song. He flew by plane to California to sell the rights to the song to popular entertainer Eddie Cantor who demurred by saying: "I can't use it. It's too Jewish."[5][10] In dire financial straits, Secunda sold the rights in 1937 to the Kammen Music Company for a mere US $30, a modest sum which he split with his partner Jacobs.[11][6][9][2] (In light of the later global success of the song, Secunda and Jacobs forfeited earning as much as $350,000 in royalties.[9])

English versionEdit

The song became a worldwide phenomenon following its recording by The Andrews Sisters. A year later, the popular film Love, Honor and Behave (1938) used the song as its theme.

There are conflicting versions regarding the origins for the English version of the song.[5][12] In one popular retelling, musician Sammy Cahn witnessed a spectacular performance of the song in Yiddish by African-American performers Johnnie and George at the Apollo Theater in Harlem, New York City.[12] Jenny Grossinger, a Grossinger's Catskill Resort Hotel proprietor, claimed to have taught the song to Johnnie and George while they were performing at the resort.[5][13] Upon seeing the enthusiastic audience response to the song, Cahn urged his employer to buy the rights so that he and frequent collaborator Saul Chaplin could rewrite the composition with English lyrics and alter the rhythm to be more typical of swing music. Cahn later was able to locate the sheet music in a Manhattan store in the Jewish Lower East Side.[12]

A competing origin story claims that bandleader Vic Schoen discovered Secunda's and Jacobs' catchy tune "in a collection of folk songs in a small shop in the lobby of a Yiddish theater on Second Avenue."[12] Schoen forwarded the memorable song to Lou Levy "who in turn gave it to Sammy Cahn and Saul Chaplin who wrote the lyrics for it."[12] Levy then persuaded the little-known Andrews Sisters to record the song as "Bei Mir Bist Du Schön" on November 24, 1937,[14] for a flat fee of $50.[14] The Andrews Sisters had initially attempted to record the song in Yiddish, but their Decca Records producer Jack Kapp stridently objected and insisted the trio record the song in American-vernacular English.[15]

Hitherto dismissed as mere imitators of the Boswell Sisters, the Andrews Sisters' cover of the Yiddish song — "which the [three] girls harmonized to perfection"[16] — catapulted the relatively unknown trio to fame and became a tremendous hit for Kapp's Decca label.[6][2] Within thirty days, a quarter of a million records had been sold, as well as two hundred thousand copies of the sheet music.[5] Life magazine claimed that music stores were inundated by baffled customers trying to purchase a record which they mistakenly identified as either "Buy a Beer, Mr. Shane," or "My Mere Bits of Shame."[5]

The song quickly became a worldwide phenomenon. Soonafter, the song was featured as the theme for the Hollywood film Love, Honor and Behave (1938) in which it was sung by ingénue Priscilla Lane,[6] and also appeared in Oscar Micheaux's American race film Swing (1938).[18] Over time, the song grossed approximately $3 million, with its original creators Secunda and Jacobs missing significant royalties. In February 1961,[9] the copyright on the song expired, and the ownership reverted to Secunda and Jacobs, who signed a contract with Harms, Inc., securing proper royalties.[9][2]

That same year, Secunda and Jacobs developed a new musical around the song itself, eponymously titled Bay mir bistu sheyn.[4][9] In the revamped 1961 musical, "a rabbi and his two sons and a matchmaker and his daughter. One of the rabbi's sons is in love with the matchmaker's daughter."[9] Their desired marriage eventually occurs, but not before the usual romantic misunderstandings and complexities.[9] In his later years, shortly before his death, Secunda purportedly expressed dismay that he would be remembered solely for writing the song.[4]

Other countriesEdit

Nazi GermanyEdit

In 1938, the song was a smash hit in Nazi Germany under its Germanized title "Bei Mir Bist Du Schön".[4] According to contemporary journalist Michael Mok, the song was likewise immensely popular among the German diaspora in America where pro-Nazi sympathizers in Yorkville ale-houses often chorused the tune under the mistaken impression that it was "a Goebbels-approved" ballad.[6] Initially assumed to be an uncontroversial song in a southern German dialect, an uproar occurred when its Jewish provenance was abruptly discovered and widely publicized by the press.[19][4] Following this embarrassing discovery, as "any music by composers of Jewish ancestry was forbidden under the Nazi regime," the song was promptly banned by state authorities in Germany.[4]

