Battle of Grenada

The Battle of Grenada took place on 6 July 1779 during the American Revolutionary War in the West Indies between the British Royal Navy and the French Navy, just off the coast of Grenada. The British fleet of Admiral John Byron (the grandfather of Lord Byron) had sailed in an attempt to relieve Grenada, which the French forces of the Comte D'Estaing had just captured.

Battle of Grenada
Part of the American Revolutionary War
Battle of Grenada mg 9372.jpg
Battle of Grenada, Jean-François Hue
Date6 July 1779
Location12°03′N 61°45′W / 12.05°N 61.75°W / 12.05; -61.75
Result French victory[1]
Belligerents
 France  Great Britain
Commanders and leaders
Charles Hector Kingdom of Great Britain John Byron
Kingdom of Great Britain John Thomas Duckworth
Strength
25 ships of the line 21 ships of the line
Casualties and losses
949 killed and wounded[1] 1,055 killed and wounded[1]

Incorrectly believing he had numerical superiority, Byron ordered a general chase to attack the French as they left their anchorage at Grenada. Because of the disorganized attack and the French superiority, the British fleet was badly mauled in the encounter, although no ships were lost on either side. Naval historian Alfred Thayer Mahan described the British loss as "the most disastrous ... that the British Navy had encountered since Beachy Head, in 1690."[2]

BackgroundEdit

Following the entry of France into the American War of Independence as an American ally in early 1778, French Admiral the Comte D'Estaing arrived in the West Indies in early December 1778 in command of a fleet consisting of 12 ships of the line and a number of smaller vessels.[3] At about the same time, a British fleet under Admiral William Hotham also arrived, augmenting the fleet of Admiral Samuel Barrington.[4] The British then captured French-held St. Lucia, despite d'Estaing's attempt at relief. The British used St. Lucia to monitor the major French base at Martinique, where d'Estaing was headquartered.[5]

The British fleet was further reinforced in January 1779 by ten ships of the line under Admiral John Byron, who assumed command of the British Leeward Islands station.[6] Throughout the first half of 1779, both fleets received further reinforcements, after which the French fleet was slightly superior to that of the British.[7] Furthermore, Byron departed St. Lucia on 6 June in order to provide escort services to British merchant ships gathering at St. Kitts for a convoy to Europe, leaving d'Estaing free to act. D'Estaing and Governor Bouillé seized the opportunity to begin a series of operations against nearby British possessions.[8]

Their first target, the isle of Saint Vincent, fell on 18 June, and d'Estaing turned his attention to other islands. He had hoped to capture the key British possession, Barbados, but after making no progress against the prevailing easterly trade winds, he turned his attention instead to Grenada.[9] The French fleet arrived off Grenada on 2 July, and stormed its main defences beginning late on 3 July. Terms of capitulation were agreed on 4 July.[10] On the way, the French squadron met the 50-gun Fier Rodrigue, under Chevalier de Montault, a letter of marque belonging to Beaumarchais and escorting a convoy. They commandeered Fier Rodrigue, and she took a place in the French line of battle.[11][12]

Admiral Byron had been alerted to the French action at Saint Vincent, and was sailing with a force to recapture it. When news arrived that the French were at Grenada, he immediately changed course to meet them.[10] The British fleet consisted of 21 ships of the line and 1 frigate. Because he was escorting troop transports and was short of frigates, three ships of the line were assigned duty to escort the transports. Admiral d'Estaing was warned on July 5 of Byron's approach, and promptly reembarked most of his troops. His fleet consisted of 25 ships of the line and a large number of frigates and smaller vessels.[13] Admiral Byron was unaware of d'Estaing's full strength, since during his absence d'Estaing had been reinforced by a squadron from Europe under Lamotte-Picquet.[8]

BattleEdit

 
The capture of the island of Grenada by the troops of D'Estaing

The French were anchored off St. George's Town on the southwest of the island, and the British approached during the night. D'Estaing weighed anchor at 4:00 am when the British fleet was spotted, ordering his ships to form a line of battle in order of speed (that is, without regard to the usual sailing order), heading roughly northward.[14] This masked the true strength of the French fleet as each ship left the cluster at the anchorage. Believing his force to be superior, Byron gave the order for general chase, approaching the anchorage from the northeast.[15]

When Byron finally became aware of the full French strength, he attempted to reform a battle line. As a result, the British attack was disordered and confused. Fame, Lion and two other ships got separated from the main body and were very badly mauled. Lion was forced to run downwind to Jamaica to avoid capture. The French lost no ships and eventually hauled off. The British lost 183 killed and 346 wounded. Fame had four killed and nine wounded. The French lost 190 killed and 759 wounded.

AftermathEdit

D'Estaing returned to Grenada to make repairs while Byron made for St. Kitts to do the same. The French admiral failed to capitalise on his superior strength to launch further attacks in the West Indies. Byron returned home in August. D'Estaing, after co-operating unsuccessfully with the Americans in an attack on Savannah in September also returned to Europe.

The action was a stepping stone into a career in the Navy for Ganteaume, then 22, who served as an auxiliary officer on Fier Rodrigue, who eventually rose to Vice Admiral.[16]

Order of battleEdit

French NavyEdit

Admiral d'Estaing' fleet[17][18]
Division Ship Type Commander Casualties Notes
Killed Wounded Total
Escadre blanche et bleue (vanguard)
Zélé 74 Barras Saint-Laurent
Fantasque 64 Suffren 22 43 65 First officer Campredon killed.[19]
Magnifique 74 Brach
Tonnant 80 Bruyères-Chalabre (flag captain)
Breugnon (Lieutenant général)
Division and Squadron flagship
Protecteur 74 Grasse-Limermont [1]
Fier 74 Turpin du Breuil
Provence 64 Desmichels de Champorcin  [20] Garnier de Saint-Antonin assumed command[20]
Escadre blanche (centre)
Fendant 74 Rigaud de Vaudreuil
Artésien 64 Peynier
Fier-Rodrigue 50 Montault [21]
Hector 74 Moriès-Castellet
Languedoc 80 Boulainvilliers (flag captain)
Estaing (Vice-amiral)
Division, Squadron and Fleet flagship
Robuste 74 De Grasse (Chef d'Escadre)
Vaillant 64 Chabert-Cogolin
Sagittaire 50 Albert de Rions
Guerrier 74 Bougainville
Escadre bleue (rear)
Sphinx 64 Soulanges
Diadème 74 Dampierre (WIA)[21]
Amphion 50 Ferron de Quengo [21]
Marseillais 74 La Poype-Vertrieux
César 74 Castellet (flag captain) (WIA)[21]
Broves (chef d'escadre)
Division and Squadron flag
Vengeur 64 Retz (WIA)[21]
Réfléchi 64 Cillart de Suville (WIA)[21]
Annibal 74 Lamotte-Piquet (Chef d'Escadre)[22] 59 90 149 (WIA)[22]
Reconnaissance and signals
Alcmène 26-gun frigate Bonneval[23]
Aimable 26-gun frigate Saint-Eulalie[24]
Total losses: 173 killed, 773 wounded, 949 total[19]

British Royal NavyEdit

VanguardEdit

CentreEdit

RearEdit

Sources and referencesEdit

Notes

Citations

  1. ^ a b c Castex (2004), pp. 196-99
  2. ^ Mahan, pp. 438–439
  3. ^ Mahan, pp. 429–431
  4. ^ Mahan, p. 429
  5. ^ Mahan, pp. 429–432
  6. ^ Colomb, p. 388
  7. ^ Colomb, pp. 388–389
  8. ^ a b Colomb, p. 389
  9. ^ Colomb, p. 390
  10. ^ a b Colomb, p. 391
  11. ^ Humble (2019), p. 72.
  12. ^ Balch (1972), p. 49.
  13. ^ Mahan, pp. 434–435
  14. ^ Mahan, p. 435
  15. ^ Mahan, pp. 435, 437
  16. ^ Taillemite (2002), p. 201.
  17. ^ Troude (1867), p. 39.
  18. ^ Lacour-Gayet (1905), p. 629.
  19. ^ a b Lacour-Gayet (1905), p. 205.
  20. ^ a b Contenson (1934), p. 255.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Troude (1867), p. 41.
  22. ^ a b Lacour-Gayet (1905), p. 202.
  23. ^ Contenson (1934), p. 142.
  24. ^ Contenson (1934), p. 167.

Bibliography

  • Allen, Joseph (1852). Battles of the British Navy. I. London.
  • Balch, Thomas (1972). The French in America During the War of Independence of the United States, 1777-1783. 1. Oxford: Ardent Media. ISBN 9781330881637. OCLC 982878912.
  • Beatson, Robert (1804). Naval and Military Memoirs of Great Britain from 1727 to 1783. VI. London.
  • Contenson, Ludovic (1934). La Société des Cincinnati de France et la guerre d'Amérique (1778-1783). Paris: éditions Auguste Picard. OCLC 7842336.
  • Castex, Jean-Claude (2004). Dictionnaire des batailles navales franco-anglaises. Presses Université Laval. ISBN 978-2-7637-8061-0.
  • Colomb, Philip (1895). Naval Warfare, its Ruling Principles and Practice Historically Treated. London: W. H. Allen. OCLC 2863262.
  • Humble, Richard (2019). Napoleon's Admirals: Flag Officers of the Arc de Triomphe, 1789-1815. Oxford: Philadelphia Casemate. ISBN 9781612008080. OCLC 1146049972.
  • Lacour-Gayet, Georges (1905). La marine militaire de la France sous le règne de Louis XVI. Paris: Honoré Champion. OCLC 763372623.
  • Mahan, Alfred Thayer (1898). Major Operations of the Royal Navy, 1762–1783: Being Chapter XXXI in The Royal Navy. A History. Boston: Little, Brown. OCLC 46778589.
  • Taillemite, Étienne (2002). Dictionnaire des Marins français. Tallandier. ISBN 2-84734-008-4. OCLC 606770323.
  • Troude, Onésime-Joachim (1867). Batailles navales de la France (in French). 2. Challamel ainé. OCLC 836362484.
  • White, Thomas (1830). Naval Researches or a candid inquiry into the conduct of admirals Byron, Graves, Hood, and Rodney, in the actions off Grenada, Chesapeake, St. Christopher's, and of the ninth and twelfth of April 1782. London: Whittaker, Treacher, and Arnott. OCLC 718064199.

External linksEdit