The Barnoldswick Railway Company, in the United Kingdom, existed from 1862 to 1899 when it became part of the Midland Railway. It was formed to build a branch line from the Midland Railway's line from Skipton to Colne. It obtained its Act of Parliament on 12 August 1865. Construction started two years later.
The 1-mile-1,342-yard (2.836 km) long single track line was opened on 8 February 1871. It left the Midland line at Barnoldswick Junction, near Kelbrook, and was worked by the Midland Railway from the start.
In March 1898 the Barnoldswick Railway approached the Midland Railway with a view to selling. As the branch had always paid a regular and reasonable dividend the Midland obtained powers to purchase the branch in 1899.