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History of rulers of Bengal

  (Redirected from Balban dynasty)

This is a list of rulers of Bengal. For much of its history, Bengal was split up into several independent kingdoms, completely unifying only several times. In ancient times, Bengal consisted of the kingdoms of Pundra, Magadha, Suhma, Anga, Vanga, Samatata and Harikela.

In the 4th century BCE, during the reign of the Nanda Empire, the powerful Gangaridai rulers of sent their forces with the war elephants which led the withdrawal of Alexander the Great from the Indian subcontinent.

As a province of the Mauryan Empire, much of Bengal was part of it except for the far eastern Bengali kingdoms which maintained friendly relationships with Ashoka. The kingdoms of Bengal continued to exist as tributary states before succumbing to the Guptas. With the fall of the Gupta Empire, Bengal was united under a single local ruler, King Shashanka, for the first time. With the collapse of his kingdom, Bengal split up into petty kingdoms once more.

With the rise of Gopala in 750 AD, Bengal was united once more under the Buddhist Pala Empire until the 12th century then being succeeded by the Hindu Chandra dynasty, Sena dynasty and deva dynasty. After them, Bengal was ruled by the Hindu Maharajas of kingdoms such as Chandradwip and Cooch Behar.

After the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Bengal was ruled by Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, under whom Indian Islamic missionaries achieved their greatest success in terms of dawah and number of converts to Islam, which caused the decline of Buddhism.[1][2] The Islamic Mamluk Sultanate, the Khalji dynasty, the Turko-Indian Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty and the Lodi dynasty ruled Bengal for over 320 years.[3] Notable was Malik Altunia's reign with his wife Razia Sultana, the only female sovereign ruler.

Following Delhi Sultanate's reign, the Bengal Sultanate, a major trading nation in the world,[4] was founded by Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah, and ruled by the Ilyas Shahi dynasty, succeeded by the Hussain Shahi dynasty founded by Alauddin Husain Shah, which saw the extension of the sultanate all the way to the port of Chittagong, witnessing the arrival of the earliest Portuguese merchants.

After being absorbed to the Bengal Subah by Babur in the 16th century during the defeat of Sultan Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah in the Battle of Ghaghra, Bengal became the most economically advanced region in the world,[5][6][7] and started to be ruled by the Subahdars of the Mughal Empire. Emperor Akbar developed the Bengali Calendar and began to preach the newly invented religion of Din-i Ilahi, which was declared by the Qadi of Bengal to be a blasphemy. Islam Khan I declared Dhaka as the capital of Bengal, which was then known as Jahangir Nagar, renamed after emperor Jahangir. The reign of prince Shah Shuja under emperor Shah Jahan's orders represented the height of Mughal architecture. During the period of proto-industrialization, when Bengal was ruled by emperor Aurangzeb's relatives such as Subedar Shaista Khan, Muhammad Azam Shah, and Azim-ush-Shan, the region was fully ruled through Fatwa Alamgiri, a hybrid body of Hanafi law based on sharia and was controversially described as the Paradise of the Nations.[8]

After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad ruled over Bengal and Odisha. Nawab Alivardi Khan came victorious against the Maratha Empire in the battle of Battle of Burdwan. Following the Battle of Plassey and the execution of the last independent ruler Siraj ud-Daulah, the British East India Company overtook Bengal, and the Bengal Presidency was established, ruled by Robert Clive, and the subdivision remained as the economic, cultural and educational hub of the British Raj.

The position of the Prime Minister of Bengal was established in 1937, being held by A. K. Fazlul Huq and Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. Subsequent to the Indian independence movement and Partition of Bengal (1947), the West Bengal became a major state of the Republic of India, while the Muslim majority East Bengal became known as East Pakistan. In 1971 East Bengal became an independent nation, Bangladesh, following the Bangladesh Liberation War, governed by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Ziaur Rahman and Hussain Muhammad Ershad. Bengal has also recorded prominent female rulers, most notably Razia Sultana, Khaleda Zia, Sheikh Hasina and Mamata Banarjee.

Contents

Legendary kings of Magadha: Brihadratha Dynasty (c. 1700–799 BCE)Edit

Pre-Pala dynastiesEdit

Haryanka Dynasty (568–413 BCE)Edit

Shishunaga Dynasty (413–345 BCE)Edit

Nanda Dynasty (345–321 BCE)Edit

Maurya Dynasty (324–185 BCE)Edit

Shunga Dynasty (185–73 BCE)Edit

Kanva Dynasty (73–43 BCE)Edit

Gupta Empire (c. CE 240–550 )Edit

Gauda KingdomEdit

Khadga kingdomEdit

The Khadga dynasty was a line of Buddhist kings that ruled the areas of Vanga and later Samatata (modern Bangladesh).[9]