Later during World War II, an unusual exception to this ban occurred: Noticing that radio audiences wished to hear American jazz, the Nazis decided to exploit such music for their propaganda efforts.[20] Accordingly, Charlie and his Orchestra — a Nazi-sponsored German propaganda swing ensemble derisively nicknamed "Goebbels' band"[21] — recorded a state-approved anti-Semitic and anti-Bolshevik version of "Bei Mir Bist Du Schön." This version was played by Nazi broadcasters in occupied countries.[22][23][24][20] This Nazi propaganda version of the song was entitled "Anthem of the International Brotherhood of Bolsheviks" and has been credited by scholar Élise Petit with increasing anti-Semitic sentiment amid the Holocaust.[23]

Soviet UnionEdit

There have been multiple versions of the composition in the Soviet Union. In particular, in 1943, a Russian-language song for the music was produced entitled "Baron von der Pshik" ("Барон фон дер Пшик"). Presumably to avoid paying royalties, this version was falsely credited to a Soviet songwriter.[4] It featured satirical anti-Nazi lyrics by Anatoli Fidrovsky, with music arrangement by Orest Kandat.[25] Initially it was recorded by the jazz orchestra (director Nikolay Minkh) of the Baltic Fleet Theatre,[26] and later it was included into the repertoire of Leonid Utyosov's jazz orchestra.[25] In the late Soviet period, a similar version came out under the name "In the Cape Town Port", with lyrics by Pavel Gandelman, a Jewish native of Leningrad. This song was performed by Russian singers Larisa Dolina and Arkady Severny.[27]

ParodiesEdit

  • Shasta Beverage Company adapted the song for a 1976 TV advertisement for its root beer ("It's root beer, Mr. Shane").[28]

