A beauty pageant or beauty contest is a competition that has traditionally focused on judging and ranking the physical attributes of the contestants, although most contests have evolved to also incorporate personality traits, intelligence, talent, and a contestant's ability to answer judges' questions on various subjects as judged criteria. The term refers largely to contests for women such as the Big Four international beauty pageants. Hundreds of thousands of beauty contests are held annually, but the Big Four are considered the most prestigious, widely covered and broadcast by media. The Wall Street Journal, BBC News, CNN, Xinhua News Agency, and global news agencies such as Reuters, Associated Press and Agence France-Presse collectively refer to the four major pageants as "Big Four" namely: Miss Universe, Miss World, Miss International, and Miss Earth.
The organizers of each pageant may determine the rules of the competition, including the age range of contestants. The rules may also require the contestants to be unmarried, and be "virtuous", "amateur", and available for promotions, besides other criteria. It may also set the clothing standards in which contestants will be judged, including the type of swimsuit.
Beauty pageants are generally multi-tiered, with local competitions feeding into the larger competitions. For example, the international pageants have hundreds or thousands of local competitions. Child beauty pageants mainly focus on beauty, gowns, sportswear modelling, talent, and personal interviews. Adult and teen pageants focus on makeup, hair and gowns, swimsuit modelling, and personal interviews. A winner of a beauty contest is often called a beauty queen. The rankings of the contestants are referred to as placements.
Possible awards of beauty contests include titles, tiaras, crowns, sashes, bouquets, scepters, savings bonds, scholarships, and prize money. Some pageants have awarded college scholarships to the winner or to multiple runners-up.
European festivals dating to the medieval era provide the most direct lineage for beauty pageants. For example, English May Day celebrations always involved the selection of a May Queen. In the United States, the May Day tradition of selecting a woman to serve as a symbol of bounty and community ideals continued, as young beautiful women participated in public celebrations.
A beauty pageant was held during the Eglinton Tournament of 1839, organized by Archibald Montgomerie, 13th Earl of Eglinton, as part of a re-enactment of a medieval joust that was held in Scotland. The pageant was won by Georgiana Seymour, Duchess of Somerset, the wife of Edward Seymour, 12th Duke of Somerset, and sister of Caroline Norton, and she was proclaimed as the "Queen of Beauty".[unreliable source?]
Beauty contests became more popular in the 1880s. In 1888, the title of 'beauty queen' was awarded to an 18-year-old Creole contestant at a pageant in Spa, Belgium. All participants had to supply a photograph and a short description of themselves to be eligible to enter and a final selection of 21 was judged by a formal panel. Such events were not regarded as respectable. Beauty contests came to be considered more respectable with the first modern "Miss America" contest held in 1921.
The oldest pageant still in operation today is the Miss America pageant, which was organized in 1921 by a local businessman as a means to entice tourists to Atlantic City, New Jersey. The pageant hosted the winners of local newspaper beauty contests in the "Inter-City Beauty" Contest, which was attended by over one hundred thousand people. Sixteen-year-old Margaret Gorman of Washington, D.C., was crowned Miss America 1921, having won both the popularity and beauty contests, and was awarded $100.
In May 1920, promoter C.E. Barfield of Galveston, Texas organized a new event known as "Splash Day" on the island. The event featured a "Bathing Girl Revue" competition as the centerpiece of its attractions. The event was the kick-off of the summer tourist season in the city and was carried forward annually. The event quickly became known outside of Texas and, beginning in 1926, the world's first international contest was added, known as the International Pageant of Pulchritude. This contest is said to have served as a model for modern pageants. It featured contestants from England, Russia, Turkey, and many other nations and the title awarded at the time was known as "Miss Universe". The event was discontinued in the United States in 1932 because of the Depression (the international competition was revived briefly in Belgium).
After World War IIEdit
The popularity of the Miss America pageant prompted other organizations to establish similar contests in the 1950s and beyond. Some were significant while others were trivial, such as the National Donut Queen contest. The Miss World contest started in 1951, Miss Universe started in 1952 as did Miss USA. Miss International started in 1960. Miss Asia Pacific International which started in 1968 is the first and oldest beauty pageant in Asia. The Miss Black America contest started in 1968 in response to the exclusion of African American women from the Miss America pageant. The Miss Universe Organization started the Miss Teen USA in 1983 for the 14-19 age group. Miss Earth started in 2001, which channels the beauty pageant entertainment industry as an effective tool to actively promote the preservation of the environment. These contests continue to this day.
The requirement for contestants to wear a swimsuit was a controversial aspect of the various competitions. The controversy was heightened with the increasing popularity of the bikini after its introduction in 1946. The bikini was banned for the Miss America contest in 1947 because of Roman Catholic protesters. When the Miss World contest started in 1951, there was an outcry when the winner was crowned in a bikini. Pope Pius XII condemned the crowning as sinful, and countries with religious traditions threatened to withdraw delegates. The bikini was banned for future and other contests. It was not until the late 1990s that they became permitted again, but still generated controversy when finals were held in countries where bikinis (or swimsuits in general) were socially disapproved. For example, in 2003, Vida Samadzai from Afghanistan caused an uproar in her native country when she participated in the Miss Earth 2003 contest in a red bikini. She was condemned by the Afghan Supreme Court, saying such a display of the female body goes against Islamic law and Afghan culture. In 2013, the swimsuit round of the Miss World contest was dropped because of Islamist protests in Bali (Indonesia), where the contest took place. In 2014, the Miss World contest eliminated the swimsuit competition from its pageant. In 2018, Miss America eliminated the swimsuit competition after 97 years. 
In 2017, Carousel Productions was criticized of objectifying women during the Miss Earth 2017 competition where delegates wore swimsuits during the event with their faces concealed by a veil in the Beauty of Figure and Form, a segment first introduced in the Miss Philippines Earth 2017 pageant. It was one of the three preliminary judging segments of the pageant that include Poise and Beauty of Face and Environmental and Intelligence Competition. The organizers defended the "beauty of figure and form" segment and released a statement that the said round was intended to promote strict impartiality during pre-judging by focusing on the contestants' curves, execution and not beautiful face.
Major beauty pageantsEdit
The term "beauty pageant" refers largely to contests for women. Major international contests for women include the yearly Miss World competition (founded by Eric Morley in 1951), Miss Universe (founded in 1952), Miss International (founded in 1960), and Miss Earth (founded in 2001 with environmental awareness as its concern). These are considered the Big Four pageants, the four largest and most famous international beauty contests for single or unmarried women.
|Founded||Pageant||Organizer||Location||Bikini allowed||Bikini regulation|
|1951||Miss World||Eric Morley,
Miss World Organization
|London, England||1951–2014||1951: The first winner Kiki Håkansson from Sweden was crowned in a bikini. Countries with religious traditions threatened to withdraw delegates, and Pope Pius XII condemned the crowning as sinful. |
1952: Swimsuits toned down to more modest designs.
1996: Miss World contest was held in Bangalore, India, but the swimsuit round was shifted to Seychelles because of intense protests.
2013: The swimsuit round was dropped because of Islamist protests in Bali, Indonesia, where the contest took place.
2015: The Beach Fashion segment of the pageant was dropped.
|1952||Miss Universe||William Morris Endeavor||New York City||1997–present||1952: Bikinis banned. |
1997: Contestants allowed to wear bikinis.
|1960||Miss International||International Cultural Association||Tokyo, Japan||1960–present||1964: Bikinis made mandatory.|
|2001||Miss Earth||Carousel Productions||Quezon City, Philippines||2003–present||2003: Vida Samadzai from Afghanistan participating in a bikini caused an uproar in her native country. |
2017: The "Beauty of Form and Figure" preliminary judging in Miss Earth 2017 was introduced where the delegates walked in white two-piece bikinis but their faces were covered by a white veil to focus the judgment on the body figures on this portion.
Big Four dethronements and resignationsEdit
Dethronements and resignations are rare for the Big Four pageant winners, but when it does, it creates media attention.
The Miss World pageant has experienced 3 cases of dethronement or resignation instances:
- In 1973, Marjorie Wallace from the United States, who was crowned Miss World and once stated that "as Miss World I can get laid with any man I pick", dated a string of celebrities including George Best. She was dethroned three months after she was crowned.
- After being crowned Miss Wales and then Miss United Kingdom, Helen Morgan, competed and won Miss World 1974. However she was discovered to be a mother and was named in a divorce case. This led to her resigning four days after she was crowned. She was replaced by first runner-up of South Africa, Anneline Kriel.
- Gabriela Brum of Germany had the shortest reign in Miss World history when she resigned her title 18 hours after being crowned Miss World 1980. She indicated that her boyfriend disapproved of the contest, but it was later revealed that she had posed for naked photographs; she later relocated to the United States and modelled nude for Playboy. Second place Kimberley Santos of Guam replaced Brum by default.
In Miss Universe, Oxana Fedorova of Russia was crowned Miss Universe 2002 and was dethroned 4 months later as she was unable to fulfill her obligations. She was the first to be dethroned in the history of Miss Universe. She was replaced by first runner-up Justine Pasek of Panama. In its early years, there were two instances where the reigning Miss Universe opted to resign from her position: Armi Kuusela, Miss Universe 1952 from Finland, who held the distinction of being the first Miss Universe winner gave up her crown in less than a year to marry Filipino businessman Virgilio Hilario while Amparo Muñoz, Miss Universe 1974 of Spain refused to travel to Japan and instead resigned after six months of her reign. However, since the pageant had no concrete rule on resignation at that time, they were allowed to keep their titles.
In Miss Earth, the 2002 winner, Dzejla Glavovic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was dethroned of her crown six months into her reign, after she failed to show up at several environmental events. According to Carousel Productions, organizer of the Miss Earth contest, Glavovic was dethroned because of "her inability to fulfill the duties and responsibilities as the Miss Earth titleholder, in accordance with the rules and regulations set forth in the Miss Earth contract that she signed." She was succeeded by first runner-up Winfred Omwakwe of Kenya as Miss Earth 2002.
In Miss International, Ikumi Yoshimatsu, Miss International 2012 was the first titleholder of the pageant from Japan to be dethroned shortly before the end of her reign. She was ordered by The International Culture Association (Miss International organizer) to skip the succession ceremony and "play sick and shut up" out of fear of scandal. The Miss International organizer cited the reason for her dethronement was due to her involvement in a contract dispute with a talent agency in which she claimed that she was pressured to sign by Burning Productions, a film production company which is rumored to be linked with the Japanese underworld, but she refused and went ahead by starting her own company. Yoshimatsu filed criminal charges against one of Japan's most powerful talent agency executives, Genichi Taniguchi of Burning Productions, for allegedly stalking, intimidating, and harassing her.
Besides the international beauty pageants, numerous minor competitions exist throughout the world displaying the different perceptions of beauty. Some examples of criteria to select beauty queens that are unique to certain cultures include the Indian history and traditional craft skills in the Miss Indian American pageant, Indian dress section in the Miss India USA pageant and the principles of "black beauty" that became accepted in the Miss Howard University competition. The winner is often viewed as a model for the "ideal" community member. Through the competitions, the contestants can learn how to present themselves in public and how to cultivate certain traits such as confidence or poise. In some cases, the competitors are selected to act as a representative on behalf of the community. In the African American community of Howard University, the selected Miss Howard University served as advocates for the Civil Rights Movement in the decades following the 1960s. Additionally, the Miss Landmine competition situated in Angola allow victims to serve as advocates on behalf of other victims of mining accidents.
Researchers suggest that the emergence of beauty pageants in countries outside the United States is linked to an economic boom geared towards a more consumeristic lifestyle. For example, in India, from 1996 to 2000, the personal care industry grew by 25% while the number of women applying for the Miss India competition increased from 1000 people in 1993 to 6500 people in 2001. Additionally, after China hosted about 6 international beauty pageants in 2004, the beauty industry increased in influence in the area. At the same time, the number of regional beauty pageants in the country increased.
There is much diversity surrounding the beauty pageant industry now and there have been many women out there who have been recognized to be the first crowned in their race. In 1983, Vanessa Williams, an American singer, actress and fashion designer gained recognition as being the first African American woman to receive the Miss America title. In 1945, Bess Myerson, an American politician, model and, television actress became the first Jew to win the Miss America title in the Atlantic city and to this day she is the only Jew to have received the crown. Her success in winning the title was hugely symbolic and personal to the Jews at that time because it was during the midst of Anti-Semitism and Nazis' murderous regime and therefore, she was announced to be the ideal in the United States. Then in 1991, Lupita Jones, a Mexican actress and television producer, became the first Mexican to win Miss Universe.
Critics of beauty pageants argue that such contests reinforce the idea that girls and women should be valued primarily for their physical appearance, and that this puts tremendous pressure on women to conform to conventional beauty standards by spending time and money on fashion, cosmetics, hair styling, and even cosmetic surgery. They say that this pursuit of physical beauty even encourages some women to diet to the point of harming themselves.
The London Feminist Network argues that rather than being empowering, beauty pageants do the opposite: denying women's full humanity by subjecting them to objectification, denying their full humanity by maintaining that their primary purpose is to be attractive.
Another criticism is in the way beauty pageant is quantifiably scored as highlighted by the "Myth of the Perfect 10". Beauty becomes a numerical coefficient in ranking contestants, and this type of scoring still remains followed as a system even in nationwide beauty pageants such as Miss America.
Researchers suggest that these events strengthen skills, such as interpersonal communications, self-assurance, and public speaking, which prove to be useful in future career paths.
Some critics claim that even after beauty pageants became diverse by the end of the 20th century, there is still this misconception that the ideal image of traditional beauty is a white woman.
There have been numerous scandals in the beauty pageant industry and they continue to emerge as Beauty Pageants are becoming more known to the public. For instance, in December 2017, "HuffPost", an American news blog published emails which were written by former Miss America, Sam Haskell. In these emails, the contestant speaks about other contestants and refers to them as "snakes". Due to these emails coming out to the public, the contestant resigned from her position.
Laura Zuniga, former Miss Hispanic America was detained with her boyfriend and six other people for the crimes of racketeering, drug trafficking, weapons violation and money laundering. The group was caught by the police as they held many 9mm pistols and $53,000 in cash.
At the Miss Teen USA 2007 pageant, Caitlin Upton gained international notoriety for her convoluted and nonsensical response to a question posed to her during the August 2007 national pageant. During the pageant, Upton responded to a question posed by host Aimee Teegarden: "Recent polls have shown a fifth of Americans can't locate the U.S. on a world map. Why do you think this is?" Upton responded:
I personally believe that U.S. Americans are unable to do so because, uh, some, uh, people out there in our nation don't have maps and, uh, I believe that our education like such as in South Africa and, uh, the Iraq, everywhere like such as, and, I believe that they should, our education over here in the U.S. should help the U.S., uh, or, uh, should help South Africa and should help the Iraq and the Asian countries, so we will be able to build up our future. For our children.
- News, Latina (27 August 2013). "An international beauty pageant where everyone's pet cause is the environment". Latina Lista. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
- Ornos, Riza (30 September 2013). "Philippines, Brazil And Venezuela: Three Countries To Win The Big Four International Beauty Pageants". International Business Times. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Kanja, Kirstin (20 December 2019). "Beauty with a purpose: What it means to be Miss World, Miss Universe". Standard Media. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
- Jun, Kwanwoo (2 December 2013). "Lost in Storm's Debris: A Beauty Pageant". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- Amee, Enriquez (2 February 2014). "Philippines: How to make a beauty queen". BBC News. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- Cabato, Regine (27 January 2017). "How a country hosts a Miss Universe pageant". CNN. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
- News, China (3 November 2018). "Myanmar's beauty queen to take part in Miss World pageant 2018 in China". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
- Banerji, Annie (30 May 2019). "Indian beauty pageant draws flak for unfair portrayal of women". Reuters. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- News, Reuters (13 December 2013). "The Philippines earns another crown". Reuters. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
- Willett, Megan (3 December 2019). "How the Miss Universe pageant has evolved over the last 67 years". Insider. Associated Press. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- Joel, Guinto (13 March 2015). "PH Cinderellas 'duck walk' to world stage". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- Joel, Guinto (12 March 2015). "In beauty pageants, Philippines' modern day Cinderellas seize world stage". GMA News Online. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- Vietnam, News (8 October 2008). "Những scandal của Miss World". Vietnam Express. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- Ibrahim, Lynda (13 September 2013). "The misses and missuses of the world". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- Lowe, Aya (25 January 2016). "Philippines' Miss Universe returns home, ignites dreams". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- "23rd Annual Miss Teenage California Scholarship Program". Miss Teenage CA. Archived from the original on 25 June 2001.
