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Battle of Oriskany

The Battle of Oriskany on August 6, 1777 was one of the bloodiest battles in the American Revolutionary War and a significant engagement of the Saratoga campaign. A party of Loyalists and several Indian allies ambushed an American military party that was trying to relieve the siege of Fort Stanwix. This was one of the few battles in which almost all of the participants were Americans; Patriots and allied Oneidas fought against Loyalists and allied Iroquois in the absence of British regular soldiers.

Battle of Oriskany
Part of the American Revolutionary War
Herkimer at oriskany.jpg
Herkimer at the Battle of Oriskany
Painting by Frederick Coffay Yohn, c. 1901,
now in the public library in Utica, New York[1]
DateAugust 6, 1777
Location
43°10.6′N 75°22.2′W / 43.1767°N 75.3700°W / 43.1767; -75.3700Coordinates: 43°10.6′N 75°22.2′W / 43.1767°N 75.3700°W / 43.1767; -75.3700
Result Anglo-Indian tactical victory
American strategic victory
Belligerents

 United States
Iroquois

 Great Britain

Iroquois

Algonquin, Huron, and Nipissing
Commanders and leaders
United States Nicholas Herkimer 
United States Peter Gansevoort

Kingdom of Great Britain Sir John Johnson
Kingdom of Great Britain John Butler

Joseph Brant
Strength
720–740 militia
60–100 Indians[2]
500 regulars, militia and Indians[3]
Casualties and losses
385 killed
50 wounded
30 captured[4]
Indians: 65 killed or wounded
British: 7 killed, 21 wounded, missing, or captured[5]

The Patriot relief force came from the Mohawk Valley under General Nicholas Herkimer and numbered around 800 men of the Tryon County militia plus a party of Oneida warriors. British commander Barry St. Leger authorized an intercepting force consisting of a Hanau Jäger (light infantry) detachment, Sir John Johnson's King's Royal Regiment of New York, Indian allies from the Six Nations, particularly Mohawks and Senecas and other tribes to the north and west, and Indian Department Rangers, totaling at least 450 men.

The Loyalist and Indian force ambushed Herkimer's force in a small valley about six miles (10 km) east of Fort Stanwix, near the village of Oriskany, New York. Herkimer was mortally wounded, and the battle cost the Patriots approximately 450 casualties, while the Loyalists and Indians lost approximately 150 dead and wounded. The result of the battle remains ambiguous. The apparent Loyalist victory was significantly affected by a sortie from Fort Stanwix in which the Loyalist camps were sacked, damaging morale among the allied Indians.

The battle also marked the beginning of a war among the Iroquois, as Oneida warriors under Colonel Louis and Han Yerry allied with the American cause. Most of the other Iroquois tribes allied with the British, especially the Mohawks and Senecas. Each tribe was highly decentralized, and there were internal divisions among bands of the Oneida, some of whom also migrated to Canada as allies of the British. The site is known in Iroquois oral histories as "A Place of Great Sadness."[6] The site has been designated a National Historic Landmark; it is marked by a battle monument at the Oriskany Battlefield State Historic Site.

BackgroundEdit

In June 1777, the British Army, under the command of General "Gentleman Johnny" Burgoyne, launched a two-pronged attack from Quebec. Burgoyne's objective was to split New England from the other colonies by gaining control of New York's Hudson Valley. The main thrust came south across Lake Champlain under Burgoyne's command; the second thrust was led by Lt. Colonel Barry St. Leger and was intended to come down the Mohawk Valley and meet Burgoyne's army near Albany.[7]

St. Leger's expedition consisted of about 1,800 men who were a mix of British regulars, Hessian Jägers from Hanau, Loyalists, Rangers, and Indians of several tribes, including the Mohawk and Seneca of the Iroquois. They traveled up the Saint Lawrence River and along the shore of Lake Ontario to the Oswego River, which they ascended to reach the Oneida Carry in Rome, New York. They began to besiege Fort Stanwix, a Continental Army post guarding the portage.[8]

