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Ban of Croatia (Croatian: Hrvatski ban, Hungarian: horvát bán) was the title of local rulers or office holders and after 1102, viceroys of Croatia. From earliest periods of Croatian state, some provinces were ruled by bans as a ruler's representative (viceroy) and supreme military commander. In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually became chief government officials in Croatia. They were at the head of Ban's Government, effectively the first prime ministers of Croatia. The institution of ban in Croatia persisted until the 20th century.

Ban of Croatia
px60
The heraldic standard of the Croatian ban in the 19th century
Reports to King of Croatia
Croatian Parliament
Seat Banski dvori, Zagreb, Croatia
Term length No fixed term length
Formation c. 949
First holder Pribina
Final holder Ivan Subašić
Abolished 10 April 1941

Contents

Origin of titleEdit

South Slavic ban (Croatian pronunciation: [bâːn], with a long [a]) possibly comes from the Turkic word bajan (rich, wealthy), which entered the Croatian language through the Avars. There are also theories that it is an Illyrian derivative. The long form is directly attested in 10th-century Constantine Porphyrogenitus' book De Administrando Imperio as βο(ε)άνος, in a chapter dedicated to Croats and the organisation of their state, describing how their ban "has under his rule Krbava, Lika and Gacka."[1]

Bans during the national dynastyEdit

References from the earliest periods are scarce, but history recalls that the first known Croatian ban is Pribina from the 10th century. In the early Middle Ages, the ban was the royal district governor of Lika, Gacka and Krbava. Later, the meaning of the title was elevated to that of provincial governor in the Kingdom of Croatia with some bans even being successors to the Croatian Kingdom (King Demetrius Zvonimir was originally a ban serving under King Peter Krešimir IV.)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
Pribina
c. 949
c. 969
The first historically attested Ban of Croatia. Pribina deposed of King Miroslav during a civil war in the Croatian Kingdom, and replaced him with Michael Krešimir. He ruled over the Gacka, Krbava and Lika counties, according to De Administrando Imperio. He is also possibly referred to in a charter as potens banus, meaning "powerful ban".[2]
Miroslav
(945–949)
Michael Krešimir II
(949–969)
Godemir
c. 969
c. 995
Also called Godimir. He is mentioned to have served kings Michael Krešimir and Stephen Držislav[3] in a charter of King Peter Krešimir IV the Great from 1068.[4]
Stephen Držislav
(969–997)
Gvarda
c. 995
c. 1000
Mentioned in a charter of King Peter Krešimir IV the Great from 1068.
Svetoslav Suronja
(997–1000)
Božeteh
c. 1000
c. 1030
Mentioned in a charter of King Peter Krešimir IV the Great from 1068.
Krešimir III
(1000–1030)
Gojslav
(1000–1020)
Stephen Praska
c. 1035
c. 1058
According to the chronicle of Archdeacon Goricensis John, he was named as ban by King Stephen I around 1035 (after his military expeditions to the east), thus succeeding Božeteh as Croatian ban.[5][6][7]He eventually attained a Byzantine imperial title of protospatharios somewhere between 1035 and 1042, which governed his influence over the Dalmatian theme.
Stephen I
(1030–1058)
Gojčo
c. 1059
c. 1069
He was most likely the brother of King Peter Krešimir IV the Great, who was rumored to have murdered his other brother called Gojslav.[8] According to some historians, Gojčo and Gojslav are the same person.
Peter Krešimir IV
 
(1058–1074)
  Demetrius Zvonimir
c. 1070
c. 1075
During the reign of Peter Krešimir IV (Zvonimir's relative), Demetrius Zvonimir ruled in Slavonia, specifically the land between the rivers Drava and Sava, with the title of ban.[9] Croatian charters at the time were issued in the names of both King Peter Krešimir and Ban Zvonimir.[10] At the beginning of 1075, Peter Krešimir IV the Great named Demetrius Zvonimir "Duke of Croatia by the grace of God." This title made him not only the ruler of northern Dalmatia, but also the chief advisor of the king and his heir. In that same year, Normans from southern Italy invaded Croatia and captured a certain Croatian ruler whose name is not known, possibly King Peter Krešimir, who died soon after and was succeeded by Demetrius Zvonimir.[11]
  Petar Svačić
c. 1075
c. 1091
Demetrius Zvonimir 
(1075–1089)
Stephen II
(1089–1091)

Croatian bans after 1102Edit

After the Croats elected King Coloman of Hungary as King of Croatia 1102, the title of ban acquired the meaning of viceroy. Bans were appointed by the Hungarian king as his representatives in Kingdom of Croatia, heads of the parliament (sabor) and also as supreme commander of Croatian Army.

Croatia was governed by the viceregal ban as a whole from 1102 until 1225, when it was split into two separate regions of Slavonia and Croatia. Two different bans were occasionally appointed until 1476, when the institution of a single ban was resumed. Most bans were native nobles but some were also of Hungarian ancestry.

Most notable bans from this period were Pavao Šubić and Peter Berislavić.

Bans of Croatia, Slavonia and DalmatiaEdit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
Ugra 1102 1105 Coloman
 
(1102–1116)
Sergije 1105
Klaudije 1116 1117 Stephen II
 
(1116–1131)
Aleksije c. 1130 c. 1141 Béla II
 
(1131–1141)
Beloš
(1083–1163)
1142 c. 1158 Géza II
 
(1141–1162)
Arpa 1158
Beloš
(1083–1163)
1163 Stephen III
 
(1162–1172)
Ampudije 1164 c. 1180
Mauro 1181 Béla III
 
(1172–1196)
Denis c. 1180 c. 1183 Ban only in the littoral part
Suban 1183 1185
Kalán
(c. 1152–1218)
1190 1193
Dominic Miskolc 1194 c. 1195
Andrija 1198 1199 Emeric
 
(1196–1204)
Nicholas I of Transylvania 1199 1200
Benedict Osl 1199 1200
Martin Hont-Pázmány 1202
Hipolit 1204
Mercurius Gutkeled 1205 1206 Ladislaus III
 
(1204–1205)
Stephen Mihaljev 1206 1207 Andrew II
 
(1205–1235)
Bánk Bár-Kalán 1208 1209
Tomo 1209
  Berthold 1209 1211
Michael Kačić 1212
Martin Hont-Pázmány 1213
Julius I Kán 1213
Simon Kačić 1212 1214
Ohuz 1214
Ivan 1215 1216 Ban only in Slavonia
Pontius de Cruce 1217
Bánk Bár-Kalán 1217 1218
Julius I Kán 1218 1219
Ernej 1220 1221
Ohuz 1219 1220
Solomon Atyusz c. 1222 c. 1225

Bans of Croatia and DalmatiaEdit

From 1225 to 1476, there were parallel Bans of Croatia and Dalmatia and of "Whole Slavonia". The following is the list of the former, the latter are listed at the article Ban of Slavonia. During the period of separate titles of ban, several persons held both titles, which is indicated in the notes.

After the death of King Louis I of Hungary, his daughter Mary succeeded to the throne, which led to kings Charles III and Ladislaus of Naples claiming the Kigndom of Hungary. A war erupted between forces loyal to Mary, and later to her husband and successor Sigismund of Luxembourg, and those loyal to Ladislaus.

During this time, Sigismund appointed Nicholas II Garai (who was also count palatine) the Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia in 1392, Butko Kurjaković in 1394, and then again Garai in the period from 1394 to 1397. Nicholas II Garai was also at the time the Ban of Slavonia, succeeded by Ladislav Grđevački (1402–1404), Paul Besenyő (1404), Pavao Peć (1404–1406), Hermann II of Celje (1406–1408).

Ladislaus in turn appointed his own bans, including Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić. In 1409, this dynastic struggle was resolved when Ladislaus sold his rights over Dalmatia to the Republic of Venice.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
Vojnić 1225 Andrew II
 
(1205–1235)
Valegin 1226
Stephen IV Babonić 1243 1249 Béla IV
 
(1235–1270)
Butko of Podgorje 1259
Stephen of Klis 1263 1266
Nicholas of Gacka 1275 Son of Amadeus Aba Ladislaus IV
 
(1272–1290)
Pavao I Šubić 1278 1312
Andrew III
 
(1290–1301)
Charles I
 
(1301–1342)
Mladen II Šubić 1312 1322
Stephen I Lackfi 1350 1352 Louis I
 
(1342–1383)
Ivan Ćuz 1356 1358
Nicholas Szécsi 1358 1366
Kónya Szécsényi 1366 1367
Emeric I Lackfi 1368
Simon Mauritius of Pok 1369 1371
  Charles of Durazzo 1371 1376
Nicholas Szécsi 1377 1380 Second term
Emeric I Bebek 1380 1383
Stephen II Lackfi 1383 1384 Mary
 
(1382–1395)
Thomas of St George 1384 1385
Ivan Paližna 1385 1386 Co-ruled with relative Ivan Anjou Horvat (1385–1387). Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia.
Ladislaus Lackfi 1387
Denis of Lučenec 1387 1389
Ivan Paližna 1389 Second term. Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia.
Butko Kurjaković 1394
Nicholas II Garai 1395 1397 Charles II
 
(1385–1386)
Hermann II of Celje 1406 1407 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia. Sigismund
 
(1387–1437)
Karlo Kurjaković 1408 1409
Ivan Kurjaković 1410 1411
Pavao Kurjaković 1410 1411 Co-ruled with Ivan Kurjaković.
Peter Alben 1412 1413
John Alben 1414 1419
Albert Ungh 1419 1426
Nikola IV Frankopan 1426 1432 Son of Ban Ivan Frankopan
Ivan VI Frankopan 1434 1436
Stephen III Frankopan 1434 1437 Co-ruled with Ivan Frankopan
Peter Talovac 1438 1453 Albert I
 
(1437–1439)
Vladislaus I
 
(1440–1444)
Ladislaus V
 
(1444–1457)
Ladislaus Hunyad 1453
Pavao Špirančić 1459 1463
Matthias I
 
(1458–1490)
Stephen Frankopan 1463
Nicholas of Ilok 1457 1463 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia (1457–1463)
Emeric Zápolya 1464 1465 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
John Thuz 1466 1467 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Blaise Magyar 1470 1472 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Damjan Horvat 1472 1473 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia

Bans of Croatia, Slavonia and DalmatiaEdit

From 1476 onwards, the titles of Ban of Dalmatia and Croatia, and Ban of "Whole Slavonia" are again united in the single title of Ban of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
Andrew Bánffy 1476 1477 Matthias I
 
(1458–1490)
Ladislaus of Egervár 1477 1481
Blaise Magyar 1482
Matthias Gereb 1483 1489 Known for the Battle of Una.
Ladislaus of Egervár 1489 1493
Vladislaus II
 
(1490–1516)
John Both 1493
Mirko Derenčin 1493 Known for the Battle of Krbava field.
Ladislaus Kanizsai 1493 1495
John Corvinus 1495 1498
George Kanizsai 1498 1499
John Corvinus 1499 1504
Andrew Both 1505 1507
Marko Mišljenović 1506 1507
John Ernuszt 1508 1509
George Kanizsai 1508 1509
Andrew Both 1510 1511
Emeric Perényi 1512 1513
Peter Berislavić 1513 1520 Known for the Battle of Dubica.
Louis II
 
(1516–1526)
Ivan Karlović 1521 1524
John Tahy 1525
Ferenc Batthyány 1525 1527
  Christoph I Frankopan
(1482–1527)
1527 Grandson of Ban Stephen Frankopan

Habsburg-era bansEdit

The title of ban persisted in Croatia after 1527 when the country became part of the Habsburg Monarchy, and continued all the way until 1918.

Among the most distinguished bans in Croatian history were the three members of Zrinski family Nikola Šubić Zrinski and his great-grandsons Nikola Zrinski and Petar Zrinski. Also there are two notable Erdődys: Toma Erdődy, great warrior and statesman, and Ivan Erdődy, to whom Croatia owes much for protecting her rights against the Hungarian nobility, his most widely known saying in Latin is Regnum regno non praescribit leges (A kingdom may not proscribe laws to another kingdom.)

In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually became chief government officials in Croatia. They were at the head of Ban's Government, effectively the first prime ministers of Croatia. The most known bans of that era were Josip Jelačić, Ivan Mažuranić and Josip Šokčević.

Bans in the Habsburg MonarchyEdit

The Habsburg dynasty ruled Kingdom of Croatia and Kingdom of Slavonia between 1527 and 1918.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
  Christoph I Frankopan
(1482–1527)
1526 1527 Ferdinand I
 
(1526–1564)
Ivan Karlović
(c. 1485–1531)
1527 1531
Simon Erdődy
(c. 1489–1543)
1530 1534
Louis Pekry 1532 1537
  Thomas Nádasdy
(1498–1562)
1537 1539
  Peter Keglević
(1478–c. 1554)
1537 1542
  Nikola Šubić Zrinski
(1508–c. 1566)
1542 1556
Péter Erdődy
(1508–c. 1566)
1557 1567
Franjo Frankopan Slunjski 1567 1572 Maximilian II
 
(1563–1576)
  Juraj Drašković
(1525–1587)
1567 1576
Gašpar Alapić
(?–1584)
1575 1577
Kristóf Ungnad 1578 1583 Rudolf II
 
(1572–1608)
  Thomas Erdődy
(1558–1624)
1583 1595
Gašpar Stankovački 1595 1596
  Ivan II Drašković
(1550–1613)
1595 1607
  Thomas Erdődy
(1558–1624)
1608 1615 Matthias II
 
(1608–1618)
Benedict Thuroczy
1615 1616
Nikola XI Frankopan
(1584–1647)
1617 1622
  Juraj V Zrinski
(1599–1626)
1622 1626 Ferdinand II
 
(1618–1637)
Sigismund Erdődy
(1596–1639)
1627 1639

 

Ivan III Drašković
(1595–1648)
1640 1646 Ferdinand III
 
(1625–1657)

 

Nikola Zrinski
(1620–1664)
1647 1664
Peter Zrinski
(1621–1671)
1665 1670 Leopold I
 
(1657–1705)
Miklós Erdődy
(1630–1693)
1670 1693
  Adam II Batthyány
(1662–1703)
1693 1703
  Ivan Pálffy
(1664–1751)
1704 1732 Joseph I
 
(1705–1711)
Ivan V Drašković
(1660–1733)
1732 1733 Charles III
 
(1711–1740)
  Josef Esterházy
(1682–1748)
1733 1741
György Branyng 1741 1742 Maria Theresa
 
(1740–1780)
  Karl Josef Batthyány
(1697–1772)
16 March 1743 6 July 1756
  Ferenc Nádasdy
(1708–1783)
1756 1783
  Ferenc Eszterházy
(1715–1785)
1783 1785 Joseph II
 
(1780–1790)
Ferenc Balassa
(1736–1807)
1785 1790
  Ivan Erdődy
(1733–1806)
1790 1806 Leopold II
 
(1790–1792)
  Ignác Gyulay
(1763–1831)
1806 1831 Francis II
 
(1792–1835)
Franjo Vlašić
(1766–1840)
10 February 1832 16 May 1840 Ferdinand V
 
(1835–1848)
  Juraj Haulik
(1788–1869)
1840 16 June 1842 Acting ban
Franz Haller
(1796–1875)
16 June 1842 1845
  Juraj Haulik
(1788–1869)
1845 23 March 1848 Acting ban

Bans during the Revolutions of 1848Edit

Croatia was a Habsburg crown territory during the Revolutions of 1848 and up until 1867.[12]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
  Josip Jelačić
(1801–1890)
23 March 1848 19 May 1859 Franz Joseph I
 
(1848–1916)
  Johann Baptist Coronini-Cronberg
(1794–1880)
28 July 1859 19 June 1860
  Josip Šokčević
(1811–1896)
19 June 1860 27 June 1867

Bans in Austria-HungaryEdit

Croatia was returned to Hungarian control in 1867 when the Habsburg Empire was reconstituted as the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Between then and 1918 the following bans were appointed:

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
  Levin Rauch
(1819–1890)
27 June 1867 26 January 1871 Member of the Unionist Party that advocated for more integration of Croatia into Hungary. Notable for securing victory of the Unionist Party through changing the election law and terrorising those who were able to vote.[13] Franz Joseph I
 
(1848–1916)
  Koloman Bedeković
(1818–1889)
26 January 1871 12 February 1872 Bedeković was the leader of the Unionist Party and fought against Croatia's autonomy from Hungary. Dissatisfaction with the obstruction of parliament led to the Rakovica Revolt. Early elections were subsequently called for in 1872. The failure of Bedeković to convene the previous parliament resulted in him being removed from the post of ban and replaced with the first non-noble ban, Ivan Mažuranić.
  Antun Vakanović
(1808–1894)
17 February 1872 20 September 1873 Acting ban
  Ivan Mažuranić
(1814–1890)
20 September 1873 21 February 1880 Mažuranić was the first Croatian ban not to hail from old nobility, as he was born a commoner. He was a member of the People's Party. He accomplished the transition of Croatian lands from a semi-feudal legal and economic system to a modern civil society similar to those emerging in other countries in Central Europe.
  Ladislav Pejačević
(1824–1901)
21 February 1880 4 September 1883 As the reincorporation of the Military Frontier into the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was proclaimed on 15 July 1881, Pejačević was given the task to follow it through. On 1 August 1881, he took over the administration of the former Frontier. On 24 August 1883, he quit after the Council of Ministers in Vienna concluded that bilingual Hungarian official emblems, installed by Hungarian officials in Croatia-Slavonia, were not allowed to be removed from the official buildings and were to stay along the Croatian ones.
Hermann Ramberg
(1820–1899)
4 September 1883 1 December 1883 Acting ban
  Karoly Khuen-Héderváry
(1849–1918)
4 December 1883 27 June 1903 Khuen's reign was marked by strong Magyarization. After a series of riots broke out against him in 1903, Khuen was relieved of his duty and appointed prime minister of Hungary.
  Teodor Pejačević
(1855–1928)
1 July 1903 26 June 1907 At the beginning of the 20th century, he was faced with a new direction of Croatian policy marked by political alliance between Croats and Serbs in Austria-Hungary for mutual benefit. A Croat-Serb Coalition was formed in 1905, and it governed the Croatian lands from 1906 until the dissolution of the Dual Monarchy in 1918. As Pejačević supported the ruling Coalition in its resistance towards the Hungarian request in 1907 to make the Hungarian language an official language on railways in Croatia, he was forced to resign.
  Aleksandar Rakodczaj
(1848–1924)
26 June 1907 8 January 1908
  Pavao Rauch
(1865–1933)
8 January 1908 5 February 1910 From the very beginning of Rauch’s rule, the Croato-Serbian Coalition announced that it would refuse to co-operate in any manner with the new unionist ban.[14] After the Croatian Parliament had been disbanded on 12 March 1908, because of its refusal to co-operate and the insults it directed at the ban, Pavao Rauch ruled through decrees and civil servants. Despite all opposition predictions, Rauch remained in power for two years. On 5 February 1910, he received the king’s letter of dismissal.
  Nikola Tomašić
(1864–1918)
5 February 1910 19 January 1912
  Slavko Cuvaj
(1851–1931)
19 January 1912 21 July 1913 He was appointed in January 1912, when anti-Habsburg sentiments were on the rise in Croatia, often manifesting in sympathies for Serbia and calls for creation of a Yugoslav state. Cuvaj tried to curb those trends by series of decrees directed at curbing the freedom of the press, limiting rights of assembly and local autonomy. This created a backlash in the form of strikes and demonstrations. Some young radicals even engaged in terrorism. Cuvaj himself was target of two assassination attempts in 1912.
  Ivan Skerlecz
(1873–1951)
27 November 1913 29 June 1917 Skerlecz managed to reconvene the Croatian Parliament in Zagreb by 1915. The Croats made further demands for local authority, as well as unification of Croatia-Slavonia with Dalmatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Charles IV
 
(1916–1919)
  Antun Mihalović
(1868–1949)
29 June 1917 20 January 1919

Croatian bans in the Kingdom of YugoslaviaEdit

Ban was also the title of the governor of each province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. The weight of the title was far less than that of a medieval ban's feudal office. Most of Croatian territory was divided between the Sava and Littoral Banovina, but also some parts were outside this provinces.

In 1939 Banovina of Croatia was created with Cvetković-Maček agreement as a unit of limited autonomy. It consisted of the Sava and Littoral Banovinas along with smaller parts of Vrbas, Zeta, Drina and Danube Banovina's. Ivan Šubašić was appointed for the Ban of Banovina of Croatia until the collapse of Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1941. Šubašić was also the last person who held the position of Croatian Ban.

Bans of Croatian lands within the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and SlovenesEdit

Following a brief period of self-rule at the end of World War I, Croatia was incorporated into the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918, under the Karađorđević dynasty.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
Ivan Paleček 20 January 1919 24 November 1919 Peter I
 
(1918–1921)
  Tomislav Tomljenović 24 November 1919 22 February 1920
Matko Laginja 22 February 1920 11 December 1920
Teodor Bošnjak 23 December 1920 3 July 1921
Tomislav Tomljenović 2 March 1921 2 March 1921

Bans of the Sava BanovinaEdit

In 1929, the new Constitution of the Kingdom renamed it Kingdom of Yugoslavia and split up the country into banovinas.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
Josip Silović 3 October 1929 1931 Alexander I
 
(1921–1934)
Ivo Perović 1931 1935
  Marko Kostrenčić 1935 1936 Peter II
 
(1934–1941)
Viktor Ružić 1936 1938
Stanoje Miladžić 1938 26 August 1939

Bans of the Littoral BanovinaEdit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
  Ivo Tartaglia 1929 1932 Alexander I
 
(1921–1934)
Josip Jablanović 1932 1935
Mirko Buić 1935 26 August 1939 Peter II
 
(1934–1941)

Bans of the Banovina of CroatiaEdit

In 1939, the Banovina of Croatia was created with Cvetković-Maček agreement as a unit of limited autonomy within Kingdom of Yugoslavia. It consisted of the Sava and Littoral Banovinas along with smaller parts of Vrbas, Zeta, Drina and Danube Banovinas.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
  Ivan Šubašić
(1892 –1955)
26 August 1939 10 April 1941 Last person to hold the title of ban. Peter II
 
(1934–1941)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ De Administrando Imperio 30/90-117[permanent dead link], "καὶ ὁ βοάνος αὐτῶν κρατεῖ τὴν Κρίβασαν, τὴν Λίτζαν καὶ τὴν Γουτζησκά"
  2. ^ Pribina | Proleksis enciklopedija
  3. ^ hr:s:Povijest Hrvatske I. (R. Horvat)/Nasljednici kralja Tomislava
  4. ^ Comperimus namque in gestis proaui nosti Cresimiri maioris... Stipišić, J. i M. Šamšalović, ur. Codex Diplomaticus Regni Croatiae, Dalmatiae et Slavoniae, sv. 1. Zagreb: Izdavački zavod JAZU, 1967., pp. 105.
  5. ^ Rački, Documenta, 472.
  6. ^ Comperimus namque in gestis proaui nosti Cresimiri maioris... Stipišić, J. i M. Šamšalović, ur. Codex Diplomaticus Regni Croatiae, Dalmatiae et Slavoniae, sv. 1. Zagreb: Izdavački zavod JAZU, 1967, pp. 105.
  7. ^ R. Horvat - Povijest Hrvatske I.
  8. ^ Tomislav Raukar, Hrvatsko srednjovjekovlje, Školska Knjiga, Zagreb, 1997 pp. 47-48
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-03-16.
  10. ^ John Van Antwerp Fine: The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, 1991, p. 279
  11. ^ Neven Budak: Prva stoljeća Hrvatske, Hrvatska sveučilišna naklada, Zagreb 1994, p. 31-33
  12. ^ http://www.encarta.com.au/encyclopedia_761577939_6/Croatia.html[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ Sirotković, Hodimir; Margetić, Lujo (1988). Povijest država i prava naroda SFR Jugoslavije (in Croatian). Školska knjiga. p. 148. ISBN 9788603991802.
  14. ^ Mira Kolar: "The Activities of Vice-Roy Pavao Rauch In Croatia"

External linksEdit