Barium sulfide

Barium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula BaS. This colorless salt is an important precursor to other barium compounds including BaCO3 and the pigment lithopone, ZnS/BaSO4.[3] Like other chalcogenides of the alkaline earth metals, BaS is a short wavelength emitter for electronic displays.[4] It is colorless, although like many sulfides, it is commonly obtained in impure colored forms.

Barium sulfide
NaCl polyhedra.png
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.040.180 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 244-214-4
13627
UNII
Properties
BaS
Molar mass 169.39 g/mol
Appearance white solid
Density 4.25 g/cm3 [1]
Melting point 2,235[2] °C (4,055 °F; 2,508 K)
Boiling point decomposes
2.88 g/100 mL (0 °C)
7.68 g/100 mL (20 °C)
60.3 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility insoluble in alcohol
2.155
Structure
Halite (cubic), cF8
Fm3m, No. 225
Octahedral (Ba2+); octahedral (S2−)
Hazards
GHS pictograms GHS07: HarmfulGHS09: Environmental hazard
GHS Signal word Warning
H315, H319, H335, H400
P261, P264, P271, P273, P280, P302+352, P304+340, P305+351+338, P312, P321, P332+313, P337+313, P362, P391, P403+233, P405, P501
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flammability code 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g. gasolineHealth code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g. chloroformReactivity code 2: Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water. E.g. white phosphorusSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
3
2
2
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
226 mg/kg humans
Related compounds
Other anions
Barium oxide
Other cations
Magnesium sulfide
Calcium sulfide
Strontium sulfide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Discovery, production and propertiesEdit

BaS was prepared by Vincentius (or Vincentinus) Casciarolus (or Casciorolus, 1571-1624) via reduction of BaSO4 (available as the mineral barite).[5] It is currently manufactured by an improved version of Casciarolus's process using coke in place of flour. This kind of conversion is called a carbothermic reaction:

BaSO4 + 2 C → BaS + 2 CO2

The basic methodology remains in use today. BaS dissolves in water. These aqueous solutions, when treated with sodium carbonate or carbon dioxide, give a white solid of barium carbonate, a source material for many commercial barium compounds.[6]

The phosphorescence of the material made by Casciarolus made it a curiosity.[7][8][9]

BaS crystallizes with the NaCl structure, featuring octahedral Ba2+ and S2− centres.

The observed melting point of barium sulfide is highly sensitive to impurities.[2]

SafetyEdit

BaS is quite poisonous, as are related sulfides, such as CaS, which evolve toxic hydrogen sulfide upon contact with water.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Lide, David R., ed. (2006). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3.
  2. ^ a b Stinn, C., Nose, K., Okabe, T. et al. Metall and Materi Trans B (2017) 48: 2922. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-017-1107-5
  3. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  4. ^ Vij, D. R.; Singh, N. "Optical and electrical properties of II-VI wide gap semiconducting barium sulfide" Proceedings of SPIE (1992), 1523 (Conf. Phys. Technol. Semicond. Devices Integr. Circuits, 1992), 608-12.
  5. ^ F. Licetus, Litheosphorus, sive de lapide Bononiensi lucem in se conceptam ab ambiente claro mox in tenebris mire conservante, Utini, ex typ. N. Schiratti, 1640. See http://www.chem.leeds.ac.uk/delights/texts/Demonstration_21.htm Archived 2011-08-13 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Kresse, Robert; Baudis, Ulrich; Jäger, Paul; Riechers, H. Hermann; Wagner, Heinz; Winkler, Jochen; Wolf, Hans Uwe (2007). "Barium and Barium Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_325.pub2.
  7. ^ "Lapis Boloniensis". www.zeno.org.
  8. ^ Lemery, Nicolas (1714). Trait℗e universel des drogues simples.
  9. ^ Ozanam, Jacques; Montucla, Jean Etienne; Hutton, Charles (1814). Recreations in mathematics and natural philosophy .