Barbareño language

Barbareño is one of the Chumashan languages, a group of Native American languages spoken in the area of Santa Barbara, California. The closely related Ineseño may have been a dialect of the same language. Barbareño lost its last known native speaker in 1965 with the death of Mary Yee.[1] Both Barbareño and Ineseño are currently undergoing processes of language revitalization.[2][3][4][5][6]

Barbareño
Native toCalifornia, United States
RegionSanta Barbara, Santa Ynez
Extinct1965, with the death of Mary Yee[1]
Revival2010 (Barbareño), 2003 (Ineseño)
Chumashan
  • Southern
    • Central
      • Barbareño
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
boi – Barbareño
inz – Ineseño
Glottologbarb1263  Barbareno
ines1240  Ineseno
ELPBarbareño
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Language revitalizationEdit

As of 2013, the Barbareno Chumash Council is engaged in ongoing efforts to revive the language. Two of its members are language apprentices and teachers.[7][8] Wishtoyo Chumash Village, in Malibu, California, announced the opening of its Šmuwič Language School in 2010.[2][3]

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Barbareño consonant phonemes
Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar/
Palatal
Velar Uvular Glottal
plain sibilant
Nasal plain m n
glottalized ˀm ˀn
Plosive/
Affricate
plain p t t͡s t͡ʃ k q ʔ
ejective t͡sʼ t͡ʃʼ
aspirated t͡sʰ t͡ʃʰ
Fricative plain s ʃ x h
ejective ʃʼ
aspirated ʃʰ
Approximant plain l j w
glottalized ˀl ˀj ˀw

VowelsEdit

Barbareño vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Open e a o

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Poser, William J. (2004). "On the Status of Chumash Sibilant Harmony" (PDF). Ms., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Retrieved 2010-09-22.
  2. ^ a b "Chumash Language". Wishtoyo Foundation. Archived from the original on 2013-07-05. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
  3. ^ a b Moreno, Sarah Koyo (2011). "Our Ancestors are Happy: Chumash Language Learning at Wishtoyo". News from Native California. 24 (4). Archived from the original on 2013-02-02. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
  4. ^ Chawkins, Steve (2008-04-20). "Chumash recover their 'alishtaha'n: Armed with a trove of scattered notes, linguist saves ancestral tongue from brink of extinction". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-05-07.
  5. ^ "Chumash Dictionary Breathes Life into Moribund Language". The Santa Barbara Independent. Archived from the original on 2014-05-08. Retrieved 2013-05-07.
  6. ^ "Bringing Back the Samala Chumash Language". Channel Islands National Park. 2010-04-08. Archived from the original on June 26, 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-07.
  7. ^ "Barbareno Chumash Council". Archived from the original on 2013-08-22. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
  8. ^ "Funded Projects". Seventh Generation Fund for Indian Development. Archived from the original on 2013-05-09. Retrieved 2013-05-08.

Further readingEdit

  • Beeler, M. S. (January 1970). "Sibilant Harmony in Chumash". International Journal of American Linguistics. 36 (1): 14–17. doi:10.1086/465084. JSTOR 1264477. S2CID 145163145.
  • Applegate, Richard. (1972). Ineseño Chumash Grammar. (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley).
  • Beeler, M. S. 1976. Barbareno Chumash: a farrago. In Langdon, Margaret and Silver, Shirley, eds. Hokan Studies: Papers from the 1st Conference on Hokan Languages held in San Diego, California April 23–25, 1970, pp. 251–270. The Hague: Mouton.
  • Wash, Suzanne. (1995). Productive Reduplication in Barbareño Chumash. (Master's thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara; 210 + x pp.)
  • Wash, Suzanne. (2001). Adverbial Clauses in Barbareño Chumash Narrative Discourse. (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara; 569 + xxii pp.)

External linksEdit