Open main menu

The Battle of Mu'tah (Arabic: مَعْرَكَةُ مُؤْتَة‎, romanizedMaʿrakah Mu’tah, Arabic: غَزْوَة مُؤْتَة‎, romanizedĠazwat Mu’tah) was fought in September 629 C.E. (1 Jumada al-awwal 8 A.H.),[1] near the village of Mu'tah, east of the Jordan River and Karak in Karak Governorate, between the forces of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the forces of the Byzantine Empire.

Battle of Mu'tah
غَزْوَة مُؤْتَة
مَعْرَكَةُ مُؤْتَة
Part of the Arab–Byzantine Wars
Mausoleum ,Jafer-ut-Tayyar,Jordan.JPG
The tomb of Muslim commanders Zayd ibn Ḥārithah, Ja`far ibn Abī Tālib, and ʿAbdullāh ibn Rawāḥah in Al-Mazar near Mu'tah, Jordan
DateSeptember 629[1]
Location
Result Byzantine victory[2][3]
Belligerents
Muslim Arabs Simple Labarum2.svg Byzantine Empire
Ghassanids
Commanders and leaders
Zayd ibn Harithah 
Ja'far ibn Abi Talib 
Abdullah ibn Rawahah 
Khalid ibn al-Walid (selected during battle)[4]
Theodore
Heraclius
Shurahbil ibn Amr
Strength
3,000[5]

100,000 (Waqidi)[6]
200,000 (Ibn Ishaq)[7]
(both exaggerated[8][9][10])

10,000 or fewer (modern est.)[11]
Casualties and losses
12[4] (Disputed)[12][13] Unknown

In Islamic historical sources, the battle is usually described as the Muslims' attempt to take retribution against a Ghassanid chief for taking the life of an emissary. According to Byzantine sources, the Muslims planned to launch their attack on a feast day. The local Byzantine Vicarius learned of their plans and collected the garrisons of the fortresses. Seeing the great number of the enemy forces, the Muslims withdrew to the south where the fighting started at the village of Mu'ta and they were routed.[10][2] After three of their leaders were killed, the command was given to Khalid ibn al-Walid and he succeeded in saving the rest of the forces.[10]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

The Byzantines were reoccupying territory following the peace accord between Emperor Heraclius and the Sasanid general Shahrbaraz in July 629.[14] The Byzantine sakellarios Theodore,[15] was placed in command of the army, and while in the area of Balqa, Arab tribes were also employed.[14]

Meanwhile, Muhammad had sent his emissary to the ruler of Bosra.[16] While on his way to Bosra, he was executed in the village of Mu'tah by the orders of a Ghassanid official.[16]

Mobilization of the armiesEdit

Muhammad dispatched 3,000 of his troops to Jumada al-Awwal in 629, for a quick expedition to attack and punish the tribes for the murder of his emissary by the Ghassanids.[16] The army was led by Zayd ibn Harithah; the second-in-command was Ja'far ibn Abi Talib and the third-in-command was 'Abd Allah ibn Rawahah. When the Muslim troops arrived at the area to the east of Jordan and learned of the size of the Byzantine army, they wanted to wait and send for reinforcements from Medina. 'Abdullah ibn Rawahah reminded them about their desire for martyrdom and questioned the move to wait when what they desire was awaiting them, so they continued marching towards the waiting army.

The battleEdit

The Muslims engaged the Byzantines at their camp by the village of Musharif and then withdrew towards Mu'tah. It was here that the two armies fought. Some Muslim sources report that the battle was fought in a valley between two heights, which negated the Byzantines' numerical superiority. During the battle, all three Muslim leaders fell one after the other as they took command of the force: first, Zayd, then Ja'far, then 'Abdullah. After the death of the latter, some of the Muslim soldiers began to rout. Thabit ibn Al-Arqam, seeing the desperate state of the Muslim forces, took up the banner and rallied his comrades thus saving the army from complete destruction. After the battle, Al-Arqam took the banner, before asking Khalid bin Walid to take the lead.[17]

Khalid bin Walid reported that the fighting at Mu'tah was so intense that he used nine swords which broke during the battle. Khalid, seeing that the situation was hopeless, prepared to withdraw. He continued to engage the Byzantines in skirmishes, but avoided pitched battle. It is said that Khalid killed at least one identified Arab Christian commander, namely Malik.[citation needed]

Muslim lossesEdit

The casualties of slain of the Muslim side were recorded as the four of them from Muhajireen while eight the rest from Ansar. Their names were:

  1. Zaid bin Haritha
  2. Ja'far ibn Abi Talib
  3. Abdullah bin Rawahah
  4. Masoud bin Al-Aswad
  5. Wahab bin Saad
  6. Abbad bin Qais
  7. Amr ibn Saad (not Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas's son)
  8. Harith bin Nu'man
  9. Saraqah bin Amr
  10. Abu Kulaib bin Amr
  11. Jabir ibn 'Amr
  12. Amer bin Saad