MallabhumEdit

Mallabhum was the kingdom ruled by the Mallas kings of Bishnupur primarily in the present Bankura district in the Indian state of West Bengal.[10][11][12]

Pala and post-Pala dynastiesEdit

Pala EmpireEdit

Most of the Pala inscriptions mention only the regnal year as the date of issue, without any well-known calendar era. Because of this, the chronology of the Pala kings is hard to determine.[13] Based on their different interpretations of the various epigraphs and historical records, different historians estimate the Pala chronology as follows:[14]

RC Majumdar (1971)[15] AM Chowdhury (1967)[16] BP Sinha (1977)[17] DC Sircar (1975–76)[18] D. K. Ganguly (1994)[13]
Gopala I 750–770 756–781 755–783 750–775 750–774
Dharmapala 770–810 781–821 783–820 775–812 774–806
Devapala 810–c. 850 821–861 820–860 812–850 806–845
Mahendrapala NA (Mahendrapala's existence was conclusively established through a copper-plate charter discovered later.) 845–860
Shurapala I 850–853 861–866 860–865 850–858 860–872
Vigrahapala I 858–60 872–873
Narayanapala 854–908 866–920 865–920 860–917 873–927
Rajyapala 908–940 920–952 920–952 917–952 927–959
Gopala II 940–957 952–969 952–967 952–972 959–976
Vigrahapala II 960–c. 986 969–995 967–980 972–977 976–977
Mahipala I 988–c. 1036 995–1043 980–1035 977–1027 977–1027
Nayapala 1038–1053 1043–1058 1035–1050 1027–1043 1027–1043
Vigrahapala III 1054–1072 1058–1075 1050–1076 1043–1070 1043–1070
Mahipala II 1072–1075 1075–1080 1076–1078/9 1070–1071 1070–1071
Shurapala 1075–1077 1080–1082 1071–1072 1071–1072
Ramapala 1077–1130 1082–1124 1078/9–1132 1072–1126 1072–1126
Kumarapala 1130–1125 1124–1129 1132–1136 1126–1128 1126–1128
Gopala III 1140–1144 1129–1143 1136–1144 1128–1143 1128–1143
Madanapala 1144–1162 1143–1162 1144–1161/62 1143–1161 1143–1161
Govindapala 1155–1159 NA 1162–1176 or 1158–1162 1161–1165 1161–1165
Palapala NA NA NA 1165–1199 1165–1200

Note:[14]

  • Earlier historians believed that Vigrahapala I and Shurapala I were the two names of the same person. Now, it is known that these two were cousins; they either ruled simultaneously (perhaps over different territories) or in rapid succession.
  • AM Chowdhury rejects Govindapala and his successor Palapala as the members of the imperial Pala dynasty.
  • According to BP Sinha, the Gaya inscription can be read as either the "14th year of Govindapala's reign" or "14th year after Govindapala's reign". Thus, two sets of dates are possible.

Chandra DynastyEdit

Chola dynastyEdit

Sena dynastyEdit

Deva DynastyEdit

Delhi sultanates eraEdit

Khilji dynasty under Mamluk Sultanate (1204-1227)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji 1204–1206 Began the Khilji dynasty
Muhammad Shiran Khilji 1206–1208
Ghiyasuddin Iwaj Khilji 1208–1210
Ali Mardan Khilji 1210–1212
Ghiyasuddin Iwaj Khilji 1212–1227 second term as Husamuddin Iwaj Khilji, killed for gaining independence from Sultan of Delhi Iltutmish
Nasiruddin Mahmud 1227–1229 Not from the Khilji tribe, appointed by his father Iltutmish
Alauddin Daulat Shah Khilji 1229–1230[19]
Malik Balkha Khilji 1230–1231 Last Khilji ruler

Governors of Bengal under Mamluk Sultanate (1227–1281)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Alauddin Jani 1232–1233
Saifuddin Aibak 1233–1236
Awor Khan Aibak 1236
Tughral Tughan Khan 1236–1246
Tughlaq Tamar Khan 1246–1247
Jalaluddin Masud Jani 1247–1251
Malik Ikhtiyaruddin Iuzbak 1251–1257 Claimed independence.
Ijjauddin Balban Iuzbaki 1257–1259
Tatar Khan 1259–1268 Claimed independence.
Sher Khan 1268–1272
Amin Khan 1272–1272
Tughral Tughan Khan 1272–1281 Second term as Mughisuddin Tughral
Nasiruddin Bughra Khan 1281-1287 Governor of Lakhnauti

Balban dynasty (Independent Lakhnauti kingdom)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Nasiruddin Bughra Khan 1287–1291 Declared independence
Rukunuddin Kaikaus 1291–1300 First Muslim ruler to conquer Satgaon kingdom, expanding Lakhnauti.
Shamsuddin Firoz Shah 1300–1322 First Muslim ruler to conquer Sonargaon, Mymensingh and Srihatta. Completed Kaikaus' Conquest of Satgaon.
Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah 1322–1324 Lost independence of Bengal to Delhi Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.

Governors of Bengal under Tughlaq Sultanate (1324–1339)Edit

Name Region Reign Notes
Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah Sonargaon 1324–1328 Appointed as governor by Sultan of Delhi Muhammad bin Tughluq, but later declared independence
Bahram Khan Sonargaon 1328–1338
Qadar Khan Lakhnauti 1328–1336
Mukhlis Lakhnauti 1336–1339
Azam Khan Satgaon 1324–1328
Izzuddin Yahya Satgaon 1328–1339

Bengal Sultanate EraEdit

Independent Sultans of Bengal during Tughlaq Sultanate (1338–1352)Edit

Name Region Reign Notes
Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah Sonargaon 1338–1349
Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah Sonargaon 1349–1352
Ilyas Shah Satgaon 1339–1342
Alauddin Ali Shah Lakhnauti 1339–1342
Ilyas Shah Lakhnauti and Satgaon 1342–1352

Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1352–1414)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah 1352–1358 Became the first sole ruler of whole Bengal comprising Sonargaon, Satgaon and Lakhnauti.
Sikandar Shah 1358–1390 Killed in battle with his son and successor, Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah
Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah 1390–1411
Saifuddin Hamza Shah 1411–1412
Shihabuddin Bayazid Shah 1412–1414

House of Raja Ganesha (1414–1435)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Raja Ganesha 1414–1415
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah 1415–1416 Son of Raja Ganesha and converted into Islam
Raja Ganesha 1416–1418 Second Phase
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah 1418–1433 Second Phase
Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah 1433–1435

Restored Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1435–1487)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah 1435–1459
Rukunuddin Barbak Shah 1459–1474
Shamsuddin Yusuf Shah 1474–1481
Sikandar Shah II 1481
Jalaaluddin Fateh Shah 1481–1487

Habshi rule (1487–1494)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Shahzada Barbak 1487
Saifuddin Firuz Shah 1487–1489
Mahmud Shah II 1489–1490
Shamsuddin Muzaffar Shah 1490–1494

Hussain Shahi dynasty (1494–1538)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Alauddin Hussain Shah 1494–1518
Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah 1518–1533
Alauddin Firuz Shah 1533
Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah 1533–1538

Governors of Bengal under Suri Empire (1532–1556)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Sher Shah Suri 1532–1538 Defeated Mughals and became the ruler of Delhi in 1540.
Khidr Khan 1538–1541
Qazi Fazilat 1541–1545
Muhammad Khan Sur 1545–1554
Shahbaz Khan 1555

Muhammad Shah dynasty (1554–1564)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Muhammad Khan Sur 1554–1555 Declared independence and styled himself as Shamsuddin Muhammad Shah
Khizr Khan Suri 1555–1561
Ghiyasuddin Jalal Shah 1561–1563
Ghiyasuddin Shah III 1563–1564[20]

Karrani dynasty (1564–1576)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Taj Khan Karrani 1564–1566
Sulaiman Khan Karrani 1566–1572
Bayazid Khan Karrani 1572
Daud Khan Karrani 1572–1576

Mughal Subahdars of Bengal Subah (1565–1717)Edit

During the reign of AkbarEdit

Name Reign Notes
Munim Khan 1574–1575 Khan-i-Khanan
Hussain Quli Khan 1575–1578
Muzaffar Khan Turbati 1579–1580
Mirza Aziz Koka 1582–1583
Wazir Khan Tajik 1583–1583
Shahbaz Khan Kamboh 1583–1585
Sadiq Khan 1585–1586
Wazir Khan Tajik 1586–1587
Sa'id Khan 1587–1594
Raja Man Singh I 1597 – 1606[21]

During the reign of JahangirEdit

Name Reign Notes
Qutubuddin Koka Sep 2, 1606 – 1607 killed in a battle against Sher Afghan. (Local history of Burdwan, West Bengal, India says that Qutub-ud-din Kokah died in a battle against Ali Quli Istajlu alias Sher Afgan in 1610 CE. The tomb where both of them were buried is presently under the surveillance of Archaeological Survey of India.)
Jahangir Quli Beg 1607–1608 In early life, a slave of Akbar's brother, Mirza Muhammad Hakim
Islam Khan Chishti 1608–1613 first governor to transfer the Bengal capital to Dhaka in April 1612
Qasim Khan Chishti 1613–1617 younger brother of Islam Khan Chishti
Ibrahim Khan Fath-i-Jang 1617–1624 died in an attack by Prince Shahjahan
Mahabat Khan 1625–1626
Mukarram Khan 1626–1627
Fidai Khan 1627–1628

During the reign of Shah JahanEdit

Name Reign Notes
Qasim Khan Juvayni 1628–1632
Mir Muhammad Baqir 1632–1635 Known as Azam Khan
Mir Abdus Salam 1635–1639 Known as Islam Khan Mashadi
Prince Shah Shuja 1639–1647 again 1652–1660

During the reign of AurangzebEdit

 
Azim-us-Shan (r. 1697–1712) receiving the investiture of Khizr
Name Reign Notes
Mir Jumla II 1660–1663
Shaista Khan 1664–1678
Azam Khan Koka 1678–1678 Known as Fidai Khan II
Prince Muhammad Azam 20 July 1678 – 6 October 1679[22]
Shaista Khan 1680–1688
Ibrahim Khan II 1689–1697
Prince Azim-us-Shan 1697–1712

Post Aurangzeb SubahdarsEdit

Name Reign Notes
Khan-i-Alam 1712–1713
Farrukh Siyar 1713–1717
Murshid Quli Khan 1717–1717

The Nawabs of BengalEdit

Portrait Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Nasiri Dynasty
Ala ud-Daula Murshid Quli Jafar Khan 1665 1717– 1727 30 June 1727
  Mirza Asadullah Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur ? 1727–1727 April 1740
  Shuja ud-Daula Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan 1670 July 1727 – 26 August 1739 26 August 1739
  Mirza Asadullah Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur ? 13 March 1739 – April 1740 April 1740
Afshar Dynasty
  Husam ud-Daula Muhammad Alivardi Khan Bahadur 10 May 1671 29 April 1740 – 16 April 1756 16 April 1756
  Siraj ud-Daulah Mîrzâ Muhammad Sirâj-ud-Daulah 1733 April 1756 – 2 June 1757 June 1757
Najafi Dynasty
  Ja'afar 'Ali Khan Bahadur Mir Muhammed Jafar Ali Khan 1691 June 1757 – October 1760 17 January 1765
  Itimad ud-Daulah Mir Kasim Ali Khan Bahadur ? 1760–1763 1777
  Ja'afar 'Ali Khan Bahadur Mir Muhammed Jafar Ali Khan 1691 25 July 1763 – 17 January 1765 17 January 1765
  Nazam-ud-Daulah Najimuddin Ali Khan 1750 5 February 1765 – 8 May 1766 8 May 1766
  Saif ud-Daulah Najabut Ali Khan 1749 22 May 1766 – 10 March 1770 10 March 1770
  Mubarak ud-Daulah Ashraf Ali Khan 1759 21 March 1770 – 6 September 1793 6 September 1793
  Azud ud-Daulah Babar Ali Khan Bahadur ? 1793 – 28 April 1810 28 April 1810
  Ali Jah Zain-ud-Din Ali Khan ? 5 June 1810 – 6 August 1821 6 August 1821
  Walla Jah Ahmad Ali Khan ? 1810 – 30 October 1824 30 October 1824
  Humayun Jah Mubarak Ali Khan 29 September 1810 1824 – 3 October 1838 3 October 1838
  Feradun Jah Mansur Ali Khan 29 October 1830 29 October 1838 –1881 (abdicated) 5 November 1884

Nawabs of MurshidabadEdit

Picture Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Najafi Dynasty
  Ali Kadir Syed Hassan Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 25 August 1846 17 February 1882 – 25 December 1906 25 December 1906[23][self-published source?][24]
  Amir ul-Omrah Syed Wasif Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 7 January 1875 December 1906 – 23 October 1959 23 October 1959[23][25]
  Raes ud-Daulah Syed Waris Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 14 November 1901 23 October 1959 – 20 November 1969 20 November 1969[26]
N/A N/A Disputed/In abeyance[27][28] N/A 20 November 1969 – 13 August 2014 N/A
  N/A Syed Mohammed Abbas Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur Circa 1942 13 August 2014 – Present(titular)[27][28] N/A

Hindu Dynasties in BengalEdit

Maharajas of BankuraEdit

Maharajas of BhurshutEdit

Maharajas of ChandradwipEdit

Many illustrious maharajas ruled much of East Bengal and the Sundarbans and conquered Jessore Their surname was Basu - they came to Bengal during the Sena Dynasty to conquer the Palas and take over from them. A famous literary novel was written about the Chandradwip Basu family by Tagore called Bou Thakuranis Haat and a film was made from this book.

Bhawal EstateEdit

Rulers of Gazipur and Madhupur forest area, in central Bangladesh.

Maharajas of Koch Behar(Cooch Behar State)Edit

Maharajas of Jessore KingdomEdit

Maharajas of MidnaporeEdit

Maharajas of NadiaEdit

Maharajas of SripurEdit

East India Company governors in BengalEdit

Governors of British East India Company in Bengal (1757–1793)Edit

As per the treaty of Allahabad in 1765, the British East India Company (BEIC) was given the right to collect revenue (Diwani right). From 1769, the company collected revenue from Bengal.

Governor-Generals of British East India Company in Bengal - Dual government (1773-1774)Edit

Following the Regulating Act of 1773, the Governor of Bengal was officially called Governor-General of Fort William.

Governor-Generals of British East India Company in Bengal (1793–1854)Edit

In 1793, the British East India Company abolished Nizamat, i.e. local rule by Mughal emperor- appointed Nawabs and annexed Bengal.

Governor-Generals of British East India Company (1833-1858)Edit

As per Charter Act of 1833, the Governor-General of Bengal would be called Governor-General of India

British Raj PeriodEdit

With the establishment of the Empire of India in 1858, the position of Governor-General was replaced with Governor-General and Viceroy of India. Calcutta, the capital of Bengal also became the capital of India. As a result, the position of Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal was established to look after provincial matters.

Lieutenant-Governors (1858–1912)Edit

Governors (1912–1947)Edit

In late 1911, the Indian Government decided to move the capital to New Delhi. As a result, the Governorship of Bengal Presidency was now necessary.

Prime Minister of Bengal (1937–1947)Edit

The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy in India and the position of Chief Minister or Premier of Bengal became very prominent.

No Name Term(s)[29] Party
1 Sher-e-Bangla
A. K. Fazlul Huq
1 April 1937 - 1 December 1941
12 December 1941 - 29 March 1943
Krishak Praja Party
2 Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin 29 April 1943 - 31 March 1945 All India Muslim League
3 H. S. Suhrawardy 23 April 1946 - 14 August 1947 All India Muslim League

Subsequently, all three Bengali chief ministers moved to East Pakistan, where they continued to be influential statesmen. Nazimuddin and Suhrawardy became Prime Ministers of Pakistan, while Huq served as the Chief Minister and Governor of East Pakistan.

After Independence of India and PakistanEdit

British colonial period ended when India and Pakistan became independent nations in 1947. Bengal fell into two parts – one in India, named West Bengal and the other part in Pakistan as East Bengal, later renamed to East Pakistan in 1955.

Pakistani (east) Bengal (1947–1971)Edit

Governors of East Bengal (1947–1955)Edit

Tenure Governor of East Bengal[30][self-published source?]
15 August 1947 - 31 March 1950 Sir Frederick Chalmers Bourne
31 March 1950 - 31 March 1953 Sir Feroz Khan Noon
31 March 1953 - 29 May 1954 Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman
29 May 1954 - May 1955 Iskandar Ali Mirza
May 1955 - June 1955 Muhammad Shahabuddin (acting)
June 1955 - 14 October 1955 Amiruddin Ahmad

Chief Minister of East Bengal (1947–1955)Edit

Tenure Chief Minister of East Bengal Political Party
August 1947 – September 1948 Sir Khwaja Nazimuddin Muslim League
September 1948 – April 1954 Nurul Amin Muslim League
April 1954 – 1955 Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq Muslim League

Governors of East Pakistan (1955–1971)Edit

In late 1954, prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra initiated the One Unit policy which resulted in East Bengal province to be renamed to East Pakistan.

Tenure Governor of East Pakistan[30][self-published source?] Political Affiliation
14 October 1955 – March 1956 Amiruddin Ahmad Muslim League
March 1956 – 13 April 1958 A. K. Fazlul Huq Muslim League
13 April 1958 – 3 May 1958 Hamid Ali (acting) Awami League
3 May 1958 – 10 October 1958 Sultanuddin Ahmad Awami League
10 October 1958 – 11 April 1960 Zakir Husain Muslim League
11 April 1960 – 11 May 1962 Lieutenant-General Azam Khan, PA Military Administration
11 May 1962 – 25 October 1962 Ghulam Faruque Independent
25 October 1962 – 23 March 1969 Abdul Monem Khan Civil Administration
23 March 1969 – 25 March 1969 Mirza Nurul Huda Civil Administration
25 March 1969 – 23 August 1969 Major-General Muzaffaruddin,[31] PA Military Administration
23 August 1969 – 1 September 1969 Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub Khan, PA Military Administration
1 September 1969 – 7 March 1971 Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan, PN Military Administration
7 March 1971 – 6 April 1971 Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub Khan, PA Military Administration
6 April 1971 – 31 August 1971 Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan, PA Military Administration
31 August 1971 – 14 December 1971 Abdul Motaleb Malik Independent
14 December 1971 – 16 December 1971 Lieutenant-General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi, PA Military Administration

Chief Minister of East Pakistan (1955–1971)Edit

Tenure Chief Minister of East Pakistan Political Party
August 1955 – September 1956 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
September 1956 – March 1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League
March 1958 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
March 1958 – 18 June 1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League
18 June 1958 – 22 June 1958 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
22 June 1958 – 25 August 1958 Governor's Rule
25 August 1958 – 7 October 1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League

On 7 October 1958, the post of Chief Minister of East Pakistan was abolished. And after the independence of Bangladesh on 16 December 1971, the Province of East Pakistan was dissolved.

