Bangkok Metropolitan Administration

The Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (Thai: กรุงเทพมหานคร; RTGSKrung Thep Maha Nakhon) (BMA) is the local government of Bangkok (also called Krung Thep Maha Nakhon in Thai), which includes the capital of the Kingdom of Thailand. The government is composed of two branches: the executive (or the Governor of Bangkok) and the legislative (or Bangkok Metropolitan Council). The administration's roles are to formulate and implement policies to manage Bangkok. Its purview includes transport services, urban planning, waste management, housing, roads and highways, security services, and the environment.[1]

Bangkok City Hall, the headquarters of BMA

According to the Thailand Future Foundation, Bangkok employs a workforce of 97,000, including 3,200 municipal officers in Bangkok city, 200 in the city Law Enforcement Department, and 3,000 in district offices.[2][3]

Governor of BangkokEdit

Governor of Bangkok
ผู้ว่าราชการ
กรุงเทพมหานคร
 
Seal of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration
Incumbent
Chadchart Sittipunt

since 22 May 2022
AppointerDirect election
Term length4 years, renewable once
Inaugural holderChamnan Yaovabun
Formation1 January 1973
Salary฿113,560 per month
Websitehttp://www.bangkok.go.th/
 
Bangkok flag

The Governor of Bangkok (Thai: ผู้ว่าราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร) is the head of the local government of Bangkok. The governor is also the chief executive of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA). The governor is elected to a renewable term of four years, currently it is one of the two directly elected executive offices in the kingdom. The office is comparable to that of a city mayor.

From 2016 to 2022 Pol Gen Aswin Kwanmuang acted as Governor of Bangkok.[4] He was appointed by Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha using Section 44 of the interim charter to replace Sukhumbhand Paribatra. The reason given for his ouster was "...because he was involved in many legal cases."[5]

The current incumbent is Chadchart Sittipunt. He was elected in a landslide victory in the 2022 Bangkok gubernatorial election, receiving 52.65 % (1.38 Million) of all votes cast, marking a new record-high, and winning in all 50 districts of Bangkok.[6][7]

Powers and rolesEdit

The powers and role of the office of Governor of Bangkok in accordance with the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act, BE 2528 (1985) (Thai: พระราชบัญญัติระเบียบบริหารราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร พ.ศ. 2528 are as follows:

  • Formulate and implement policies for the Bangkok Metropolitan Area.
  • Head the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration.
  • Appoint and remove deputy governors, advisors, board members, city officials, and public servants.
  • Coordinate and carry out the orders of the Cabinet of Thailand, the Prime Minister of Thailand, and the Ministry of Interior.
  • Oversee the smooth running of the various agencies and services of the city.
  • The governor is also invested with the same powers as any other governor of a province of Thailand and any other mayor.
  • The power to draw up legislation and bills for the city, to be considered in the Bangkok Metropolitan Council.

HistoryEdit

Since 1973, the city was administered by a single executive appointed by the cabinet from city civil servants. However soon, it was determined that the executive office should a popularly elected office instead. The passage of the Bangkok Metropolis Administrative Organisation Act, BE 2518 (1975) (Thai: พระราชบัญญัติระเบียบบริหารราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร พ.ศ. 2518), created the Bangkok Metropolis to replace Bangkok Province and created an elected governor with a four-year term.

The first election for the office was held on the 10 August 1975. Thamnoon Thien-ngern was elected as the first Governor of Bangkok. Conflicts between the governor and the Bangkok Metropolitan Council, however, became so fierce that Thanin Kraivichien, the Prime Minister of Thailand removed him and reinstated the appointment system. Elections resumed with the passing of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act, BE 2528 (1985). Elections were held on 14 November 1985.

List of governorsEdit

No. Name Term Start Term Ends Political Party
1 Chamnan Yaovabun [th] 1 January 1973 22 October 1973 (Appointed)
2 At Visutyothaphiban 1 November 1973 4 June 1974 (Appointed)
3 Siri Santabutra 5 June 1974 9 March 1975 (Appointed)
4 Sai Hutacharoen 5 May 1975 9 August 1975 (Appointed)
5 Thammanoon Thien-ngern [th] 10 August 1975 29 April 1977 Democrat Party
6 Chalor Thammasiri 29 April 1977 14 May 1979 (Appointed)
7 Chaowat Sudlapa 4 July 1979 16 April 1981 (Appointed)
8 Thiem Mokaranont 28 April 1981 1 November 1984 (Appointed)
9 Asa Meksavan [th] 6 November 1984 13 November 1985 (Appointed)
10 Chamlong Srimuang 14 November 1985 14 November 1989 Ruam Palang Group
7 January 1990 22 January 1992 Palang Dharma Party
11 Krisda Arunvongse na Ayudhya 19 April 1992 18 April 1996 Palang Dharma Party
12 Bhichit Rattakul 3 June 1996 22 July 2000 Independent
13 Samak Sundaravej 23 July 2000 28 August 2004 Thai Citizen Party
14 Apirak Kosayodhin 29 August 2004 28 August 2008 Democrat Party
5 October 2008 19 November 2008
15 Mom Rajawongse Sukhumbhand Paribatra 11 January 2009 9 January 2013 Democrat Party
3 March 2013 18 October 2016[8]
16 Aswin Kwanmuang 18 October 2016 24 March 2022 (Appointed)
17 Chadchart Sittipunt 22 May 2022 Present Independent
  • Unless otherwise indicated, they were elected.