Notable versionsEdit

Artists or bands which have recorded noteworthy versions are listed here alphabetically by their surnames or by their band names.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Arkasha Severny's version was titled "V Keiptaunskom portu" (1972).[27]
  2. ^ Booker Ervin's cover was recorded in 1966 and released 1968 on his album Heavy!!!
  3. ^ Budapest Klezmer Band's cover was a traditional style Yiddish version switching to English for the last 40 seconds.[32]
  4. ^ Caecilie Norby's cover appears on her album Arabesque (2010).
  5. ^ Don Burrows's version is a live recording from 1984 at Hamer Hall in Melbourne later released on an album titled, A Tribute to Benny Goodman.
  6. ^ Released on the LP Eydie and Steve Sing the Golden Hits by ABC-Paramount Records as catalog number ABC 311 in 1960.[33]
  7. ^ Frida Boccara's version was recorded as "Pour Lui Je Suis Belle."
  8. ^ Ilhama Gasimova made a 2009 pop recording with DJ OGB based on the Andrews Sisters' English version at higher speed and without the introductory section.[36]
  9. ^ Janis Siegel's cover appears on the soundtrack of the 1993 film Swing Kids.
  10. ^ Jimmy Rushing's cover was recorded with a septet including Ray Nance, Zoot Sims and Dave Frishberg on the album 'The You And Me That Used To Be' in New York, 1971.
  11. ^ June Christy's cover was recorded on June 20, 1952, and released on a 78rpm record by Capitol Records as catalog number 2199.[37]
  12. ^ Larisa Dolina's cover was recorded as "V Keiptaunskom portu" – In the Port of Cape Town.[39]
  13. ^ Lennon Sisters' version was released on a single by Dot Records as catalog number 45-16423 in 1963.[40]
  14. ^ Louis Prima and Keely Smith released a cover on the EP Louis & Keely by Dot Records as catalog number DEP-1093 in 1960.[41]
  15. ^ Mieczyslaw Fogg with Henryk Wars Orchestra performed a rendition as Ty masz dla mnie cos (1938).
  16. ^ The Puppini Sisters' cover was released on the CD Betcha Bottom Dollar by Universal Music and is catalog number 06 0251 70622 7 6 in 2006.[43]
  17. ^ Ramsey Lewis' version was released on the LP Ramsey Lewis and His Gentlemen of Swing by Argo Records as catalog number LP 611 in 1958.[44]
  18. ^ The Red Elvises's cover was released with the title "My Darling Lorraine."
  19. ^ Regina Carter's cover was released on the 2006 album "I'll Be Seeing You: A Sentimental Journey."
  20. ^ Teresa Brewer's single was released by Amsterdam Records as catalog number 85029 in 1973.[46]
  21. ^ Leonid Utesov's version was released as Baron von der Pshik.[25]
  22. ^ Zarah Leander recorded her version with Einar Groth's orchestra on April 21, 1938 as Tage Tall. Released on a 78 rpm record by Odeon as catalog number D 2978, SA 255 956.[47]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Gottlieb 2004, p. 57.
  2. ^ a b c d Cohen 2007.
  3. ^ a b Nimmo 2007, pp. 73-74.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Levin 2010.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Whitfield 2001, pp. 1-2.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Mok 1938.
  7. ^ Secunda 1982, pp. 133-134.
  8. ^ Secunda 1982, pp. 127-129.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Esterow 1961.
  10. ^ Secunda 1982, p. 144.
  11. ^ Secunda 1982, pp. 144-149.
  12. ^ a b c d e Nimmo 2007, p. 73.
  13. ^ Secunda 1982, p. 198.
  14. ^ a b Secunda 1982, p. 148.
  15. ^ Hersch 2016, p. 27.
  16. ^ Nimmo 2007, p. 328.
  17. ^ The Hot Sardines (August 7, 2014). "New Album Out October 7 on Decca Records". HotSardines.com. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  18. ^ Micheaux, Oscar (Director) (April 29, 1938). Swing! (1938) (Motion picture). United States. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  19. ^ Hersch 2016, p. 51.
  20. ^ a b Dash 2012.
  21. ^ Steinbiß, Florian; Eisermann, David (April 18, 1988). "Wir haben damals die beste Musik gemacht". Spiegel Online. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  22. ^ a b Charlie and his Orchestra (1940). Bei Mir Bistu Schoen. YouTube. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  23. ^ a b Petit, Élise (2012). "Charlie and his Orchestra". Music and the Holocaust. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  24. ^ Bergmeier & Lotz 1997.
  25. ^ a b c d Search results for "Kandat" at russian-records.com
  26. ^ "Baron von der Pshik" (in Russian). Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  27. ^ a b c Severny, Arkady (1972). V Keiptaunskom portu [Bei Mir Bistu Shein]. YouTube (in Russian). Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  28. ^ Shasta Root Beer Commercial. YouTube. 1976. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  29. ^ Bergmann 203.
  30. ^ Hersch 2016, p. 133: "In 1938, the year Goodman performed his famous version of 'Bei Mir Bist Du Schon.'”
  31. ^ Benny Goodman Sextet (1937). Bei Mir Bist Du Schoen. YouTube. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  32. ^ a b Budapest Klezmer Band (2009). Bei Mir Bist Du Schejn. YouTube (in Yiddish). Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  33. ^ a b Second Hand Songs - Medium: Eydie Steve Sing the Golden Hits - Eydie Gormé and Steve Lawrence
  34. ^ The Flying Neutrinos (2010). Bei Mir Bist Du Schon. YouTube. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  35. ^ Greta Keller (1938). Bei Mir Bistu Schoen. YouTube. London. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  36. ^ a b Ilhama Gasimova (2011). Bei Mir Bistu Shein. YouTube. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  37. ^ a b Capitol Records in the 2000 - 2499 series
  38. ^ Kate Smith (1937). Bei Mir Bistu Schoen. YouTube. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  39. ^ a b V Keiptaunskom portu (Odessa motif), words by Pavel Gandelman on YouTube (in Russian)
  40. ^ a b Soulful Kinda Music - Dot Records - Lennon Sisters
  41. ^ a b Dot Album Discography - Louis Prima and Keely Smith
  42. ^ Martha Tilton with the Benny Goodman Orchestra (1937). Bei Mir Bist Du Schön. YouTube. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  43. ^ a b Second Hand Songs - Medium: Betcha Bottom Dollar - The Puppini Sisters (2006)
  44. ^ a b Second Hand Songs - Medium: Ramsey Lewis and His Gentlemen of Swing - Ramsey Lewis and His Gentlemen of Swing
  45. ^ Hersch 2016, pp. 118, 133: "In 1938, [...] black singer and instrumentalist Slim Gaillard in his own version claimed the song for African Americans. [...] Gaillard's 'Bei Mir' (1938) begins with a pseudo-Hebrew cantorial-like wail, complete with extreme melisma. Not only is he singing a Jewish song, he begins it with a parody of Jewish cantorial music."
  46. ^ a b Teresa Brewer (1973). Bei Mir Bist du Schon. YouTube. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  47. ^ a b Leander, Zarah. "Zarah Leander (15.03.1907 - 23.06.1981)". Archived from the original on April 8, 2011.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit