Bangkok Metropolitan Administration

The Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (Thai: กรุงเทพมหานคร; RTGSKrung Thep Maha Nakhon) (BMA) is the local government of Bangkok (also called Krung Thep Maha Nakhon in Thai), which includes the capital of the Kingdom of Thailand. The government is composed of two branches: the executive (or the Governor of Bangkok) and the legislative (or Bangkok Metropolitan Council). The administration's roles are to formulate and implement policies to manage Bangkok. Its purview includes transport services, urban planning, waste management, housing, roads and highways, security services, and the environment.[1]

Bangkok Metropolitan Administration

กรุงเทพมหานคร
Coat of arms or logo
Seal of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration
Flag of Bangkok
Type
Type
Special local authority organisation
of Bangkok
Term limits
Governor limited to 2 consecutive terms, third term must be 4 years after second term
History
Founded13 December 1972
Preceded byBangkok Municipality
Leadership
Executive

Governor of BangkokChadchart Sittipunt, Independent
Since 22 May 2022
Deputy Governors of Bangkok
  • Jakkapun Phewngam
  • Wissanu Supsomphon
  • Thawida Kamolwech
  • Sanon Wangsangboon
Since 1 June 2022
Legislative

ChairWirat Minchaiyanan, Pheu Thai
Since 6 June 2022
First Deputy ChairChayada Wiphatphumiprathet, Pheu Thai
Since 6 June 2022
Second Deputy ChairAmnat Panphueak, Move Forward
Since 6 June 2022
Structure
Seats1 Governor and 50 Councillors
Length of term
Four years
Elections
Governor of Bangkok voting system
First past the post, whole of Bangkok
Bangkok Metropolitan Council voting system
First past the post, each district
Last Governor of Bangkok election
May 2022
Last Bangkok Metropolitan Council election
May 2022
Next Governor of Bangkok election
No later than 2026
Next Bangkok Metropolitan Council election
No later than 2026
Meeting place
Airawat Patthana Building
Second Bangkok City Hall
Din Daeng, Bangkok
Website
www.bangkok.go.th Edit this at Wikidata

According to the Thailand Future Foundation, Bangkok employs a workforce of 97,000, including 3,200 municipal officers in Bangkok city, 200 in the city Law Enforcement Department, and 3,000 in district offices.[2][3]

Departments edit

 
First Bangkok City Hall on Dinso Road

BMA has 65 departments in total, 50 of which are departments respective to the 50 districts of Bangkok. The rest consist of: Strategy and Planning Department, Finance Department, Bureau of the Budget, Public Works Department, Drainage and Sewerage Department, Department of Social Development, Department of Environment, Culture, Sports and Tourism Department, Health Department, Bangkok Educational Office, Traffic and Transport Department, Department of Planning and Urban Development, Office of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation and the Medical Services Department.

Department of Law Enforcement edit

City Law Enforcement Department is the primary unit for overseeing security and orderliness of Bangkok with more than 3,000 quality personnel.[4] Which has 5 important tasks which are to organize the city, Security, Traffic supervision, Tourism Administration and other special missions. Responsible for overseeing, investigating, arresting, prosecuting and enforcing Bangkok Metropolis regulations and other laws within the jurisdiction of Bangkok including operations beyond the authority of the district office or in the case of serious danger to most people.

Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation edit

The Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation operates the city's fire and rescue services. The Bangkok City Council reported in February 2018 that, of Bangkok's 874 fire trucks, only 88 were in "good" condition. Another 340 were rated "only just usable", 232 were "dilapidated", and 225 were parked permanently. Firefighting boats were found to be in roughly the same shape: three of 31 vessels were ranked in "good" condition and 21 were out of service and permanently docked. The BMA's firefighting unit has not been allocated a vehicle maintenance budget for nearly 10 years.[5] The BMA employs 1,800 firefighters as of 2018.[6]

Department of Medical Services edit

The Department of Medical Services operates 11 hospitals and is headquartered at BMA General Hospital (Klang Hospital) in Pom Prap Sattru Phai District. Other hospitals include Taksin Hospital, Charoenkrung Pracharak Hospital, Sirindhorn Hospital, Lat Krabang Hospital, Luang Pho Taweesak Hospital, Wetchakarunrasm Hospital, Ratchaphiphat Hospital, Khlong Sam Wa Hospital, Bang Na Hospital and the Bang Khun Thian Geriatric Hospital. The department also operates the Erawan Medical Centre for emergency medical services.