Bangkok Metropolitan CouncilEdit

Bangkok Metropolitan Council

สภากรุงเทพมหานคร

Sapha Krung Thep Maha Nakhon
Type
Type
Leadership
Chairman of the Council
Wirat Minachainan, Pheu Thai
since 6 June 2022
Seats50 members
Elections
Last election
22 May 2022
Meeting place
Bangkok City Hall
Website
http://www.bangkok.go.th/sbmc

The Bangkok Metropolitan Council or BMC (Thai: สภากรุงเทพมหานคร) is the legislative branch of the administration. It is vested with primary legislative powers as well as the power to scrutinize and advise the governor. The council is headed by the Chairman of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council (Thai: ประธานสภากรุงเทพมหานคร). The current chairman, since 2013, is Captain Kriangsak Lohachala.

The number of members depends on the size of Bangkok's population. One member represents one hundred thousand people. From 2010 to 2014 there were 61 members,[9] elected from 57 constituencies (some constituencies elect more than one member) in Bangkok. Each is elected to a four-year term. The last election was held on 22 May 2022. Currently there are 50 members, with Pheu Thai making up 20 seats, Move Forward 14 seats, the Democrat Party 9 seats, Rak Krungthep 3 seats, Phalang Pracharat 2 seats and Thai Srang Thai another 2 seats.[10]

CommitteesEdit

The council is divided into 11 general committees with five to nine members appointed by the councillors themselves:

  1. Committee of Cleanliness and Environment
  2. Committee for Checking the Minutes of Sittings and for Considering Closure of the Minutes of the Secret Sittings
  3. Committee for the Affairs of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council
  4. Committee for the Public Works and Utilities
  5. Committee for Education and Culture
  6. Committee for Health
  7. Committee for Community Development and Social Welfare
  8. Committee for Local Administration and Orderliness
  9. Committee for Economics, Finance, and Follow-up of Budget Utilization
  10. Committee for Tourism and Sports
  11. Committee for Traffic, Transportation, and Drainage

Secretariat of the councilEdit

The Secretariat of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council (Thai: สำนักงานเลขานุการสภากรุงเทพมหานคร) is the executive agency of the council. The secretariat helps the council in all its roles including drafting of legislation, organisation of sessions, minutes and procedures of the council. The secretariat also helps members of the council by providing research and legal counsel. The secretariat is headed by the Secretary of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council (Thai: เลขานุการสภากรุงเทพมหานคร) The current secretary is Manit Tej-Apichok. The secretariat itself is divided into nine sections:

  1. General Administration Section
  2. Council and Committee Meetings Section
  3. Working Committees Section
  4. Legislation Section
  5. Legal Section
  6. Foreign Affairs Section
  7. Council Service Section
  8. Academic Section
  9. Secretary Section

DepartmentsEdit

BMA has 65 departments in total, 50 of which are departments respective to the 50 districts of Bangkok. The rest consist of: Strategy and Planning Department, Finance Department, Bureau of the Budget, Public Works Department, Drainage and Sewerage Department, Department of Social Development, Department of Environment, Culture, Sports and Tourism Department, Health Department, Bangkok Educational Office, Traffic and Transport Department, Department of Planning and Urban Development, Office of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation and the Medical Services Department.

Department of Law EnforcementEdit

City Law Enforcement Department is the primary unit for overseeing security and orderliness of Bangkok with more than 3,000 quality personnel.[11] Which has 5 important tasks which are to organize the city, Security, Traffic supervision, Tourism Administration and other special missions. Responsible for overseeing, investigating, arresting, prosecuting and enforcing Bangkok Metropolis regulations and other laws within the jurisdiction of Bangkok including operations beyond the authority of the district office or in the case of serious danger to most people.

Department of Disaster Prevention and MitigationEdit

The Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation operates the city's fire and rescue services. The Bangkok City Council reported in February 2018 that, of Bangkok's 874 fire trucks, only 88 were in "good" condition. Another 340 were rated "only just usable", 232 were "dilapidated", and 225 were parked permanently. Firefighting boats were found to be in roughly the same shape: three of 31 vessels were ranked in "good" condition and 21 were out of service and permanently docked. The BMA's firefighting unit has not been allocated a vehicle maintenance budget for nearly 10 years.[12] The BMA employs 1,800 firefighters as of 2018.[13]

Department of Medical ServicesEdit

The Department of Medical Services operates 11 hospitals and is headquartered at BMA General Hospital (Klang Hospital) in Pom Prap Sattru Phai District. Other hospitals include Taksin Hospital, Charoenkrung Pracharak Hospital, Sirindhorn Hospital, Lat Krabang Hospital, Luang Pho Taweesak Hospital, Wetchakarunrasm Hospital, Ratchaphiphat Hospital, Khlong Sam Wa Hospital, Bang Na Hospital and the Bang Khun Thian Geriatric Hospital. The department also operates the Erawan Medical Centre for emergency medical services.

Department of Planning and Urban DevelopmentEdit

The Department of Planning and Urban Development are divided to Secretarial Office, Town Planning Office, Urban Development and Renewal Office, Geo-Informatics Office, Town Planning Control Division, Policy and Planning Division. The department has a duty to planning of the city including planning for the development of specific areas, planning for conservation Rehabilitation and planning for urban development and also an agency for controlling, promoting and inspecting the use of land and buildings.[14]

Navamindradhiraj UniversityEdit

BMA autonomously manages Navamindradhiraj University, of which the Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital and Kuakarun Faculty of Nursing are part.

Krungthep ThanakomEdit

Krungthep Thanakom Company Limited is the BMA's holding company for public investment projects such as the concession for the BTS Skytrain and a 20 billion baht underground cable project.[15][16]

BudgetEdit

As of 2018, BMA's annual budget is nearly 80 billion baht.[17]

CriticismEdit

The Bangkok Post has made the point that, although the city suffers from the "worst traffic congestion in the world after Mexico City", 37 disparate agencies are responsible for traffic management, planning, and infrastructure. It maintains that the city government panders to personal automobile use. As evidence, it points to the city's plans to construct four new bridges across the Chao Phraya River, its runaway air pollution, its lack of green space—less than that of any other Asian capital—and its "...obsession with felling trees along Bangkok streets."[17]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "General Responsibilities of BMA". Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  2. ^ Sankam, Visarut (2015-10-31). "Research reveals ugly side to Bangkok life". The Nation. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  3. ^ "งานแถลงผลการศึกษาเรื่อง"10 ข้อเท็จจริงชีวิตคนกรุงเทพ"". Thailand Future Foundation. Retrieved 31 October 2015.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ Mokkhasen, Sasiwan (30 October 2016). "MEET BANGKOK'S NEW GOVERNOR: ASWIN KWANMUANG". Khaosod English. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  5. ^ "Sukhumbhand says goodbye to Bangkokians". Bangkok Post. 19 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  6. ^ Limited, Bangkok Post Public Company. "Chadchart receives EC's endorsement". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 2022-06-11.
  7. ^ "เช็คผลเลือกตั้งผู้ว่าฯกทม. 22 พ.ค. "ชัชชาติ" ที่ 1 ตรวจคะแนนทุกเบอร์ ที่นี่!". bangkokbiznews (in Thai). 2022-05-23. Retrieved 2022-06-11.
  8. ^ "ด่วน! ใช้ม.44 ให้สุขุมพันธุ์และทีมรองฯพ้นจากตำแหน่ง ตั้งอัศวิน ขวัญเมือง เป็นผู้ว่าฯกทม". matichon. 2016-10-18. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
  9. ^ "Bangkok Metropolitan Council". Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA). Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  10. ^ "สภากรุงเทพมหานคร". BMC (in Thai). Retrieved 2022-06-11.
  11. ^ "34 ปี วันสถาปนาเทศกิจ กรุงเทพมหานคร จริงจัง จริงใจ รับใช้ประชาชน". Archived from the original on 2019-12-14. Retrieved 2019-12-14.
  12. ^ Wancharoen, Supoj (15 February 2018). "Study reveals woeful state of fire dept". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  13. ^ Wancharoen, Supoj (5 May 2018). "Battling through the blazes". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  14. ^ ให้เปลี่ยนชื่อสำนักผังเมือง ชื่อใหม่สำนักการวางผังและพัฒนาเมือง-แถมปรับโครงสร้าง
  15. ^ Wancharoen, Supoj (30 July 2019). "Resignations dim trust in Aswin". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  16. ^ "Telecoms bosses lobby PM over Bangkok cables". The Nation. 27 June 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  17. ^ a b "Big Problems in the City" (Editorial). Bangkok Post. 21 April 2018. Retrieved 21 April 2018.

External linksEdit