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Pakistani Bengalis (Urdu: پاکستانی بنگالی ‎) are Pakistani citizens who migrated from East Bengal and lived in West Pakistan or East Pakistan prior to 1971, or immigrants who migrated from Bangladesh after 1971; although according to social activists in Pakistan, economic migrants have mostly moved out because it is no longer profitable to work and earn in Pakistan due to the Pakistani rupee being weaker than the Bangladeshi taka.[2] Most Pakistani Bengalis, are bilingual speaking both Urdu and Bengali, and are mainly settled in Karachi. Bengalis that arrived in Pakistan before 1971 have now assimilated with the Urdu-speaking people in Karachi.

Bengalis in Pakistan
Total population
2,000,000 [1]
Regions with significant populations
Mainly in cities across Sindh
Languages
Bengali · Urdu · English (Pakistani English)
Religion
Islam, Hinduism, and Christianity

Contents

HistoryEdit

Pre-1947Edit

The founding members of the Pakistani Bengali community were early migrants from East Bengal who arrived in Sindh during the early 20th century. This community of early Bengali settlers assimilated into Pakistani culture and adopted Urdu or became bilingual Bengali speakers.

1947-1971Edit

After Pakistan's independence in 1947, a large influx of Bengalis arrived in Karachi from East Pakistan to West Pakistan. In 1971, some Bengalis opted to return to the newly independent Bangladesh while others opted to remain in Pakistan.

Post-1971Edit

Thousands of illegal Bangladeshi immigrants arrived in Pakistan in the 1980s, while Bangladesh was battling extreme poverty.[3] By 1995, continuous migration of Bangladeshis crossed the 2,500,000 mark. During the administration of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, some top advisers became concerned with the large Bangladeshi migrant population, afraid they could become the second largest group in Karachi after Urdu-speaking Muhajir people and disturb sensitive demographics. Accordingly, Bhutto ordered a crackdown and deportation on Bangladeshi immigrants. Benazir Bhutto's action strained and created tensions in Bangladesh–Pakistan relations, with Khaleda Zia, who was in power in Dhaka during the time, refusing to accept the deportees and reportedly sending two planeloads back towards Pakistan and Muslim political parties in Pakistan criticising Bhutto and dubbing the crackdown as anti-Islamic. She was ultimately forced to abandon the order.[4][5]

DemographicsEdit

According to Shaikh Muhammad Feroze, chairman of the Pakistani Bengali Action Committee, over 200 settlements of Bengali-speaking people exist in Pakistan (mainly in Sindh) of which 132 are in Karachi while other smaller communities exist in Thatta, Badin, Hyderabad, Tando Adam and Lahore.[6] There are numerous Bengali colonies in Karachi, often called "Mini Bangladesh" (or East Pakistan Colony in memorandum),[7] such as Machar Colony, Musa Colony and Chittagong Colony. Colorful Bengali signboards, Bhashani caps, lungis and kurtas are often seen in these areas of Karachi and remain unique.[7] The Chittagong Colony has a bazaar, which is famous throughout Pakistan as the center for Dhaka cloth.[8] In more recent times, the Bengali population has seen a decline as the perilous journey from Bangladesh has been fraught with danger and tense borders.[9][10] Furthermore, given the tense ethnic rivalries and lack of social welcome in Pakistan, Bengalis have now been traveling elsewhere.[10]

Notable peopleEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Five million illegal immigrants residing in Pakistan - The Express Tribune". 16 January 2012.
  2. ^ Bilal Karim Mughal, Zehra Naqvi (16 June 2018). "Bengalis of Karachi demand urgent resolution to identity problem". Dawn.com.
  3. ^ "Bangladeshi immigrants in Pakistan find it hard to go home". Nikkei Asian Review.
  4. ^ Rahman, B. (4 February 2003). "Indo-Bangladesh Standoff". South Asia Analysis Group. Archived from the original on 12 September 2012.
  5. ^ "Five million illegal immigrants residing in Pakistan". Express Tribune. 16 January 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  6. ^ "Fringe Pakistan: Bengali-speaking Pakistanis demand right to vote". Express Tribune. 10 March 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2016. Shaikh Muhammad Feroze, the chairman of the committee, said during a press conference on Friday that political parties and the government should acknowledge the sacrifices of their ancestors. 'We live in Sindh and feel proud to be called Sindhis rather than Bengalis. We appeal to Sindhi nationalists and Sindhis to help us in our struggle,' he added. He said that Bengali-speaking people were not given educational rights as they did not possess national identity cards. 'Our children can't get an education after matriculation because colleges ask for the identity cards but the National Database Registration Authority has never accepted us as Pakistani citizens.' Shaikh said that over three million Bengalis and Biharis were grateful to the government for accepting them as Pakistani citizens. 'We postponed a hunger strike planned for March 25 after the government made decisions,' he added. 'We can go on a hunger strike, if our rights are not given.' He claimed that there were 200 settlements of Bengali-speaking people across the country, including 132 in Karachi. They populate different parts of Pakistan, including Thatta, Badin, Hyderabad, Tando Adam and Lahore.
  7. ^ a b Tohid, Owais; Mahmud, Arshad (29 November 1995). "Homeless In Karachi". Outlook. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  8. ^ Naqvi, Abbas (17 December 2006). "Falling back". Daily Times. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  9. ^ Bloch, Hannah (25 September 2000). "You Can't Get There From Here". Time Asia.
  10. ^ a b http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/4b6fe2dd0.pdf
  11. ^ "Renowned music composer Robin Ghosh passes away".
  12. ^ "Shabnam biography, complete biography of Actresses Shabnam". www.pak101.com.

External linksEdit