- Universal Newsreel (1935). "Lone Star State Selects Beauties for 100 Year Pageant". Texas Archive of the Moving Image. Retrieved 21 July 2011.[permanent dead link]
- "Miss America: People & Events: Origins of the Beauty Pageant". Pbs.org. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Beauty Pageants: Then vs Now. 80Twelve. 15 April 2016 – via YouTube.
- Colin Blakemore and Sheila Jennett, ed. (2006). The Oxford companion to the body (1. publ. ed.). Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-19-852403-8.
- "It's Not a Beauty Pageant. It's a Scholarship Competition!". The LOC.GOV Wise Guide. Library of Congress. August 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "Beauty Pageants History: The Beginning and Beyond". Archived from the original on 7 March 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
- 80Twelve (15 April 2016). "Beauty Pageants: Then vs Now - 80Twelve" – via YouTube.
- "History". Pageant Almanac. Archived from the original on 12 December 2008. Retrieved 6 November 2008.
- "Miss America". In Encyclopedia of New Jersey. 2004. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
- Stein, Elissa (2006). Beauty Queen: Here She Comes.... Chronicle Books. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-8118-4864-0.
"Revues and other Vanities: The Commodification of Fantasy in the 1920s". Assumption College. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- "The Sloane Collection, no. 4 – Galveston Bathing Girl Revue, 1925". Story Sloane, III Collection. Texas Archive of the Moving Image. 1925. Retrieved 21 July 2011.[permanent dead link]
- "Miss United States Began in Galveston". The Islander Magazine. 2006.
- Cherry, Bill (25 October 2004). "Miss America was once Pageant of Pulchritude". Galveston Daily News. Archived from the original on 21 October 2009.
- Brown, Bridget (17 May 2009). "Isle bathing beauty tradition reborn". Galveston Daily News. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011.
- Savage, Candace (1998). Beauty queens: a playful history. Abbeville. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-55054-618-7.
- "The Billboard". Nielsen Business Media. 25 September 1948: 49. Cite journal requires
- "Yevgeniya Lapova: the last winner of Miss Asia Pacific International". India Times. 11 July 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
- Adina, Armin (13 November 2017). "Over 40 contestants join 2017 Miss Asia Pacific International". INQUIRER.net (Online). 1997-2016 INQUIRER.net. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- "The Ritz-Carlton Hotel - Atlantic City" (PDF). Historical Timeline. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
- Warner, Claire (6 December 2015). "What Is The Miss Earth Pageant? Angelia Ong Isn't The Only Winner You Need To Know". Bustle. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- Schuck, Lorraine (12 October 2006). "About Miss Earth Beauty Pageant". Miss Earth official website, Carousel Productions, Inc. Archived from the original on 24 February 2008. Retrieved 2 August 2008.
- "We're all intellectuals". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group Limited. 6 November 2008.
