Baronia brevicornis, commonly known as the short-horned baronia, is a species of butterfly in the monotypic genus Baronia and is placed in a subfamily of its own, the Baroniinae, a sister group of the remainder of the swallowtail butterflies.[2] It is endemic to a very small area of Mexico, where the distribution is patchy and restricted.[3][4]

Baronia brevicornis.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Papilionidae
Subfamily: Baroniinae
Bryk, 1913
Genus: Baronia
Salvin, 1893
B. brevicornis
Binomial name
Baronia brevicornis
Salvin, 1893

The genus is named after a Mr Baron who collected the first specimen in the Sierra Madre region of Mexico. The species was then described by Salvin.[5]

Morphological characteristics include an abdominal scent organ in females.[6][7]

Baronia is unique among swallowtail butterflies or their relatives in having an Acacia species, Acacia cochliacanha (family Leguminosae) as its larval food plant.[8][9]


Baronia brevicornis is of particular importance due to its relict nature and uncertain relationship to other subfamilies such as the Parnassiinae. It is now considered to represent the monotypic subfamily Baroniinae. The butterfly was considered as the most primitive extant papilionid taxon and shares some features with the fossil taxon Praepapilio, however a comprehensive 2018 molecular phylogeny suggests that they are a sister group of the remainder of the Papilionidae.[10]


  • B. b. brevicornis
  • B. b. rufodiscalis


  1. ^ Puttick, A., Leon-Cortes, J. & Legal, L. 2018. Baronia brevicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T2594A119581233. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  2. ^ "BARONIA - Butterflies and Moths of the World". Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  3. ^ Luis-Martinez, A.; J. Llorente-Bousquets; Isable Vargas-Fernandez & A. D. Warren (2003). "Biodiversity and biogeography of Mexican butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)" (PDF). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 105 (1): 209–224. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2009.
  4. ^ Llorente-Bousquets, J & A. Luis-Martinez (1993) Conservation-oriented analysis of Mexican butterflies: Papilionidae (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea). In Ramammorthy, T.P., J. Fa, R. Bye y A. Lot (Eds.). 1993. The biological diversity of Mexico: origins and distributions. Oxford University Press. PDF Archived 23 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^
  6. ^ Robbins, Robert K. (1989). "Systematic implications of butterfly leg structures that clean the antennae". Psyche. 96 (3–4): 209–222. doi:10.1155/1989/43420.
  7. ^ Häuser, C. L. (1992). "A new abdominal scent organ in females of Baronia brevicornis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)". Zoologischer Anzeiger. 229 (1/2): 54–62.
  8. ^ Collins, N. Mark; Morris, Michael G. (1985). Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of the World: The IUCN Red Data Book. Gland & Cambridge: IUCN. ISBN 978-2-88032-603-6 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library.
  9. ^ Savela, Markku (16 February 2008). "Baronia". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved 9 November 2010.
  10. ^ Espeland, Marianne; Breinholt, Jesse; Willmott, Keith R.; Warren, Andrew D.; Vila, Roger; Toussaint, Emmanuel F.A.; Maunsell, Sarah C.; Aduse-Poku, Kwaku; Talavera, Gerard; Eastwood, Rod; Jarzyna, Marta A.; Guralnick, Robert; Lohman, David J.; Pierce, Naomi E.; Kawahara, Akito Y. (2018). "A Comprehensive and Dated Phylogenomic Analysis of Butterflies". Current Biology. 28 (5): 770–778.e5. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2018.01.061. PMID 29456146.

Illustrated works:

  • Edwin Möhn, 2002 Schmetterlinge der Erde, Butterflies of the world Part XIIII (14), Papilionidae VIII: Baronia, Euryades, Protographium, Neographium, Eurytides. Edited by Erich Bauer and Thomas Frankenbach Keltern: Goecke & Evers; Canterbury: Hillside Books. ISBN 978-3-931374-87-7 All species and subspecies are included, also most of the forms. Several females are shown the first time in colour.
  • Lewis, H. L., 1974 Butterflies of the World ISBN 0-245-52097-X Page 23, figure 6, female.

External linksEdit

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