Barium sulfide

Barium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula BaS. This colorless salt is an important precursor to other barium compounds including BaCO3 and the pigment lithopone, ZnS/BaSO4.[3] Like other chalcogenides of the alkaline earth metals, BaS is a short wavelength emitter for electronic displays.[4] It is colorless, although like many sulfides, it is commonly obtained in impure colored forms.

Barium sulfide
NaCl polyhedra.png
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.040.180 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 244-214-4
Molar mass 169.39 g/mol
Appearance white solid
Density 4.25 g/cm3 [1]
Melting point 2,235[2] °C (4,055 °F; 2,508 K)
Boiling point decomposes
2.88 g/100 mL (0 °C)
7.68 g/100 mL (20 °C)
60.3 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility insoluble in alcohol
Halite (cubic), cF8
Fm3m, No. 225
Octahedral (Ba2+); octahedral (S2−)
GHS pictograms GHS07: HarmfulGHS09: Environmental hazard
GHS Signal word Warning
H315, H319, H335, H400
P261, P264, P271, P273, P280, P302+352, P304+340, P305+351+338, P312, P321, P332+313, P337+313, P362, P391, P403+233, P405, P501
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flammability code 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g. gasolineHealth code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g. chloroformReactivity code 2: Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water. E.g. white phosphorusSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
226 mg/kg humans
Related compounds
Other anions
Barium oxide
Other cations
Magnesium sulfide
Calcium sulfide
Strontium sulfide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Discovery, production and propertiesEdit

BaS was prepared by Vincentius (or Vincentinus) Casciarolus (or Casciorolus, 1571-1624) via reduction of BaSO4 (available as the mineral barite).[5] It is currently manufactured by an improved version of Casciarolus's process using coke in place of flour. This kind of conversion is called a carbothermic reaction:

BaSO4 + 2 C → BaS + 2 CO2

The basic methodology remains in use today. BaS dissolves in water. These aqueous solutions, when treated with sodium carbonate or carbon dioxide, give a white solid of barium carbonate, a source material for many commercial barium compounds.[6]

The phosphorescence of the material made by Casciarolus made it a curiosity.[7][8][9]

BaS crystallizes with the NaCl structure, featuring octahedral Ba2+ and S2− centres.

The observed melting point of barium sulfide is highly sensitive to impurities.[2]


BaS is quite poisonous, as are related sulfides, such as CaS, which evolve toxic hydrogen sulfide upon contact with water.


  1. ^ Lide, David R., ed. (2006). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3.
  2. ^ a b Stinn, C., Nose, K., Okabe, T. et al. Metall and Materi Trans B (2017) 48: 2922.
  3. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  4. ^ Vij, D. R.; Singh, N. "Optical and electrical properties of II-VI wide gap semiconducting barium sulfide" Proceedings of SPIE (1992), 1523 (Conf. Phys. Technol. Semicond. Devices Integr. Circuits, 1992), 608-12.
  5. ^ F. Licetus, Litheosphorus, sive de lapide Bononiensi lucem in se conceptam ab ambiente claro mox in tenebris mire conservante, Utini, ex typ. N. Schiratti, 1640. See Archived 2011-08-13 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Kresse, Robert; Baudis, Ulrich; Jäger, Paul; Riechers, H. Hermann; Wagner, Heinz; Winkler, Jochen; Wolf, Hans Uwe (2007). "Barium and Barium Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_325.pub2.
  7. ^ "Lapis Boloniensis".
  8. ^ Lemery, Nicolas (1714). Trait℗e universel des drogues simples.
  9. ^ Ozanam, Jacques; Montucla, Jean Etienne; Hutton, Charles (1814). Recreations in mathematics and natural philosophy .