Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli

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Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (Russian: Франче́ско Бартоломе́о (Варфоломе́й Варфоломе́евич) Растре́лли; 1700 in Paris, Kingdom of France – 29 April 1771 in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire) was an Italian architect who worked mainly in Russia. He developed an easily recognizable style of Late Baroque, both sumptuous and majestic. His major works, including the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg and the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo, are famed for extravagant luxury and opulence of decoration.[1]

Portrait of Count Rastrelli painted by Pietro Rotari

BiographyEdit

In 1716, Bartolomeo moved to Saint Petersburg, which became a new Russian capital just a four years before, accompanying his father, Italian sculptor Carlo Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1675–1744).[1] His ambition was to combine the latest Italian architectural fashion with traditions of the Muscovite Baroque style. The first important commission came in 1721 when he was asked to build a palace for Prince Demetre Cantemir, former ruler of Moldavia.

He was appointed to the post of senior court architect in 1730. His works found favour with female monarchs of his time, and he retained this post throughout the reigns of Empresses Anna (1730–1740) and Elizabeth (1741–1762).

Rastrelli's last and most ambitious project was the Smolny Convent in St. Petersburg where Empress Elizabeth was to spend the rest of her life. The projected bell-tower was to become the tallest building in St Petersburg and all of Russia. Elizabeth's death in 1762 prevented Rastrelli from completing this grand design.[1]

The new empress, Catherine II, dismissed Baroque architecture as an old-fashioned "whipped cream", and the aged architect retired to Courland, where he supervised the completion and decoration of the ducal palaces.

His last years were spent in obscure commerce with Italian art-dealers. He was elected to the Imperial Academy of Arts several months before his death.[1] A square in front of the Smolny Convent has borne Rastrelli's name since 1923. He is the subject of a composition, Rastrelli in Saint Petersburg, written in 2000 by Italian composer Lorenzo Ferrero.

FamilyEdit

He lived with his father and mother, also he had a wife Maria and three children (one son and two daughters) according to the 1737 census.[2]

Rastrelli's son (Joseph Jacob) died in December 1737 of cholera, and in January 1738 his daughter Eleanor died.[3]

Empress Elizabeth of Russia (1741–1761)Edit

Peter I's daughter was suspicious of all those who served the court of her predecessors. After going through all the architects in St. Petersburg, the Empress was convinced that Francesco Rastrelli is the best. Therefore, Francesco started serving to the Empress only in 1744.

In the period 1744-1760 he built all his famous buildings:

  • Summer Palace (destroyed, built up by the Engineering Castle)
  • wooden Winter Palace on the Nevsky (destroyed, urban high-rise buildings)
  • stone Winter Palace (there is, the main building of the Hermitage Museum)
  • Smolny Cathedral and Monastery with four churches and cells
  • Palace for Chancellor Vorontsov (Vorontsov Palace in St. Petersburg, rebuilt as a military school)
  • Stroganov Palace, (it is a branch of the State Russian Museum now)
  • palace in Tsarskoe Selo (restored, Tsarskoe Selo (museum-reserve))
  • completion and decoration of the interiors of Anichkov Palace in St. Petersburg.

Ten extant buildings by RastrelliEdit

# Image Name Location Date
1   Rundāle Palace Pilsrundāle near Bauska
  Latvia
1736–1740
1764–1767
2   Jelgava Palace Jelgava
  Latvia
1738–1740
1763–1772
3   Peterhof Palace Peterhof near St. Petersburg
  Russia
1747–1755
  Peterhof Palace chapels Peterhof near St. Petersburg
  Russia
1747–1751
4   Saint Andrew's Church Kyiv
  Ukraine
1748–1767
5   Smolny Convent St. Petersburg
  Russia
1748–1764
6   Vorontsov Palace St. Petersburg
  Russia
1749–1757
7   Catherine Palace Tsarskoe Selo (Pushkin)
  Russia
1752–1756
  Hermitage Pavilion Tsarskoe Selo (Pushkin)
  Russia
1749
8   Mariinskyi Palace Kyiv
  Ukraine
1752
1870
9   Stroganov Palace St. Petersburg
  Russia
1753–1754
10   Winter Palace St. Petersburg
  Russia
1754–1762[4]

Boris Vipper has speculated that Rastrelli's last (and unfinished) design was for the Neoclassical Zaļenieki Manor near Mitava.

Demolished buildingsEdit

# Image Name Notes Location Date
1   Annenhof Built of wood, replaced by Catherine Palace (Moscow) Lefortovo District, Moscow
  Russia
1731
displaced 1736
burnt down 1746
2   Anna's Winter Palace Replaced by Winter Palace Saint Petersburg
  Russia
1732–1735
demolished 1754
3   Summer Palace Built of wood, replaced by Saint Michael's Castle Saint Petersburg
  Russia
1741–1744
demolished 1797
4   Winter Kremlin Palace Replaced by Grand Kremlin Palace Moscow Kremlin
  Russia
1747–1756
rebuilt 1798
demolished 1837

Posthumous gloryEdit

Rastrelli is a cult figure of the Russian Baroque. His engravings with landscapes of Tsarskoe Selo were spread throughout Europe during Rastrelli's lifetime, and there are some examples in the collections of Ukraine and Germany.

  • A bust of Rastrelli was installed in Tsarskoye Selo.
  • The second bust of the famous architect was installed on St. Manege Square in St. Petersburg.
  • In 1972, the documentary "Architect Rastrelli" was made (directed by Maria Kligman, Lennauchfilm, Russia).
  • One of the squares of St. Petersburg was called Rastrelli Square.
  • A quartet of Russian cellists, including Kirill Kravtsov, Mikhail Degtyarev, Kirill Timofeev, and Sergei Drabkin, is called Rastrelli. The quartet works in Germany and plays music from the Baroque to modern times.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli. Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. ^ Yu. Denisov, A. Petrov. Architect Rastrelli – P. 192.
  3. ^ Yu. M. Ovsyannikov. Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli.
  4. ^ Ring, Trudy; Watson, Noelle; Schellinger, Paul (28 October 2013). Northern Europe: International Dictionary of Historic Places. ISBN 9781136639449.

External linksEdit