- Various, Selvedge: The Fabric of Your Life, page 39, Selvedge Ltd., 2005
- Maass, Harold (7 June 2013). "The controversial bikini ban at the Miss World beauty pageant". Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- Han Shin, Beauty with a Purpose, page 193, iUniverse, 2004, ISBN 0-595-30926-7
- Nidhi Tewari, "Miss Universe 2013: Winning Beauty To Wear Million Dollar Diamond-Studded Swimsuit" Archived 10 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, International Business Times, 5 November 2013
- Beauty prize for Miss Afghanistan Archived 19 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine, CNN.com, 10 November 2003
- "Miss Afghanistan named 'beauty for a cause'", St. Petersburg Times, 10 November 2003.
- "Miss Afghanistan Takes Prize at Miss Earth Contest" Archived 16 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press, FOXNews.com, 10 November 2003.
- Afghan beauty queen makes history, BBC News, 23 October 2003.
- Lange, Maggie (18 December 2014). "Miss World Pageant Axes Swimsuit Portion". New York Magazine. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- Dela Cruz, Lito (19 October 2017). "Miss Earth organizers slammed over controversial preliminary round". Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- Requintina, Robert R. (25 June 2017). "Veiled faces and 2-piece swimsuits in Miss Philippines Earth pageant". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- Tuazon, Nikko (24 June 2017). "Miss Philippines Earth 2017 organizers defend controversial preliminary event". Philippine Entertainment Portal. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- News, Manila (20 October 2017). "Miss Earth pageant covers contestants' faces as they walk down in swimsuits". Coconuts Media. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- Adina, Armin (15 July 2017). "Miss PH-Earth winners 'unveiled' tonight". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- News, Rappler (25 June 2017). "Miss PH Earth organizers on veil issue: Women not objectified". Rappler. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- "Miss Earth 2004 beauty pageant". China Daily. Reuters. 25 October 2004. Retrieved 23 October 2007.
- "Brazil's Miss World finalist has her hands and feet amputated". English.pravda.ru. 22 January 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- Enriquez, Amee (2 February 2014). "Philippines: How to make a beauty queen". BBC News. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- "Mexicana Anagabriela Espinoza gana concurso de belleza en China". Terra Networks. Mexico. EFE. 28 November 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
- Sibbett, Rebecca (15 February 2008). "Edinburgh students launch beauty pageant". The Edinburgh Journal. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
- Fischer, Bernd (20 August 2012). "Beauty pageants: the bad and the beautiful". Perdeby. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- "Beauty with scandals". The Standard. 14 July 2011. Archived from the original on 23 September 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
- "24歲前田智子當選為「2011日本小姐」" [24-year-old former Tian Zhizi elected as "Miss Japan 2011"]. Business Times (in Chinese). 4 July 2011. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
- "Miss Greece now Miss World, despite pageant protests". CNN. 23 November 1996. Archived from the original on 17 December 2003.
- Sanghani, Radhika (19 December 2014). "Miss World ditches 'sexist bikini round' after 63 years" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- Asia: Afghanistan: Anti-Pageant Judges, The New York Times
- "Afghan women's organization in "Miss Earth" show - Indymedia Ireland". indymedia.ie. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- "Opinion & Reviews - Wall Street Journal". opinionjournal.com. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- News, Blasting. "Miss Earth organizers slammed over controversial preliminary round". Blasting News. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- "Miss Earth pageant covers contestants' faces as they walk down in swimsuits | Coconuts Manila". Coconuts. 20 October 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- Moore, Matthew (26 January 2009). "Eight beauty queens who met with controversy". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- News, The Times of India (23 September 2016). "Beauty queens and their most controversial statements". The Times of India. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- News, BBC (1 September 2004). "'Lost' beauty queen is found". BBC News. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- News, BBC (23 July 2004). "Search for 'missing' Miss World". BBC News. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- Blignaut, Charl (11 December 2011). "Beauty and the Beast". The Sunday Times (South Africa), The Times (South Africa). Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- Downie Jr, Leonard (15 November 1980). "Miss World Quits". The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- News, UPI (28 November 1980). "Miss World crowned in Guam ceremony". United Press International. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- News, Associated Press (13 November 1980). "Miss World Resigns After One-day Reign". The Day. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- Tayag, Voltaire E. (22 January 2017). "WATCH: 6 most memorable Miss Universe Q&As". Rappler. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- News, CNN (25 September 2002). "New Miss Universe named after spat". CNN. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- Mukherjee, Sangeeta (21 September 2011). "Miss Universe: Top 5 Scandals". International Business Times. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- News, ABS-CBN (27 January 2017). "Pia Wurtzbach wears iconic Mikimoto crown". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- News, BBC (24 September 2002). "Miss Universe toppled". BBC News. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- Requintina, Robert (27 November 2017). "Why Spain's only Miss Universe cried in Manila almost every night". Tempo. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- Santos, AJ (17 January 2017). "A brief history of the Miss Universe pageant". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- San Diego Jr., Bayani (22 January 2017). "The brief, bittersweet reign of Amparo Muñoz". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- Gadong, Katreena (17 January 2017). "6-things you should know about the first miss universe crown". Yibada. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- Koerner, Brendan (26 November 2003). "Is Miss Universe Miss World's Boss?". Slate. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- News, India (24 September 2016). "Ivani Perišić crowned Miss Earth Bosnia and Herzegovina 2016". The Times of India. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- Lo, Ricky (29 December 2003). "Miss Earth dethroned". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- Lo, Ricardo F. (10 December 2008). "A Gallery of Black Beauty Queens". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- Mutunga, Kamau (7 September 2010). "When beauty means more than the shape of the face". Daily Nation. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- News, Tokyo Times (17 December 2013). "Japanese Miss International 2012, dethroned after harassment scandal". Tokyo Times. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- Ornos, Riza (17 December 2013). "No Farewell Walk for Miss International 2012 Reigning Queen Ikumi Yoshimatsu". International Business Times. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- Adalia, JB (17 December 2013). "Miss Philippines Wins Miss International 2013". Kicker Daily. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- Adelstein, Jake (25 December 2013). "First lady scrutinizes blackballing of beauty queen". The Japan Times. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- Umbao, Ed (17 December 2013). "Miss International 2012 Ikumi Yoshimatsu Dethroned". Philippine News. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- Ryall, Julian (16 December 2013). "Japanese Miss International files stalking charges against talent agent". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- Kozol, Wendy (2005). "Miss Indian America: Regulatory Gazes and the Politics of Affiliation". Feminist Studies. 31 (1): 64–94. doi:10.2307/20459007. JSTOR 20459007.
- Mani, Bakirathi (2006). "Beauty Queens: Gender, Ethnicity, and Transnational Modernities at the Miss India USA Pageant". Positions. 14 (3): 717–747. doi:10.1215/10679847-2006-019. S2CID 145258485. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
- Thomas, Jennifer C. (2018). "Pageantry & Politics: Miss Howard University from Civil Rights to Black Power". Journal of Negro Education. 87 (1): 22–32. doi:10.7709/jnegroeducation.87.1.0022.
- Hinojosa, Magda; Carle, Jill (2016). "From Miss World to World Leader: Beauty Queens, Paths to Power, and Political Representations". Journal of Women, Politics & Policy. 37 (1): 24–26. doi:10.1080/1554477X.2016.1116298. S2CID 147392523.
- Crawford, Mary; Kerwin, Gregory; Gurung, Alka; Kihati, Deepti; Jha, Pinky; Regmi, Anjana Chalise (2008). "Globalizing Beauty: Attitudes toward Beauty Pageants among Nepali Women". Feminism & Psychology. 18 (1): 61–86. doi:10.1177/0959353507084953. S2CID 144020273.
- Bloul, Rachel (January 2012). "Ain't I a woman? Female landmine survivors' beauty pageants and the ethics of staring". Social Identities. 18 (1): 3–18. doi:10.1080/13504630.2012.629507. S2CID 145453579.
- Parameswaran, Radhika (December 2004). "Global queens, national celebrities: tales of feminine triumph in post-liberalization India". Critical Studies in Media Communication. 21 (4): 346–370. doi:10.1080/0739318042000245363. S2CID 14406042.
- Xu, Gary; Feiner, Susan (2007). "Meinü Jingji/China's beauty economy: Buying looks, shifting value, and changing place". Feminist Economics. 13 (3/4): 307–323. doi:10.1080/13545700701439499. S2CID 154960583.
- "The Curse of Beauty: America's First Jewish Pageant Winner". Jewish Journal. 12 July 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
- "Beauty and body image in the media". Media Awareness Network. Archived from the original on 18 January 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
- "Reigning Miss Universe Suspected of Having Cosmetic Surgery". 29 August 2009. Archived from the original on 26 August 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "Plastic Surgery: Bollywood, Miss Universe, and the Indian Girl Next Door" (PDF). Gujarati Magazine (Sandesh). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "Why OBJECT to Beauty Pageants?". object.org.uk. Archived from the original on 22 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- Riverol, A.R. (1983). "Myth, America and Other Misses: A Second Look at the American Beauty Contests". ETC: A Review of General Semantics.
- "Miss America : National Judging Process". www.missamerica.org. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
- Hinojosa, Magda; Carle, Jill (16 February 2016). "From Miss World to World Leader: Beauty Queens, Paths to Power, and Political Representations". Journal of Women, Politics & Policy. 37 (1): 24–26. doi:10.1080/1554477X.2016.1116298. S2CID 147392523.
- J. D., Hofstra University; B. A., English and Print Journalism. "What's Wrong with Beauty Pageants? Feminist Critique, 1968". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
- Pomarico, Nicole. "10 of the biggest beauty pageant scandals of all time". Insider. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
- "Top 10 Beauty-Pageant Scandals - TIME". Time. 24 January 2009. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
- Celizic, Mike (28 August 2007). "Miss South Carolina Teen USA explains herself - Caitlin Upton botched the map question because she was 'overwhelmed'". MSNBC.
- "Miss Teen South Carolina makes her mark with flubbed response to geography question". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 28 August 2007. Archived from the original on 31 August 2007.
- Adams, Richard (27 August 2007). "Now, where is America anyway?". The Guardian.
- Thomas, Karen (29 August 2007). "That wasn't Miss South Carolina's final answer". USA Today.
- "Miss South Carolina Teen USA explains herself". 28 August 2007.
- Banet‐Weiser, Sarah. "The Most Beautiful Girl in the World: Beauty Pageants and National Identity". (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999)
- Bell, Myrtle P., Mary E. McLaughlin, and Jennifer M. Sequeira. "Discrimination, Harassment, and the Glass Ceiling: Women Executives as Change Agents". Journal of Business Ethics. 37.1 (2002): 65–76. Print.
- Burgess, Zena, and Phyllis Tharenou. "Women Board Directors: Characteristics of the Few". Journal of Business Ethics. 37.1 (2002): 39–49. Print.
- Ciborra, Claudio U. "The Platform Organization: Recombining Strategies, Structures, and Surprises". Organization Science. 7.2 (1996): 103–118. Print.
- Harvey, Adia M. "Becoming Entrepreneurs: Intersections of Race, Class, and Gender at the Black Beauty Salon". Gender and Society. 19.6 (2005): 789–808. Print.
- Huffman, Matt L., and Philip N. Cohen. "Occupational Segregation and the Gender Gap in Workplace Authority: National versus Local Labor Markets". Sociological Forum. 19.1 (2004): 121–147. Print.
- Lamsa, Anna-Maija, and Teppo Sintonen. "A Discursive Approach to Understanding Women Leaders in Working Life". Journal of Business Ethics. 34.3/4 (2001): 255–267. Print.
- Liben, Lynn S., Rebecca Bigler, Diane N Ruble, Carol Lynn Martin, and Kimberly K. Powlishta. "Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Evaluating Constructs and Pathways". Developmental Course of Gender Differentiation. 67.2 i-183. Print.
- Sones, Michael. "History of the Beauty Pageant". Beauty Worlds: The Culture of Beauty (2003): n. pag. Web. 4 November 2009.
- Wilk, Richard. "The Local and the Global in the Political Economy of Beauty: From Miss Belize to Miss World". Review of International Political Economy. 2.1 (1995): 117–134. Print.