Department of Planning and Urban Development edit

The Department of Planning and Urban Development are divided to Secretarial Office, Town Planning Office, Urban Development and Renewal Office, Geo-Informatics Office, Town Planning Control Division, Policy and Planning Division. The department has a duty to planning of the city including planning for the development of specific areas, planning for conservation Rehabilitation and planning for urban development and also an agency for controlling, promoting and inspecting the use of land and buildings.[7]

Navamindradhiraj University edit

BMA autonomously manages Navamindradhiraj University, of which the Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital and Kuakarun Faculty of Nursing are part.

Krungthep Thanakom edit

Krungthep Thanakom Company Limited is the BMA's holding company for public investment projects such as the concession for the BTS Skytrain and a 20 billion baht underground cable project.[8][9]

Budget edit

Bangkok's FY2024 budget totals ฿90,570,138,630. Most of the budget goes to civil construction and maintenance projects.

Governor of Bangkok edit

Governor of Bangkok
ผู้ว่าราชการ
กรุงเทพมหานคร
 
Seal of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration
Incumbent
Chadchart Sittipunt
since 22 May 2022
Member ofBangkok Metropolitan Administration
Reports toMinister of Interior
ResidenceBangkok City Hall
AppointerDirect election
Term lengthFour years,
renewable once consecutively[10]
Inaugural holderChamnan Yaovabun
Formation1 January 1973
DeputyDeputy Governor
Salary฿113,560 per month
Websitehttp://www.bangkok.go.th/

The Governor of Bangkok (Thai: ผู้ว่าราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร, RTGSphu wa ratchakan krung thep maha nakhon) is the head of the local government of Bangkok. The governor is also the chief executive of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA). The governor is elected to a renewable term of four years, currently it is one of the two directly elected executive offices in the kingdom. The office is comparable to that of a city mayor.

From 2016 to 2022 Pol Gen Aswin Kwanmuang acted as Governor of Bangkok.[11] He was appointed by Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha using Section 44 of the interim charter to replace Sukhumbhand Paribatra. The reason given for his ouster was "...because he was involved in many legal cases."[12]

The current incumbent is Chadchart Sittipunt. He was elected in a landslide victory in the 2022 Bangkok gubernatorial election, receiving 52.65 % (1.38 Million) of all votes cast, marking a new record-high, and winning in all 50 districts of Bangkok.[13][14]

Powers and roles edit

The powers and role of the office of Governor of Bangkok in accordance with the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act, BE 2528 (1985) (Thai: พระราชบัญญัติระเบียบบริหารราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร พ.ศ. 2528 are as follows:

  • Formulate and implement policies for the Bangkok Metropolitan Area.
  • Head the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration.
  • Appoint and remove deputy governors, advisors, board members, city officials, and public servants.
  • Coordinate and carry out the orders of the Cabinet of Thailand, the Prime Minister of Thailand, and the Ministry of Interior.
  • Oversee the smooth running of the various agencies and services of the city.
  • The governor is also invested with the same powers as any other governor of a province of Thailand and any other mayor.
  • The power to draw up legislation and bills for the city, to be considered in the Bangkok Metropolitan Council.

History edit

Since 1973, the city was administered by a single executive appointed by the cabinet from city civil servants. However soon, it was determined that the executive office should a popularly elected office instead. The passage of the Bangkok Metropolis Administrative Organisation Act, BE 2518 (1975) (Thai: พระราชบัญญัติระเบียบบริหารราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร พ.ศ. 2518), created the Bangkok Metropolis to replace Bangkok Province and created an elected governor with a four-year term.

The first election for the office was held on the 10 August 1975. Thammanoon Thien-ngern was elected as the first Governor of Bangkok. Conflicts between the governor and the Bangkok Metropolitan Council, however, became so fierce that Thanin Kraivichien, the Prime Minister of Thailand removed him and reinstated the appointment system. Elections resumed with the passing of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act, BE 2528 (1985). Elections were held on 14 November 1985.

