Battle of Mainz
The Battle of Mainz (29 October 1795) saw a Habsburg army led by François Sebastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt launch a surprise assault against four divisions of the French Army of Rhin-et-Moselle directed by François Ignace Schaal. The right-hand French division fled the battlefield, compelling the other three divisions to retreat with the loss of their siege artillery and many casualties. The War of the First Coalition action was fought near the city of Mainz in the today state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
|Battle of Mainz|
|Part of the French Revolutionary War|
Reconnaissance during the French siege of Mainz, 1795
|First French Republic||Habsburg Monarchy|
|Commanders and leaders|
|François Schaal||Count of Clerfayt|
|Casualties and losses|
3,000 killed or wounded,|
138 cannons lost
1,400 killed or wounded,|
French troops had ineffectively besieged the western side of Mainz Fortress since December 1794. However, in early September 1795 the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse crossed the lower Rhine River and advanced south to the Main River. For the first time Mainz was besieged on the east side of the river, but this state of affairs did not last very long. In the Battle of Höchst, Clerfayt outmaneuvered Jourdan, forcing his army to retire to the west bank of the Rhine. With Jourdan temporarily out of the picture, Clerfayt fell on Schaal's somewhat isolated corps and drove it away to the south. During this time the commander of the Army of Rhin-et-Moselle, Jean-Charles Pichegru was in treasonous contact with France's enemies, perhaps accounting for Austria's success. The next clash was the Battle of Pfeddersheim on 10 November.
- François Sebastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt
- Jean Baptiste Kléber
- Laurent de Gouvion-Saint-Cyr
- Gabriel Jean Joseph Molitor
- Adam Albert von Neipperg
- Antoine Christophe Merlin
- Auguste de Marmont
- Charles XIV John of Sweden
- Franz von Weyrother
- Franz Joseph, Marquis de Lusignan
- François, marquis de Chasseloup-Laubat
- François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers
- Jean-Marie-Joseph Coutelle
- Joseph Marie, Count Dessaix
- Nicolas-Jacques Conté
- Paul Louis Courier
- Armée de Mayence
- Serbian mercenaries (see: Kočina Krajina Serb rebellion in 1791) under General Major Stephan Bernhard Keglevich did not take part, but were involved as neutral observers (see map below).
- Frédéric-César de La Harpe did not take part, but was involved, had a leading role in the creation of the Helvetic Republic.
- 54th Infantry Regiment (France) under Colonel Sauvat(?)
- Hessian (soldiers) under Colonel Johann Keglevich. He was awarded the Military Order of Maria Theresa in 1798 "for by his own initiative undertaken and successfully a campaign significantly affecting feats of arms, which an officer of honor would may have omitted without blame".
- Smith, D. The Greenhill Napoleonic Wars Data Book. Greenhill Books, 1998.
- Tony Jaques, Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 618, 2007
- Spencer C. Tucker, Wars That Changed History: 50 of the World's Greatest Conflicts, ABC-CLIO, p. 265, 2015
- Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich: Enthaltend die Lebensskizzen der denkwürdigen Personen, welche seit 1750 in den österreichischen Kronländern geboren wurden oder darin gelebt und gewirkt haben, Band 11, Constant von Wurzbach, K. K. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Wien 1864.
- Geschichte des 1. Grossherzoglich hessischen Infanterie- (Leibgarde-) Regiments, Ausgabe 115 der Ausgaben 1621–1899, Carl Christian Röder von Diersburg (Freiherr.), E. S. Mittler 1899.
- Die reiter-regimenter der k.k.österreichischen armee, Andreas Thürheim (Graf.), F.B. Geitler, 1862.