Daniel C. Peterson, Professor of Islamic Studies at Brigham Young University, finds the ratio of casualties among the leaders suspiciously high compared to the losses suffered by ordinary soldiers.[12] David Powers, Professor of Near Eastern Studies at Cornell, also mentions this curiosity concerning the minuscule casualties recorded by Muslim historians.[13]

AftermathEdit

It is reported that when the Muslim force arrived at Medina, they were berated for apparently withdrawing and accused of fleeing.[18] Salamah ibn Hisham, brother of Amr ibn Hishām (Abu Jahl) was reported to have prayed at home rather than going to the mosque to avoid having to explain himself. Muhammad ordered them to stop, saying that they would return to fight the Byzantines again.[18] It would not be until the third century A.H. that Muslim historians would state that Muhammad bestowed upon Khalid the title of 'Saifullah' meaning 'Sword of Allah'.[13]

Today, Muslims who fell at the battle are considered martyrs (shuhadā’). Some have claimed that this battle, far from being a defeat, was a strategic success; the Muslims had challenged the Byzantines and had made their presence felt amongst the Arab Bedouin tribes in the region. A mausoleum was later built at Mu'tah over their grave.[10]

HistoriographyEdit

According to al-Waqidi and Ibn Ishaq, the Muslims were informed that 100,000[6] or 200,000[7] enemy troops were encamped at Balqa'.[6][19] Consequently, modern historians refute this stating the figure to be exaggerated.[8][9][10] According to Walter Emil Kaegi, professor of Byzantine history at the University of Chicago, the size of the entire Byzantine army during the 7th century might have totaled 100,000, possibly even half this number.[20] While the Byzantine forces at Mu'tah are unlikely to have numbered more than 10,000.[a][11]

Muslim accounts of the battle differ over the result.[13] In early Muslim sources, the battle is recorded as a humiliating defeat (hazīma).[13] While, later Muslim historians would rework the early source material, revising the narrative of the battle as a Muslim victory on grounds that most of the Muslim soldiers returned safely while retreated from Byzantine forces.[13]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The Byzantines do not appear to have used many Greek, Armenian, or other non-Arab soldiers at Mu'ta, even though the overall commander was the vicarius Theodore. The number that the Byzantines raised are, of course, uncertain, but unlikely to have exceeded 10,000.[11]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Kaegi 1992, p. 72.
  2. ^ a b Kaegi 1992, p. 67.
  3. ^ Tucker 2010, p. 200.
  4. ^ a b Powers, David S. (2014-05-23). Zayd. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 58–9. ISBN 978-0-8122-4617-9.
  5. ^ Powers 2009, p. 86.
  6. ^ a b c Gil, Moshe (1997-02-27). A History of Palestine, 634-1099. Cambridge University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-521-59984-9.
  7. ^ a b Ibn Ishaq (2004). The Life of Muhammad. A. Guillaume (trans.). Oxford University Press, USA. p. 532. ISBN 0-19-636033-1. They went on their way as far as Ma‘ān in Syria where they heard that Heraclius had come down to Ma’āb in the Balqāʾ with 100,000 Greeks joined by 100,000 men from Lakhm and Judhām and al-Qayn and Bahrāʾ and Balī commanded by a man of Balī of Irāsha called Mālik b. Zāfila.
  8. ^ a b Haldon 2010, p. 188.
  9. ^ a b Peters 1994, p. 231.
  10. ^ a b c d e Buhl 1993, p. 756-757.
  11. ^ a b c Kaegi 1992, p. 79.
  12. ^ a b Peterson 2007, p. 142.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Powers 2009, p. 80.
  14. ^ a b Kaegi 1992, p. 72-73.
  15. ^ Kaegi 1992, p. 35.
  16. ^ a b c El Hareir & M'Baye 2011, p. 142.
  17. ^ Jafar al-Tayyar, Al-Islam.org
  18. ^ a b Powers 2009, p. 81.
  19. ^ Haykal 1976, p. 419.
  20. ^ Kaegi 2010, p. 99.


SourcesEdit

  • El Hareir, Idris; M'Baye, El Hadji Ravane (2011). The Different Aspects of Islam Culture: Volume 3, The Spread of Islam throughout the World. UNESCO publishing.
  • Buhl, F. (1993). "Muʾta". In H. A. R. Gibb (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Islam. 7 (Second ed.). BRILL. p. 756. ISBN 9789004094192.
  • Haldon, John (2010). Money, Power and Politics in Early Islamic Syria. Ashgate Publishing.
  • Haykal, Muhammad (1976). The Life of Muhammad. Islamic Book Trust.
  • Kaegi, Walter E. (1992). Byzantium and the Early Islamic Conquests. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521411721.
  • Kaegi, Walter E. (2010). Muslim Expansion and Byzantine Collapse in North Africa. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-19677-2.
  • Peters, Francis E. (1994). Muhammad and the Origins of Islam. State University of New York Press.
  • Peterson, Daniel C. (2007). Muhammad, Prophet of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
  • Powers, David S. (2009). Muhammad Is Not the Father of Any of Your Men: The Making of the Last Prophet. University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. (2010). A Global Chronology of Conflict. Vol. I. ABC-CLIO.

Further readingEdit