PreludeEdit

Tryon County's Committee of Safety head Nicholas Herkimer was warned of a possible British attack along the Mohawk River, and he issued a proclamation on July 17 warning of possible military activity and urging the people to respond if needed.[9] Oneida allies warned him on July 30 that the British were just four days from Fort Stanwix, and he put out a call-to-arms. The force raised totaled 800 from the Tryon County militia composed primarily of poorly trained farmers who were chiefly of Palatine German descent. They set out on August 4 and camped near the Oneida village of Oriska on August 5. A number of the militia dropped out of the column due to their lack of conditioning, but Herkimer's forces were augmented by a company of 60 to 100 Oneida warriors led by Han Yerry, a strong supporter of the Patriot cause.[10] That evening, Herkimer sent three men toward the fort with messages for the fort's commander Colonel Peter Gansevoort. Gansevoort was to signal the receipt of the message with three cannon shots and then sortie to meet the approaching column.[10] The couriers, however, had difficulty getting through British lines, and they did not deliver the message until late the next morning, after the battle was already underway.[11]

 
The site of the ambush at Bloody Creek, New York

St. Leger learned on August 5 that Herkimer and his relief expedition were on their way from a messenger that Molly Brant had sent to her brother Joseph Brant, the Mohawk leader who led a portion of St. Leger's Indian contingent.[12] St. Leger sent a detachment of light infantry from Sir John Johnson's Royal Yorkers toward the position that evening to monitor Herkimer's position, and Brant followed early the next morning with about 400 Indians and Butler's Rangers. Many of the Indians were armed with muskets, while others carried only tomahawks and spears.[3]

BattleEdit

Herkimer held a war council on the morning of August 6. He wanted to wait because he had not heard the expected signal from the fort, but his captains pressed him to continue, accusing him of being a Tory because his brother was serving under St. Leger.[13] He was stung by the accusations and relented, ordering the column to march on toward Stanwix.[14]

About six miles (9.6 km) from the fort, the road dipped more than 50 feet (15 m) into a marshy ravine with a stream at the bottom that was about three feet wide.[15] Seneca chiefs Sayenqueraghta and Cornplanter chose this place to set up an ambush;[16] the King's Royal Yorkers waited behind a nearby rise and the Indians concealed themselves on both sides of the ravine. The plan was for the Yorkers to stop the head of the column, after which the Indians would attack the extended column.[15] At about 10 am, Herkimer's column descended into the ravine, crossed the stream, and began ascending the other side with Herkimer on horseback near the front.[12]

 
Monument marking the location of the tree to which Herkimer was taken

Contrary to the plan, the Indians lying in wait opened fire on the rear of the column, apparently unable to contain themselves any longer and taking the column completely by surprise. Colonel Ebenezer Cox was leading the 1st Regiment (Canajoharie district), and he was shot off his horse and killed in the first volley. Herkimer turned his horse to see the action and was struck by a ball that shattered his leg and killed the horse.[17] Several of his officers carried him to a beech tree and urged him to retire from further danger. He defiantly replied, "I will face the enemy", and calmly sat leaning against the tree smoking a pipe and giving directions and words of encouragement to the men nearby.[18]

The trap had been sprung too early and portions of the column had not yet entered the ravine.[17] Most of these men panicked and fled; some of the attacking Indians pursued them, resulting in a string of dead and wounded that extended for several miles.[19] Between the loss of the column rear and those killed or wounded in the initial volleys, only about one half of Herkimer's men were likely still fighting 30 minutes into the battle.[17] Some of the attackers who were not armed with muskets waited for the flash of an opponent's musket fire before rushing to attack with the tomahawk.[17][20] Mohawk warrior Louis Atayataronghta was fighting with Herkimer's men, and he shot one of the enemies whose fire had been devastatingly accurate, noting that "every time he rises up he kills one of our men".[21]

Herkimer's men eventually rallied, fighting their way out of the ravine to the crest just to its west. John Johnson was concerned about the militia's tenacity, so he returned to the British camp and requested some reinforcements from St. Leger, returning with 70 men.[22] A thunderstorm caused a one-hour break in the fighting,[18] during which Herkimer regrouped his militia on the higher ground. He instructed his men to fight in pairs; while one man fired and reloaded, the other waited and then only fired if attacked. They were to keep at least one weapon loaded at all times to reduce the effectiveness of the tomahawk attacks.[20]

Ranger John Butler took time during the thunderstorm to question some of the captives, and thus learned about the three-cannon signal. Johnson and his reinforcements arrived, and Butler convinced them to turn their coats inside out to disguise themselves as a relief party coming from the fort.[23] When the fighting restarted, Johnson and the rest of his Royal Yorkers joined the battle, but Patriot Captain Jacob Gardinier recognized the face of a Loyalist neighbor. Close combat continued for some time, often hand-to-hand between men who were neighbors.[20][24]

 
Lt. Col. Marinus Willett, a 1791 portrait by Ralph Earl

Sortie from Fort StanwixEdit

Herkimer's messengers reached the fort at around 11 a.m., and Colonel Gansevoort organized the requested sortie. Lieutenant Colonel Marinus Willett led 250 men from the fort and raided the nearly deserted enemy camps to the south, driving away the few British and Indians left in them (including women) and taking four prisoners along the way.[25] They collected blankets and other personal possessions from the Indian camps, and they also raided John Johnson's camp, taking his letters and other writings (including an intercepted letter to Gansevoort from his fiancée).[26][27]

One of the Indians guarding the camps ran to the battlefield to alert fellow warriors that their camps were being raided.[28] They disengaged with cries of "Oonah, oonah!", the Seneca signal to retire, and headed for the camps to protect their women and possessions. This forced the smaller number of German and Loyalist combatants to also withdraw.[20]

AftermathEdit

PatriotsEdit

Herkimer was seriously wounded and many of his captains were killed, and the battered remnant retreated to Fort Dayton. His men carried him from the battlefield and his leg was amputated, but the operation went poorly and he died on August 16.[29] The Indians retrieved most of their dead from the battlefield the following day, but many dead and wounded Patriots were left on the field. Benedict Arnold's relief column marched through several weeks later, and the men were moved by the stench and grisly scene.[30]

 
Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant, 1776 portrait by George Romney

General Philip Schuyler learned of the retreat from Oriskany and immediately organized additional relief to be sent to the area. Arnold's relief column arrived at Fort Stanwix on August 21, and he sent messengers into the British camp who convinced the British and Indian besiegers that his force was much larger than it actually was.[31] They abandoned their siege and withdrew.

LoyalistsEdit

Loyalist John Butler was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel for his role in the battle, and he was authorized to raise a regiment that became known as Butler's Rangers.[32] After the siege was lifted, some Loyalists returned to Quebec while others joined Burgoyne's campaign on the Hudson, including numerous warriors from various tribes.[33]

IndiansEdit

Brant and Seneca chief Sayenqueraghta proposed the next day to continue the fighting by pursuing the Patriots downriver toward German Flatts, New York, but St. Leger turned them down.[34] This battle marked the beginning of a war among the tribes in the Iroquois Confederacy, as it was the first time that they had fought against one other. The Mohawks, Senecas, Cayugas, and Onondagas were allied with the British, as were some Oneidas, and the Iroquois in St. Leger's camp met in council and decided to send the Patriot-allied Oneidas a bloody hatchet.[27] Brant's Mohawks raided and burned the Oneida settlement of Oriska later in the siege. In retaliation, the Oneidas plundered the Mohawk strongholds of Tiononderoge and Canajoharie. They later raided the Fort Hunter Mohawks, prompting most of the remaining Mohawks in central New York to flee to Quebec.[35]

Brant's Indians were said to have tortured and eaten some of their prisoners,[36] although modern historians debate this. It is likely that some of the prisoners were ritually killed, but there does not appear to be any evidence of cannibalism.

Winners and losersEdit

The battle was one of the bloodiest of the war, based on the percentage of casualties suffered.[37] About half of Herkimer's force were killed or wounded, as were about 15-percent of the British force.[4][5] St. Leger claimed the battle as a victory, as he had stopped the American relief column, but the Americans maintained control of the battlefield after the withdrawal of the opposing Indians.

The British victory was tempered by the discontentment of the Indians after the battle. When they joined the expedition, they expected that the British forces would do most of the fighting, but they were the dominant fighters in this action, and some suffered the loss of their personal belongings taken during the American sortie from the fort. This blow to their morale contributed to the eventual failure of St. Leger's expedition.[38]

LegacyEdit

 
Monument to the unknown Tryon County patriots

Blacksnake was one of the Indians at the battle, and he was interviewed many years afterwards. He recalled, "I thought at that time the Blood Shed a Stream running down on the decending [sic] ground."[39]

A monument was erected in 1884 to commemorate the battle at 43° 10.6′N 75° 22.2′W,[40] and much of the battlefield is now preserved in the Oriskany Battlefield State Historic Site. The site was recognized as a National Historic Landmark in 1962,[41] and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1966.[42] The town of Herkimer (town), New York and Herkimer County, New York were named in Herkimer's honor.[43] The battle was honored by the name of aircraft carrier USS Oriskany, launched in 1945,[44] now an artificial reef,[45] and also by the issuance of a postage stamp in 1977.[46]

See alsoEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ Dieffenbacher, p. 12
  2. ^ Figures obtained from Glatthaar (2006), pp. 160, 356. He notes on p. 356 that 10–20% of Herkimer's column falls out before reaching the battlefield. The Oneida figures are his estimate, based in part on oral tradition, and include at least one Mohawk, Louis Atayataronghta (see battle description for quote).
  3. ^ a b Glatthaar (2006), p. 164
  4. ^ a b Watt (2002) pp. 316–320
  5. ^ a b Watt (2002), p. 194
  6. ^ Bilharz (2009), p. 93.
  7. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 84
  8. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 195–199
  9. ^ Glatthaar (2006), pp. 159–160
  10. ^ a b Glatthaar (2006), p. 160
  11. ^ Glatthaar (2006), p. 161
  12. ^ a b Glatthaar (2006), p. 163
  13. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 202
  14. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 203
  15. ^ a b Nickerson (1967), p. 205
  16. ^ Watt (2002), p. 135
  17. ^ a b c d Glatthaar (2006), p. 166
  18. ^ a b Nickerson (1967), p. 207
  19. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 206
  20. ^ a b c d Nickerson (1967), p. 208
  21. ^ Glatthaar (2006), p. 167
  22. ^ Watt (2002), p. 174
  23. ^ Watt (2002), pp. 179–180
  24. ^ Glatthaar (2006), p. 168
  25. ^ Glatthaar (2006), p. 171
  26. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 210
  27. ^ a b Watt (2002), p. 196
  28. ^ Watt (2002), p. 185
  29. ^ Glatthaar (2006), p. 169
  30. ^ Watt (2002), p. 263
  31. ^ Glatthaar (2006), pp. 174–5
  32. ^ Bowler (2000)
  33. ^ Watt (2002), p. 269
  34. ^ Kelsay (1984), p. 208
  35. ^ Glatthaar (2006), p. 177
  36. ^ Stone (1865)], pp. 459–460
  37. ^ Canfield (1909), p. 57
  38. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 211
  39. ^ Watt (2002), p. 177
  40. ^ Cookinham (1915), p. 340.
  41. ^ NHL summary listing
  42. ^ NRHP
  43. ^ Benton (1856), p. 164
  44. ^ Oriskany DANFS entry
  45. ^ "Oriskany: 10 years as 'The Great Carrier Reef'". Pensacola News Journal. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  46. ^ Battle of Oriskany bicentennial stamp, 1977 https://i.unisquare.com/img/main/1/1/3/097ac61a555fa89132cd6562u.jpeg

ReferencesEdit

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit