The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten. (August 2022)
The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS; Chinese: 北斗卫星导航系统; pinyin: Běidǒu Wèixīng Dǎoháng Xìtǒng) is a Chinese satellite navigation system. It consists of two separate satellite constellations. The first BeiDou system, officially called the BeiDou Satellite Navigation Experimental System and also known as BeiDou-1, consisted of three satellites which, beginning in 2000, offered limited coverage and navigation services, mainly for users in China and neighboring regions. BeiDou-1 was decommissioned at the end of 2012. The second generation of the system, officially called the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and also known as COMPASS or BeiDou-2, became operational in China in December 2011 with a partial constellation of 10 satellites in orbit. Since December 2012, it has been offering services to customers in the Asia-Pacific region.
|Country/ies of origin||China|
|Accuracy||3.6 m (global, public)|
2.6 m (Asia Pacific, public)
10 cm (encrypted)
|Total satellites||35 (2020)|
|Satellites in orbit||35|
|First launch||31 October 2000|
|Last launch||23 June 2020|
|Regime(s)||GEO, IGSO, MEO|
In 2015, China launched the third generation BeiDou system (BeiDou-3) for global coverage. The first BDS-3 satellite was launched on 30 March 2015. On 27 December 2018, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System started providing global services. The 35th and the final satellite of BDS-3 was launched into orbit on 23 June 2020. It was said in 2016 that BeiDou-3 will reach millimeter-level accuracy (with post-processing). On 23 June 2020, the final BeiDou satellite was successfully launched, the launch of the 55th satellite in the Beidou family. The third iteration of the Beidou Navigation Satellite System provides full global coverage for timing and navigation, offering an alternative to Russia's GLONASS, the European Galileo positioning system, and the US's GPS.
According to China Daily, in 2015, fifteen years after the satellite system was launched, it was generating a turnover of $31.5 billion per annum for major companies such as China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation, AutoNavi Holdings Ltd., and China North Industries Group Corp. The industry has grown an average of over 20% in value annually to reach $64 billion in 2020 according to Xinhua citing data.
Domestic industry reports forecast the satellite navigation service market output value, directly generated and driven by the Beidou system, will be worth 1 trillion yuan ($156.22 billion) by 2025, and $467 billion by 2035.
The official English name of the system is BeiDou Navigation Satellite System. It is named after the Big Dipper asterism, which is known in Chinese as Běidǒu (Chinese: 北斗). The name literally means "Northern Dipper", the name given by ancient Chinese astronomers to the seven brightest stars of the Ursa Major constellation. Historically, this set of stars was used in navigation to locate the North Star. As such, the name BeiDou also serves as a metaphor for the purpose of the satellite navigation system.
Conception and initial developmentEdit
The original idea of a Chinese satellite navigation system was conceived by Chen Fangyun and his colleagues in the 1980s. The risk of denied access to GPS during the Yinhe incident in 1993 and including an alleged case in 1996 during the Third Taiwan Strait Crisis, gave impetus to the creation of BeiDou which officially began in 1994.
- 2000–2003: experimental BeiDou navigation system consisting of three satellites
- By 2012: regional BeiDou navigation system covering China and neighboring regions
- By 2020: global BeiDou navigation system
The first satellite, BeiDou-1A, was launched on 30 October 2000, followed by BeiDou-1B on 20 December 2000. The third satellite, BeiDou-1C (a backup satellite), was put into orbit on 25 May 2003. The successful launch of BeiDou-1C also meant the establishment of the BeiDou-1 navigation system.
On 2 November 2006, China announced that from 2008 BeiDou would offer an open service with an accuracy of 10 metres, timing of 0.2 microseconds, and speed of 0.2 metres/second.
In February 2007, the fourth and last satellite of the BeiDou-1 system, BeiDou-1D (sometimes called BeiDou-2A, serving as a backup satellite), was launched. It was reported that the satellite had suffered from a control system malfunction but was then fully restored.
In April 2007, the first satellite of BeiDou-2, namely Compass-M1 (to validate frequencies for the BeiDou-2 constellation) was successfully put into its working orbit. The second BeiDou-2 constellation satellite Compass-G2 was launched on 15 April 2009.
On 15 January 2010, the official website of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System went online, and the system's third satellite (Compass-G1) was carried into its orbit by a Long March 3C rocket on 17 January 2010.
On 2 June 2010, the fourth satellite was launched successfully into orbit.
Three months later, on 1 November 2010, the sixth satellite was sent into orbit by LM-3C.
Chinese involvement in Galileo systemEdit
In September 2003, China intended to join the European Galileo positioning system project and was to invest €230 million (US$296 million, £160 million) in Galileo over the next few years. At the time, it was believed that China's "BeiDou" navigation system would then only be used by its armed forces.
In October 2004, China officially joined the Galileo project by signing the Agreement on the Cooperation in the Galileo Program between the "Galileo Joint Undertaking" (GJU) and the "National Remote Sensing Centre of China" (NRSCC). Based on the Sino-European Cooperation Agreement on Galileo program, China Galileo Industries (CGI), the prime contractor of the China's involvement in Galileo programs, was founded in December 2004. By April 2006, eleven cooperation projects within the Galileo framework had been signed between China and EU.
However, the Hong Kong-based South China Morning Post reported in January 2008 that China was not satisfied with its role in the Galileo project and was to compete with Galileo in the Asian market.
- In November 2014, Beidou became part of the World-Wide Radionavigation System (WWRNS) at the 94th meeting of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Maritime Safety Committee, which approved the "Navigation Safety Circular" of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS).
- At Beijing time 21:52, 30 March 2015, the first new-generation BeiDou Navigation satellite (and the 17th overall) was successfully set to orbit by a Long March 3C rocket.
- On 20 April 2019, a BeiDou satellite was successfully launched. Launch occurred at 22:41 Beijing time, and the Long March 3B delivered the BeiDou navigation payload into an elliptical transfer orbit ranging between 220 kilometres and 35,787 kilometres, with an inclination of 28.5° to the equator, according to U.S. military tracking data.
- On 23 June 2020, the final BeiDou satellite was successfully launched, the launch of the 55th satellite in the Beidou family. The third iteration of the Beidou Navigation Satellite System provides global coverage for timing and navigation, offering an alternative to Russia's GLONASS and the European Galileo positioning system, as well as the US's GPS.
BeiDou-1 was an experimental regional navigation system, which consisted of four satellites (three working satellites and one backup satellite). The satellites themselves were based on the Chinese DFH-3 geostationary communications satellite and had a launch weight of 1000 kg each.
Unlike the American GPS, Russian GLONASS, and European Galileo systems, which use medium Earth orbit satellites, BeiDou-1 used satellites in geostationary orbit. This means that the system does not require a large constellation of satellites, but it also limits the coverage to areas on Earth where the satellites are visible. The area that can be serviced is from longitude 70° E to 140° E and from latitude 5° N to 55° N. A frequency of the system is 2491.75 MHz.
The first satellite, BeiDou-1A, was launched on 31 October 2000. The second satellite, BeiDou-1B, was successfully launched on 21 December 2000. The last operational satellite of the constellation, BeiDou-1C, was launched on 25 May 2003.
In 2007, the official Xinhua News Agency reported that the resolution of the BeiDou system was as low as 0.5 metre. With the existing user terminals it appears that the calibrated accuracy is 20 m (100 m, uncalibrated).
In 2008, a BeiDou-1 ground terminal cost around RMB 20,000 (US$2,929), almost 10 times the price of a contemporary GPS terminal. The price of the terminals was explained as being due to the cost of imported microchips. At the China High-Tech Fair ELEXCON of November 2009 in Shenzhen, a BeiDou terminal priced at RMB 3,000 was presented.
- Over 1000 BeiDou-1 terminals were used after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, providing information from the disaster area.
- As of October 2009, all Chinese border guards in Yunnan were equipped with BeiDou-1 devices.
BeiDou-1 was decommissioned at the end of 2012, after the BeiDou-2 system became operational.
BeiDou-2 (formerly known as COMPASS) is not an extension to the older BeiDou-1, but rather supersedes it outright. The new system is a constellation of 35 satellites, which include 5 geostationary orbit satellites for backward compatibility with BeiDou-1, and 30 non-geostationary satellites (27 in medium Earth orbit and 3 in inclined geosynchronous orbit), that offer complete coverage of the globe.
The ranging signals are based on the CDMA principle and have complex structure typical of Galileo or modernized GPS. Similar to the other global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs), there are two levels of positioning service: open (public) and restricted (military). The public service is available globally to general users. When all the currently planned GNSSs are deployed, users of multi-constellation receivers will benefit from a total over 100 satellites, which will significantly improve all aspects of positioning, especially availability of the signals in so-called urban canyons. The general designer of the COMPASS navigation system is Sun Jiadong, who is also the general designer of its predecessor, the original BeiDou navigation system. All BeiDou satellites are equipped with laser retroreflector arrays for satellite laser ranging and the verification of the orbit quality.
There are two levels of service provided – a free service to civilians and licensed service to the Chinese government and military. The free civilian service has a 10-metre location-tracking accuracy, synchronizes clocks with an accuracy of 10 nanoseconds, and measures speeds to within 0.2 m/s. The restricted military service has a location accuracy of 10 centimetre, can be used for communication, and will supply information about the system status to the user. In 2019, the International GNSS Service started providing precise orbits of BeiDou satellites in experimental products.
Frequencies for COMPASS are allocated in four bands: E1, E2, E5B, and E6; they overlap with Galileo. The fact of overlapping could be convenient from the point of view of the receiver design, but on the other hand raises the issues of system interference, especially within E1 and E2 bands, which are allocated for Galileo's publicly regulated service. However, under International Telecommunication Union (ITU) policies, the first nation to start broadcasting in a specific frequency will have priority to that frequency, and any subsequent users will be required to obtain permission prior to using that frequency, and otherwise ensure that their broadcasts do not interfere with the original nation's broadcasts. As of 2009, it appeared that Chinese COMPASS satellites would start transmitting in the E1, E2, E5B, and E6 bands before Europe's Galileo satellites and thus have primary rights to these frequency ranges.
Although little was officially announced by Chinese authorities about the signals of the new system, the launch of the first COMPASS satellite permitted independent researchers not only to study general characteristics of the signals, but even to build a COMPASS receiver.
Compass-M1 is an experimental satellite launched for signal testing and validation and for the frequency filing on 14 April 2007. The role of Compass-M1 for Compass is similar to the role of the GIOVE satellites for the Galileo system. The orbit of Compass-M1 is nearly circular, has an altitude of 21,150 km and an inclination of 55.5°.
Compass-M1 transmits in 3 bands: E2, E5B, and E6. In each frequency band two coherent sub-signals have been detected with a phase shift of 90° (in quadrature). These signal components are further referred to as "I" and "Q". The "I" components have shorter codes and are likely to be intended for the open service. The "Q" components have much longer codes, are more interference resistive, and are probably intended for the restricted service.
The investigation of the transmitted signals started immediately after the launch of Compass-M1 on 14 April 2007. Soon after in June 2007, engineers at CNES reported the spectrum and structure of the signals. A month later, researchers from Stanford University reported the complete decoding of the "I" signals components. The knowledge of the codes allowed a group of engineers at Septentrio to build the COMPASS receiver and report tracking and multipath characteristics of the "I" signals on E2 and E5B.
In December 2011, the system went into operation on a trial basis. It started providing navigation, positioning and timing data to China and the neighbouring area for free from 27 December 2011. During this trial run, Compass offered positioning accuracy to within 25 metre and the precision improved as more satellites were launched. Upon the system's official launch, it pledged to offer general users positioning information accurate to the nearest 10 m, measure speeds within 0.2 metre per second, and provide signals for clock synchronisation accurate to 0.02 microseconds.
The BeiDou-2 system began offering services for the Asia-Pacific region in December 2012. At this time, the system could provide positioning data between longitude 55° E to 180° E and from latitude 55° S to 55° N.
The new-generation BeiDou satellites support short message service.
In December 2011, Xinhua stated that "[t]he basic structure of the BeiDou system has now been established, and engineers are now conducting comprehensive system test and evaluation. The system will provide test-run services of positioning, navigation and time for China and the neighboring areas before the end of this year, according to the authorities". The system became operational in the China region that same month. The global navigation system should be finished by 2020.
As of December 2012, 16 satellites for BeiDou-2 had been launched, with 14 in service. And as of December 2017, 150 m Chinese smartphones (20% of the market) were equipped to utilize Beidou.
The third phase of the BeiDou system (BDS-3) includes three GEO satellites, three IGSO satellites, and twenty-four MEO satellites which introduce new signal frequencies B1C/B1I/B1A (1575.42 MHz), B2a/B2b (1191.795 MHz), B3I/B3Q/B3A (1268.52 MHz), and Bs test frequency (2492.028 MHz). Interface control documents on the new open signals were published in 2017–2018.
On 23 June 2020, the BDS-3 constellation deployment was fully completed after the last satellite was successfully launched at the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. BDS-3 satellites also include SBAS (B1C, B2a, B1A) and search and rescue transponder capabilities.
|Carrier frequency (MHz)||1561.098||1561.098||1575.42||1575.42||1207.14||1207.14||1176.45||1207.14||1268.52||1268.52||1268.52|
|Chip rate (Mchips/s)||2.046||2.046||2.046||10.230||10.230||10.230|
|Code period (chips)||2046||?||2046||??||10230||?|
|Code period (ms)||1.0||>400||1.0||>160||1.0||>160|
|Symbols rate (bits/s)||50||?||50||?||50||?|
|Navigation frames (s)||6||?||6||?||?||?|
|Navigation sub-frames (s)||30||?||30||?||?||?|
|Navigation period (min)||12.0||?||12.0||?||?||?|
Characteristics of the "I" signals on E2 and E5B are generally similar to the civilian codes of GPS (L1-CA and L2C), but Compass signals have somewhat greater power. The notation of Compass signals used in this page follows the naming of the frequency bands and agrees with the notation used in the American literature on the subject, but the notation used by the Chinese seems to be different.
|Satellite launches||Currently in orbit |
The regional BeiDou-1 system was decommissioned at the end of 2012.
The first satellite of the second-generation system, Compass-M1 was launched in 2007. It was followed by further nine satellites during 2009–2011, achieving functional regional coverage. A total of 16 satellites were launched during this phase.
In 2015, the system began its transition towards global coverage with the first launch of a new-generation of satellites, and the 17th one within the new system. On 25 July 2015, the 18th and 19th satellites were successfully launched from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center, marking the first time for China to launch two satellites at once on top of a Long March 3B/Expedition 1 carrier rocket. The Expedition-1 is an independent upper stage capable of delivering one or more spacecraft into different orbits. On 29 September 2015, the 20th satellite was launched, carrying a hydrogen maser for the first time within the system.
In 2016, the 21st, 22nd and 23rd satellites were launched from Xichang Satellite Launch Center, the last two of which entered into service on 5 August 2016 and 30 November 2016, respectively.
- May 27, Merryl Azriel on; Space, 2013 in; Relations, International (27 May 2013). "US Department of Defense Reports on China's Space Capabilities". Space Safety Magazine. Archived from the original on 7 September 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "China puts final satellite for Beidou network into orbit -state media". Financialpost. Financial Post. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- "北斗卫星发射一览表". 北斗卫星导航系统. Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
- "China GPS rival Beidou starts offering navigation data". BBC. 27 December 2011. Archived from the original on 3 February 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "China's Beidou GPS-substitute opens to public in Asia". BBC. 27 December 2012. Archived from the original on 27 December 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
- "中国北斗导航卫星再次进入密集发射期". 中国新闻社. 31 March 2015. Archived from the original on 11 July 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- PTI, K. J. M. Varma (27 December 2018). "China's BeiDou navigation satellite, rival to US GPS, starts global services". livemint.com. Archived from the original on 27 December 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
- "The BDS-3 Preliminary System Is Completed to Provide Global Services". news.dwnews.com. Archived from the original on 27 December 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
- "China puts final satellite for Beidou network into orbit – state media". Reuters. 23 June 2020. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
- "Directions 2017: BeiDou's road to global service". GPS World. 6 December 2016. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
- "Sky's the limit for Beidou's clients- Chinadaily.com.cn". chinadaily.com.cn. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
- "China's answer to GPS poised to create US$156 billion industry". South China Morning Post. 27 May 2021. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
- "China's Beidou navigation system to serve $156 billion home market by 2025". Reuters. 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
- GNSS, Inside (26 May 2021). "BeiDou Headed Upwards of 1 Trillion this Decade. That's Yuan". Inside GNSS - Global Navigation Satellite Systems Engineering, Policy, and Design. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
- "The Application of China's Beidou System reached a market size of $62.7 Billion in 2020". au.lifestyle.yahoo.com. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
- "English Name of BeiDou". Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Atkins, William (5 February 2007). "Chinese BeiDou navigation satellite launched from Long March 3A rocket". iTWire.com. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
- "̽北斗记 ——探秘中国北斗卫星导航定位系统". focus.news.163.com. Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
- "'Unforgettable humiliation' led to development of GPS equivalent".
- "The construction of BeiDou navigation system steps into important stage, "Three Steps" development guideline clear and certain" (in Chinese). China National Space Administration. 19 May 2010. Archived from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
- "Comparable with American and Russian in terms of performance, BeiDou-1 navigates for China" (in Chinese). China National Space Administration. 30 May 2003. Archived from the original on 26 February 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
- Pike, John. "BeiDou (Big Dipper)". Space. GlobalSecurity.org. Archived from the original on 28 November 2006. Retrieved 9 November 2006.
- Marks, Paul (8 November 2006). "China's satellite navigation plans threaten Galileo". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 24 April 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2006.
- "China puts new navigation satellite into orbit". Gov.cn. 3 February 2007. Archived from the original on 2 February 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- "BeiDou 1 Experimental Satellite Navigation System". SinoDefence.com. 24 September 2008. Archived from the original on 27 March 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- "60-day works in space – Story of reparation of the BeiDou satellite" (in Chinese). Sohu. 18 April 2007. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "Compass due Next Year". Magazine article. Asian Surveying and Mapping. 4 May 2009. Archived from the original on 19 May 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
- "China successfully launched the third BeiDou satellite" (in Chinese). Sohu. 17 January 2010. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
- "China sends Beidou navigation satellite to orbit". Spaceflight Now. 2 June 2010. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- "China successfully launches fifth satellite for its own global navigation network". Xinhua. 1 August 2010. Archived from the original on 3 August 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- "China launches 6th satellite for indigenous global navigation, positioning network". gov.cn. 1 November 2010. Archived from the original on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 21 November 2010.
- "Beidou Launch Completes Regional Nav System". GPS World. 6 December 2010. Archived from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- "China joins EU's satellite network". Business News. BBC News. 19 September 2003. Archived from the original on 7 January 2007. Retrieved 9 November 2006.
- "First contracts of the Galileo project signed, China is to invest 200 million Euro" (in Chinese). Xinhua. 29 July 2005. Archived from the original on 11 February 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
- China Galileo Industries (CGI)
- "About us". China Galileo Industries. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
- "Eleven projects within the China-EU Galileo project have been signed and are carrying out" (in Chinese). Xinhua. 13 April 2006. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
- "SOLAS amendments to make IGF Code mandatory approved by Maritime Safety Committee". Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), 94th session, 17–21 November 2014. International Maritime Organization. 26 November 2014. Archived from the original on 7 April 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- Feng, Bruce (4 December 2014). "A Step Forward for Beidou, China's Satellite Navigation System". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 April 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Chinese Beidou Navigation Satellite System officially into Global Radio Navigation System". BeiDou. 1 December 2014. Archived from the original on 14 April 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- Barbosa, Rui C. (30 March 2015). "Long March 3C in secretive launch with new Upper Stage". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "China successfully launched the first New-Generation Beidou Navigation Satellite". BeiDou. 1 April 2015. Archived from the original on 5 April 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- Clark, Stephen. "Beidou navigation satellite successfully launched by China – Spaceflight Now". Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
- "China launches final satellite in GPS-like Beidou system". phys.org. Archived from the original on 24 June 2020. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
- Goebel, Greg (1 September 2008). "International Navigation Satellite Systems". vectorsite.net. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
- "BeiDou navigation system first goes to public, with resolution 0.5 metre" (in Chinese). Phoenix Television. 18 July 2007. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
- "BeiDou Products". BDStar Navigation. Archived from the original on 5 January 2009.
- "BeiDou-1 commercial controversy: 10 times the price of GPS terminal" (in Chinese). NetEase. 28 June 2008. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "Why is China's Beidou terminal so expensive?". PRLog. 31 August 2008. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
- "3000Yuan BeiDou Satellite Positioning System terminal solution was presented at ELEXCON" (in Chinese). eetrend.com. 17 November 2009. Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
- "Hongkong report: BeiDou-1 played an important role in rescuing, 7 nations providing free satellite data" (in Chinese). Sohu. 20 May 2008. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "BeiDou-1 has equipped Yunnan troops, leading to command reform" (in Chinese). Sohu. 14 October 2009. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "China To Set Up Independent Satellite Navigation System". SpaceDaily.com. 24 May 2010. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- "The Logo Image of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Issued". BeiDou.gov.cn. 27 December 2012. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
- "China Launches Another Compass GEO Navigation Satellite". Inside GNSS. 2 June 2010. Archived from the original on 11 June 2010. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- G. Gibbons. China GNSS 101. Compass in the rearview mirror. Inside GNSS, January/February 2008, pp. 62–63  Archived 2 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Sośnica, Krzysztof; Zajdel, Radosław; Bury, Grzegorz; Bosy, Jarosław; Moore, Michael; Masoumi, Salim (2020). "Quality assessment of experimental IGS multi-GNSS combined orbits". GPS Solutions. 24 (54). doi:10.1007/s10291-020-0965-5.
- Bury, Grzegorz; Sośnica, Krzysztof; Zajdel, Radosław (2019). "Multi-GNSS orbit determination using satellite laser ranging". Journal of Geodesy. 93 (12): 2447–2463. Bibcode:2019JGeod..93.2447B. doi:10.1007/s00190-018-1143-1.
- Kazmierski, Kamil; Zajdel, Radoslaw; Sośnica, Krzysztof (2020). "Evolution of orbit and clock quality for real-time multi-GNSS solutions". GPS Solutions. 24 (111). doi:10.1007/s10291-020-01026-6.
- "Introduction of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System" (in Chinese). BeiDou.gov.cn. 15 January 2010. Archived from the original on 18 March 2010. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- Dotson, John (15 July 2020). "The Beidou Satellite Network and the "Space Silk Road" in Eurasia". Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
- "Precise orbit determination of Beidou Satellites with precise positioning". Science China. 2012. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- "GPS rival Beidou will cover Asia Pac by end of the year". The Register. 17 May 2012. Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- "US Department of Defense Reports on China's Space Capabilities". Space Safety Magazine. 27 May 2013. Archived from the original on 15 November 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- "China will make BeiDou Navigation Satellite System available to global users by 2020". Next Big Future. 28 June 2016. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
- Galileo, Compass on collision course, GPS World, April 2008, p. 27
- Levin, Dan (23 March 2009). "Chinese square off with Europe in space". The New York Times. China. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- T. Grelier, J. Dantepal, A. Delatour, A. Ghion, L. Ries, Initial observation and analysis of Compass MEO satellite signals, Inside GNSS, May/June 2007  Archived 2 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- G. Xingxin Gao, A. Chen, S. Lo, D. De Lorenzo, P. Enge, GNSS over China. The Compass MEO satellite codes. Inside GNSS, July/August 2007, pp. 36–43  Archived 2 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- G. Xingxin Gao, A. Chen, Sh. Lo, D. De Lorenzo and Per Enge, Compass-M1 broadcast codes and their application to acquisition and tracking, Proceedings of the ION National Technical Meeting 2008, San Diego, California, January 2008."Compass-M1 Broadcast Codes and Their Application to Acquisition and Tracking" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- W. De Wilde, F. Boon, J.-M. Sleewaegen, F. Wilms, More Compass points. Tracking China’s MEO satellite on a hardware receiver. Inside GNSS, July/August 2007, pp. 44–48.  Archived 8 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- A. Simsky, D. Mertens, Wim De Wilde, Field Experience with Compass-M1 E2 and E5B Signals. Proceedings of ENC GNSS 2008, Toulouse, 22–25 April 2008.
- "Satellite navigation system launched". China Daily. 28 December 2010. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- "China GPS rival Beidou starts offering navigation data". BBC. 27 December 2010. Archived from the original on 3 February 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- "5+5+4"这样的星座结构有什么特点？ (in Chinese). WWW.BEIDOU.GOV.CN. 26 December 2012. Archived from the original on 24 March 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- "China launches 10th satellite for independent navigation system". Xinhua. 2 December 2011. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- "BeiDou navigation system covers Asia-Pacific region till 2012" (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. 3 March 2010. Archived from the original on 9 March 2010. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
- "A digital Silk Road". Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- Update on the BeiDou Satellite Navigation System Archived 23 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine. 12th ICG Meeting. Jia-Qing Ma, China Satellite Navigation Office.
- "APPLICATIONS-Transport". en.beidou.gov.cn. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
- Howell, Elizabeth (23 June 2020). "China launches final Beidou satellite to complete GPS-like navigation system". Space.com. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
- "APPLICATIONS-Transport". en.beidou.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 23 October 2018. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
- "European radio navigation plan (ERNP)". Archived from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
- 秦, 鹏霄 (15 May 2013). "S频段信号的研究". 第四届中国卫星导航学术年会.
- "我国成功发射第四颗新一代北斗导航卫星". beidou.gov.cn. 30 September 2015. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
- "我国成功发射第五颗新一代北斗导航卫星". beidou.gov.cn. 1 February 2016. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
- "第22颗北斗导航卫星正式入网提供服务". beidou.gov.cn. 5 August 2016. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
- "第23颗北斗导航卫星入网工作". beidou.gov.cn. 30 November 2016. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2016.