Indian (west) Bengal (1947–present)Edit

Governors of West BengalEdit

# Name Took Office Left Office
1 Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari 15 August 1947 21 June 1948
2 Kailash Nath Katju 21 June 1948 1 November 1951
3 Harendra Coomar Mookerjee 1 November 1951 8 August 1956
4 Phani Bhusan Chakraborty 8 August 1956 3 November 1956
5 Padmaja Naidu 3 November 1956 1 July 1967
6 Dharma Vira 1 July 1967 1 April 1969
7 Deep Narayan Sinha 1 April 1969 19 September 1969
8 Shanti Swaroop Dhavan 19 September 1969 21 August 1971
9 Anthony Lancelot Dias 21 August 1971 6 November 1979
10 Tribhuvana Narayana Singh 6 November 1979 12 September 1981
11 Bhairab Dutt Pande 12 September 1981 10 October 1983
12 Anant Prasad Sharma 10 October 1983 16 August 1984
13 Satish Chandra 16 August 1984 1 October 1984
14 Uma Shankar Dikshit 1 October 1984 12 August 1986
15 Nurul Hasan 12 August 1986 20 March 1989
16 T. V. Rajeshwar 20 March 1989 12 July 1990
17 Nurul Hasan 12 July 1990 13 August 1993
18 B. Satyanarayan Reddy 13 July 1993 14 August 1993
19 K.V. Raghunatha Reddy 14 August 1993 27 April 1998
20 A.R. Kidwai 27 April 1998 18 May 1999
21 Shyamal Kumar Sen 18 May 1999 4 December 1999
22 Viren J. Shah 4 December 1999 14 December 2004
23 Gopalkrishna Gandhi 14 December 2004 14 December 2009
24 Devanand Konwar 14 December 2009 19 December 2009
25 Mayankote Kelath Narayanan 23 January 2010 Acting(19 December 2009-23 January 2010) 30 June 2014
26 D.Y. Patil 2 July 2014 24 July 2014
27 Keshari Nath Tripathi 27 July 2014 Incumbent

Chief Ministers of West BengalEdit

Key: INC
Indian National Congress
BC-UF
Bangla Congress
CPI(M)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
TMC
All India Trinamool Congress
# Name Took Office Left Office Political Party
1 Prafulla Chandra Ghosh 15 August 1947 14 January 1948 Indian National Congress
2 Bidhan Chandra Roy 14 January 1948 1 July 1962 Indian National Congress
President's rule 1 July 1962 8 July 1962
3 Prafulla Chandra Sen 8 July 1962 15 March 1967 Indian National Congress
4 Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee 15 March 1967 2 November 1967 Bangla Congress in United Front
5 Prafulla Chandra Ghosh 2 November 1967 20 February 1968 Nonparty in Progressive Democratic Alliance Front
President's rule 20 February 1968 25 February 1969
6 Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee 25 February 1969 19 March 1970 Bangla Congress in United Front
President's rule 19 March 1970 2 April 1971
7 Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee 2 April 1971 28 June 1971 Indian National Congress in coalition
President's rule 28 June 1971 19 March 1972
8 Siddhartha Shankar Ray 19 March 1972 21 June 1977 Indian National Congress
9 Jyoti Basu 21 June 1977 6 November 2000 Communist Party of India (Marxist) in Left Front
10 Buddhadeb Bhattacharya 6 November 2000 13 May 2011 Communist Party of India (Marxist) in Left Front
11 Mamata Banerjee 20 May 2011 Incumbent All India Trinamool Congress

After independence of BangladeshEdit

East Pakistan seceded from West Pakistan on 16 December 1971 after the end of Bangladesh Liberation War and was named Bangladesh as an independent nation.

The President was the executive Head of state of Bangladesh during Presidential system of government from 1975 to 1991. Thereafter, the Prime Minister is the executive head of government of this parliamentary republic while the President is the ceremonial Head of state, elected by the parliament.

KeyEdit

Political parties
Other factions
Status
  •   Acting President

PresidentsEdit

Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Elected Term of office Time in office Party
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
(1920–1975)[a]
  17 April 1971 12 January 1972 270 days Bangladesh Awami League
Syed Nazrul Islam
(1925–1975)[b]
  17 April 1971 12 January 1972 270 days Bangladesh Awami League
Abu Sayeed Chowdhury
(1921–1987)
  12 January 1972 24 December 1973 1 year, 346 days Bangladesh Awami League
Mohammad Mohammadullah
(1921–1999)
  24 December 1973 27 January 1974 1 year, 32 days Bangladesh Awami League
1974 27 January 1974 25 January 1975
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
(1920–1975)
  25 January 1975 15 August 1975
(assassinated in a coup d'état.)
202 days BAKSAL
Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad
(1918–1996)
  15 August 1975 6 November 1975
(deposed.)
83 days Bangladesh Awami League
Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem
(1916–1997)[c]
  6 November 1975 21 April 1977 1 year, 166 days Bangladesh Awami League
Ziaur Rahman
(1936–1981)[d]
  1977[e]
1978[f]
21 April 1977 30 May 1981
(assassinated.)
4 years, 39 days Military /
Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Abdus Sattar
(1906–1985)
  30 May 1981 20 November 1981 298 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
1981[f] 20 November 1981 24 March 1982
(deposed.)
Post vacant (24 – 27 March 1982)[g]
Ahsanuddin Chowdhury
(1915–2001)
  27 March 1982 10 December 1983 1 year, 258 days Independent
Hussain Muhammad Ershad
(1930–2019)[h]
  1985[e]
1986[f]
11 December 1983 6 December 1990 6 years, 360 days Military /
Jatiya Party
Shahabuddin Ahmed
(born 1930)
  6 December 1990 10 October 1991 308 days Independent
Abdur Rahman Biswas
(1926–2017)
  1991 10 October 1991 9 October 1996 4 years, 365 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Shahabuddin Ahmed
(born 1930)
  1996 9 October 1996 14 November 2001 5 years, 36 days Independent
Badruddoza Chowdhury
(born 1932)
  2001 14 November 2001 21 June 2002 219 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Muhammad Jamiruddin Sircar
(born 1931)
  21 June 2002 6 September 2002 77 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Iajuddin Ahmed
(1931–2012)
  2002 6 September 2002 12 February 2009 6 years, 159 days Independent
Zillur Rahman
(1929–2013)
  2009 12 February 2009 20 March 2013
(died in office.)
4 years, 36 days Bangladesh Awami League
Abdul Hamid
(born 1944)[i]
  14 March 2013 24 April 2013 6 years, 155 days Bangladesh Awami League
2013 24 April 2013 24 April 2018
2018 24 April 2018 Incumbent


Prime Ministers of BangladeshEdit

Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Election Term of office Tenure Party
Tajuddin Ahmad
(1925–1975)
  11 April 1971 12 January 1972 276 days Bangladesh Awami League
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
(1920–1975)
  1973 12 January 1972 25 January 1975 3 years, 13 days Bangladesh Awami League
Muhammad Mansur Ali
(1919–1975)
  25 January 1975 15 August 1975
(deposed.)
202 days BAKSAL
Post abolished (15 August 1975 – 29 June 1978)
Mashiur Rahman
(1924–1979)[j]
  29 June 1978 12 March 1979
(died in office.)
256 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Shah Azizur Rahman
(1925–1988)
  1979 15 April 1979 24 March 1982
(deposed.)
2 years, 343 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Post abolished (24 March 1982 – 30 March 1984)
Ataur Rahman Khan
(1907–1991)
  30 March 1984 9 July 1986 2 years, 101 days Jatiya Party
Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury
(1928–2006)
  1986 9 July 1986 27 March 1988 1 year, 262 days Jatiya Party
Moudud Ahmed
(born 1940)
  1988 27 March 1988 12 August 1989 1 year, 138 days Jatiya Party
Kazi Zafar Ahmed
(1939–2015)
  12 August 1989 6 December 1990 1 year, 116 days Jatiya Party
Post abolished (6 December 1990 – 20 March 1991)
Khaleda Zia
(born 1945)
  1991
1996 (Feb)
20 March 1991 30 March 1996 5 years, 10 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Muhammad Habibur Rahman
(1928–2014)
  30 March 1996 23 June 1996 85 days Independent
Sheikh Hasina
(born 1947)
  1996 (Jun) 23 June 1996 15 July 2001 5 years, 22 days Bangladesh Awami League
Latifur Rahman
(1936–2017)
  15 July 2001 10 October 2001 87 days Independent
Khaleda Zia
(born 1945)
  2001 10 October 2001 29 October 2006 5 years, 19 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Iajuddin Ahmed
(1931–2012)[k]
  29 October 2006 11 January 2007 74 days Independent
Fazlul Haque
(born 1938)[l]
  11 January 2007 12 January 2007 1 day Independent
Fakhruddin Ahmed
(born 1940)
  12 January 2007 6 January 2009 1 year, 360 days Independent
Sheikh Hasina
(born 1947)
  2008
2014
2018
6 January 2009 Incumbent 10 years, 222 days Bangladesh Awami League

See moreEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Pakistani prisoner to 8 January 1972.
  2. ^ Acting for Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
  3. ^ Also Chief Martial Law Administrator (24 August 1975 – 4 November 1975 and 7 November 1975 – 29 November 1976).
  4. ^ Also Chief Martial Law Administrator (29 November 1976 – 6 April 1979).
  5. ^ a b Referendum.
  6. ^ a b c Direct election.
  7. ^ During this period, Chief of Army Staff Lt. Gen. Hussain Muhammad Ershad served as Chief Martial Law Administrator and de facto head of state.
  8. ^ Served as Chief Martial Law Administrator until 30 March 1984.
  9. ^ Acting for Zillur Rahman until 20 March 2013.
  10. ^ Senior Minister.
  11. ^ Simultaneously served as President.
  12. ^ Acting Chief Adviser.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pp. 227-228
  2. ^ Majumdar, Dr. R.C., History of Mediaeval Bengal, First published 1973, Reprint 2006,Tulshi Prakashani, Kolkata, ISBN 81-89118-06-4
  3. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 68–102. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  4. ^ Nanda, J. N (2005). Bengal: the unique state. Concept Publishing Company. p. 10. 2005. ISBN 978-81-8069-149-2. Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
  5. ^ "The paradise of nations | Dhaka Tribune". Archive.dhakatribune.com. 20 December 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  6. ^ M. Shahid Alam (2016). Poverty From The Wealth of Nations: Integration and Polarization in the Global Economy since 1760. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-333-98564-9.
  7. ^ Khandker, Hissam (31 July 2015). "Which India is claiming to have been colonised?". The Daily Star (Op-ed).
  8. ^ Lex Heerma van Voss; Els Hiemstra-Kuperus; Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk (2010). "The Long Globalization and Textile Producers in India". The Ashgate Companion to the History of Textile Workers, 1650–2000. Ashgate Publishing. p. 255.
  9. ^ Ray, Krishnendu (2012). "Khadga Dynasty". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  10. ^ Dasgupta 2009, p. 30.
  11. ^ Malabhum, Bishnupur-Chandra, Manoranjan; 2004; Kolkata. Deys Publishing ISBN 8129500442
  12. ^ Mallik, Abhaya Pada (1921). History of Bishnupur-Raj: An Ancient Kingdom of West Bengal (the University of Michigan ed.). Calcutta. pp. 128–130. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  13. ^ a b Dilip Kumar Ganguly (1994). Ancient India, History and Archaeology. Abhinav. pp. 33–41. ISBN 978-81-7017-304-5.
  14. ^ a b Susan L. Huntington (1984). The "Påala-Sena" Schools of Sculpture. Brill Archive. pp. 32–39. ISBN 90-04-06856-2.
  15. ^ R. C. Majumdar (1971). History of Ancient Bengal. G. Bharadwaj. p. 161–162.
  16. ^ Abdul Momin Chowdhury (1967). Dynastic history of Bengal, c. 750-1200 CE. Asiatic Society of Pakistan. pp. 272–273.
  17. ^ Bindeshwari Prasad Sinha (1977). Dynastic History of Magadha, Cir. 450–1200 A.D. Abhinav Publications. pp. 253–. ISBN 978-81-7017-059-4.
  18. ^ Dineshchandra Sircar (1975–76). "Indological Notes - R.C. Majumdar's Chronology of the Pala Kings". Journal of Indian History. IX: 209–10.
  19. ^ Ahmed, ABM Shamsuddin (2012). "Iltutmish". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  20. ^ Encyclopedia Of Bangladesh (Set Of 30 Vols.) By Nagendra Kr. Singh
  21. ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (1984, reprint 1994). A History of Jaipur, New Delhi: Orient Longman ISBN 81-250-0333-9, pp.86–87
  22. ^ Karim, Abdul (2012). "Muhammad Azam, Prince". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  23. ^ a b "MURSHID16". www.royalark.net. Archived from the original on 2 October 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  24. ^ Paul, Gautam. "Murshidabad History - Hassan Ali". murshidabad.net. Archived from the original on 1 September 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  25. ^ Company, East India (1807). Papers Presented to the House of Commons Concerning the Late Nabob of the Carnatic. p. 118.
  26. ^ Paul, Gautam. "Murshidabad History - Waresh Ali". murshidabad.net. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  27. ^ a b Mahato, Sukumar (20 August 2014). "Murshidabad gets a Nawab again, but fight for assets ahead". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  28. ^ a b "Portrait of an accidental Nawab". The Times of India. 22 August 2014. Archived from the original on 23 August 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  29. ^ http://wbassembly.gov.in/html/permiersOfBen.html
  30. ^ a b Ben Cahoon, WorldStatesmen.org. "Bangladesh". Retrieved 3 October 2007.
  31. ^ (acting martial law administrator and governor as he was the GOC 14th Infantry Division)

Sources and external linksEdit