List of governors edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party
Start End
1   Chamnan Yaovabun
ชำนาญ ยุวบูรณ์
(1914–2015)
1 January
1973
22 October
1973
(Appointed)
2   At Visutyothaphiban
อรรถ วิสูตรโยธาภิบาล
(1915–2004)
1 November
1973
4 June
1974
(Appointed)
3   Siri Santabutra
ศิริ สันติบุตร
(1912–2001)
5 June
1974
9 March
1975
(Appointed)
4   Sai Hutacharoen
สาย หุตะเจริญ
5 May
1975
9 August
1975
(Appointed)
5   Thammanoon Thien-ngern
ธรรมนูญ เทียนเงิน
(1913–1989)
10 August
1975
29 April
1977
Democrat
6   Chalor Thammasiri
ชลอ ธรรมศิริ
(1927–2021)
29 April
1977
14 May
1979
(Appointed)
7   Chaowat Sudlapa
เชาวน์วัศ สุดลาภา
(1933–2001)
4 July
1979
16 April
1981
(Appointed)
8   Thiem Mokaranont
เทียม มกรานนท์
28 April
1981
1 November
1984
(Appointed)
9   Asa Meksavan
อาษา เมฆสวรรค์
(born 1924)
6 November
1984
13 November
1985
(Appointed)
10   Chamlong Srimuang
จำลอง ศรีเมือง
(born 1935)
14 November
1985
14 November
1989
Ruam Palang Group
7 January
1990
22 January
1992
Palang Dharma
11   Krisda Arunvongse na Ayudhya
กฤษฎา อรุณวงษ์ ณ อยุธยา
(1932–2010)
19 April
1992
18 April
1996
Palang Dharma
12   Bhichit Rattakul
พิจิตต รัตตกุล
(born 1946)
2 June
1996
1 June
2000
Modngan Group
13   Samak Sundaravej
สมัคร สุนทรเวช
(1935–2009)
23 July
2000
22 July
2004
Thai Citizen
14   Apirak Kosayodhin
อภิรักษ์ โกษะโยธิน
(born 1961)
29 August
2004
28 August
2008
Democrat
5 October
2008
19 November
2008
15   Mom Rajawongse
Sukhumbhand Paribatra[15]
หม่อมราชวงศ์สุขุมพันธุ์ บริพัตร
(born 1952)
11 January
2009
9 January
2013
Democrat
3 March
2013
18 October
2016
16   Aswin Kwanmuang
อัศวิน ขวัญเมือง
(born 1951)
18 October
2016
24 March
2022
(Appointed)
17   Chadchart Sittipunt
ชัชชาติ สิทธิพันธุ์
(born 1966)
22 May
2022
Incumbent Independent
  • Unless otherwise indicated, they were elected.

Bangkok Metropolitan Council edit

Bangkok Metropolitan Council

สภากรุงเทพมหานคร

Sapha Krung Thep Maha Nakhon
Type
Type
Leadership
Chairman of the Council
Wirat Minachainan, Pheu Thai
since 6 June 2022
Seats50 members
Elections
Last election
22 May 2022
Meeting place
Bangkok City Hall
Website
http://www.bangkok.go.th/sbmc

The Bangkok Metropolitan Council or BMC (Thai: สภากรุงเทพมหานคร) is the legislative branch of the administration. It is vested with primary legislative powers as well as the power to scrutinize and advise the governor. The council is headed by the Chairman of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council (Thai: ประธานสภากรุงเทพมหานคร). The current chairman, since 2013, is Captain Kriangsak Lohachala.

The number of members depends on the size of Bangkok's population. One member represents one hundred thousand people. From 2010 to 2014 there were 61 members,[16] elected from 57 constituencies (some constituencies elect more than one member) in Bangkok. Each is elected to a four-year term. The last election was held on 22 May 2022. Currently there are 50 members, with Pheu Thai making up 20 seats, Move Forward 14 seats, the Democrat Party 9 seats, Rak Krungthep 3 seats, Phalang Pracharat 2 seats and Thai Srang Thai another 2 seats.[17]

Committees edit

The council is divided into 11 general committees with five to nine members appointed by the councillors themselves:

  1. Committee of Cleanliness and Environment
  2. Committee for Checking the Minutes of Sittings and for Considering Closure of the Minutes of the Secret Sittings
  3. Committee for the Affairs of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council
  4. Committee for the Public Works and Utilities
  5. Committee for Education and Culture
  6. Committee for Health
  7. Committee for Community Development and Social Welfare
  8. Committee for Local Administration and Orderliness
  9. Committee for Economics, Finance, and Follow-up of Budget Utilization
  10. Committee for Tourism and Sports
  11. Committee for Traffic, Transportation, and Drainage

Secretariat of the council edit

The Secretariat of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council (Thai: สำนักงานเลขานุการสภากรุงเทพมหานคร) is the executive agency of the council. The secretariat helps the council in all its roles including drafting of legislation, organisation of sessions, minutes and procedures of the council. The secretariat also helps members of the council by providing research and legal counsel. The secretariat is headed by the Secretary of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council (Thai: เลขานุการสภากรุงเทพมหานคร) The current secretary is Manit Tej-Apichok. The secretariat itself is divided into nine sections:

  1. General Administration Section
  2. Council and Committee Meetings Section
  3. Working Committees Section
  4. Legislation Section
  5. Legal Section
  6. Foreign Affairs Section
  7. Council Service Section
  8. Academic Section
  9. Secretary Section


Criticism edit

The Bangkok Post has made the point that, although the city suffers from the "worst traffic congestion in the world after Mexico City", 37 disparate agencies are responsible for traffic management, planning, and infrastructure. It maintains that the city government panders to personal automobile use. As evidence, it points to the city's plans to construct four new bridges across the Chao Phraya River, its runaway air pollution, its lack of green space—less than that of any other Asian capital—and its "...obsession with felling trees along Bangkok streets."[18]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "General Responsibilities of BMA". Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  2. ^ Sankam, Visarut (2015-10-31). "Research reveals ugly side to Bangkok life". The Nation. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  3. ^ "งานแถลงผลการศึกษาเรื่อง"10 ข้อเท็จจริงชีวิตคนกรุงเทพ"". Thailand Future Foundation. Retrieved 31 October 2015.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ "34 ปี วันสถาปนาเทศกิจ กรุงเทพมหานคร จริงจัง จริงใจ รับใช้ประชาชน". Archived from the original on 2019-12-14. Retrieved 2019-12-14.
  5. ^ Wancharoen, Supoj (15 February 2018). "Study reveals woeful state of fire dept". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  6. ^ Wancharoen, Supoj (5 May 2018). "Battling through the blazes". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  7. ^ ให้เปลี่ยนชื่อสำนักผังเมือง ชื่อใหม่สำนักการวางผังและพัฒนาเมือง-แถมปรับโครงสร้าง
  8. ^ Wancharoen, Supoj (30 July 2019). "Resignations dim trust in Aswin". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  9. ^ "Telecoms bosses lobby PM over Bangkok cables". The Nation. 27 June 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  10. ^ Term of office starts from the date of election.
  11. ^ Mokkhasen, Sasiwan (30 October 2016). "MEET BANGKOK'S NEW GOVERNOR: ASWIN KWANMUANG". Khaosod English. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  12. ^ "Sukhumbhand says goodbye to Bangkokians". Bangkok Post. 19 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  13. ^ "Chadchart receives EC's endorsement". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 2022-06-11.
  14. ^ "เช็คผลเลือกตั้งผู้ว่าฯกทม. 22 พ.ค. "ชัชชาติ" ที่ 1 ตรวจคะแนนทุกเบอร์ ที่นี่!". bangkokbiznews (in Thai). 2022-05-23. Retrieved 2022-06-11.
  15. ^ "ด่วน! ใช้ม.44 ให้สุขุมพันธุ์และทีมรองฯพ้นจากตำแหน่ง ตั้งอัศวิน ขวัญเมือง เป็นผู้ว่าฯกทม". matichon. 2016-10-18. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
  16. ^ "Bangkok Metropolitan Council". Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA). Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  17. ^ "สภากรุงเทพมหานคร". BMC (in Thai). Retrieved 2022-06-11.
  18. ^ "Big Problems in the City" (Editorial). Bangkok Post. 21 April 2018. Retrieved 21 April 2018.

External links edit