Jersey

  (Redirected from Bailiwick of Jersey)

Coordinates: 49°11′24″N 2°6′36″W / 49.19000°N 2.11000°W / 49.19000; -2.11000

Jersey (/ˈɜːrzi/ JUR-zee, French: [ʒɛʁzɛ] (About this soundlisten); Jèrriais: Jèrri [dʒɛri]), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (French: Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is an island and British Crown Dependency[10] near the coast of Normandy, France.[11] It is the second-closest of the Channel Islands to France, after Alderney.

Bailiwick of Jersey

Bailliage de Jersey  (French)
Bailliage dé Jèrri  (Norman)
Motto
Dieu et Mon Droit (French)
"God and My Right"
Anthem: "God Save the Queen"
Regional anthem: "Island Home"[1]
Location of Jersey (green) in Europe (dark grey)
Location of Jersey (green)

in Europe (dark grey)

Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Separation from the Duchy of Normandy1204
Capital
and largest parish [b]
Saint Helier [a]
49°11.4′N 2°6.6′W / 49.1900°N 2.1100°W / 49.1900; -2.1100
Official languagesEnglish, Jèrriais and French[c]
Common languagesPortuguese and Polish
Ethnic groups
(2011)
46.4% Jersey
32.7% British
8.2% Portuguese
3.3% Polish
2.4% Irish
0.9% French
3.8% Other European
1.3% Asian
0.4% African
0.7% multiracial[2]
Religion
(2015)[3]
39% non-religious

23% Anglican
22% Catholic
7% Other Christian

2% Other religion
Demonym(s)Islanders, Jerseyman, Jerseywoman
GovernmentParliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
Stephen Dalton
• Bailiff
Tim Le Cocq[4]
John Le Fondré Jr
LegislatureStates Assembly
Area
• Total
118.2[5] km2 (45.6 sq mi) (unranked)
• Water (%)
0
Highest elevation
469 ft (143 m)
Population
• 2019 estimate
107,800[6] (196th)
• Density
912/km2 (2,362.1/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2015 estimate
• Total
$6.0 billion (£4.57 billion)[7] (not ranked)
• Per capita
$60,000 (£45,783) (not ranked)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
£4.885 billion [8]
• Per capita
£45,320
HDI (2008)Steady 0.985[9]
very high · not ranked
CurrencyPound sterling
Jersey pound (£) (GBP)
Time zoneUTC±00:00 (GMT)
 • Summer (DST)
UTC+01:00 (BST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Mains electricity230 V–50 Hz
Driving sideleft
Calling code+44
UK postcode
ISO 3166 codeJE
Internet TLD.je

Jersey was part of the Duchy of Normandy, whose dukes went on to become kings of England from 1066. After Normandy was lost by the kings of England in the 13th century, and the ducal title surrendered to France, Jersey and the other Channel Islands remained attached to the English Crown.

The Bailiwick consists of the Island of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands, along with surrounding uninhabited islands and rocks collectively named Les Dirouilles,[12] Les Écréhous,[12] Les Minquiers,[13] Les Pierres de Lecq,[14] and other reefs. Although the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey are often referred to collectively as the Channel Islands, the "Channel Islands" are not a constitutional or political unit. Jersey has a separate relationship to the Crown from the other Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man, although all are held by the monarch of the United Kingdom.[15]

Jersey is a self-governing parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy, with its own financial, legal and judicial systems,[6] and the power of self-determination.[16] The Lieutenant Governor on the island is the personal representative of the Queen.

Jersey is not part of the United Kingdom,[17] and has an international identity separate from that of the UK,[18] but the UK is constitutionally responsible for the defence of Jersey.[19] Unlike the UK, Jersey was never part of the European Union, however Brexit still had an impact on Jersey's relationship with Europe.[20]

British cultural influence on the island is evident in its use of English as the main language and the British pound as its primary currency, even if some people still speak or understand Jèrriais, the local form of the Norman language, and place names with French or Norman origins abound. Additional British cultural commonalities include driving on the left, access to the BBC and ITV regions, a school curriculum following that of England, and the popularity of British sports, including cricket.[21][22]

ToponymyEdit

Origin of the nameEdit

The Channel Islands are mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary as the following: Sarnia, Caesarea, Barsa, Silia and Andium, but Jersey cannot be identified specifically because none corresponds directly to the present names.[23] The name Caesarea has been used as the Latin name for Jersey (also in its French version Césarée) since William Camden's Britannia,[24] and is used in titles of associations and institutions today. The Latin name Caesarea was also applied to the colony of New Jersey as Nova Caesarea.[25][26]

Andium, Agna and Augia were used in antiquity.

Scholars variously surmise that Jersey and Jèrri derive from jarð (Old Norse for "earth") or jarl (earl), or perhaps a personal name, Geirr ("Geirr's Island").[27] The ending -ey denotes an island[28][29] (as in Guernsey or Surtsey).

HistoryEdit

 
An 1893 painting of the Assize d'Heritage by John St Helier Lander.

Jersey history is influenced by its strategic location between the northern coast of France and the southern coast of England; the island's recorded history extends over a thousand years.

La Cotte de St Brelade is a Palaeolithic site inhabited before rising sea levels transformed Jersey into an island. Jersey was a centre of Neolithic activity, as demonstrated by the concentration of dolmens. Evidence of Bronze Age and early Iron Age settlements can be found in many locations around the island.

Additional archaeological evidence of Roman influence has been found, in particular at Les Landes, the coastal headland site at Le Pinacle, where remains of a primitive structure are attributed to Gallo-Roman temple worship (fanum).[30]

Jersey was part of Neustria with the same Gallo-Frankish population as the continental mainland. Jersey, the whole Channel Islands and the Cotentin peninsula (probably with the Avranchin) came formally under the control of the duke of Brittany during the Viking invasions, because the king of the Franks was unable to defend them, however they remained in the archbishopric of Rouen. Jersey was invaded by Vikings in the 9th century. In 933 it was annexed to the future Duchy of Normandy, together with the other Channel Islands, Cotentin and Avranchin, by William Longsword, count of Rouen and it became one of the Norman Islands. When William's descendant, William the Conqueror, conquered England in 1066, the Duchy of Normandy and the kingdom of England were governed under one monarch.[31] The Dukes of Normandy owned considerable estates in the island, and Norman families living on their estates established many of the historical Norman-French Jersey family names. King John lost all his territories in mainland Normandy in 1204 to King Philip II Augustus, but retained possession of Jersey and the other Channel Islands.[32]

In the Treaty of Paris (1259), the English king formally surrendered his claim to the duchy of Normandy and ducal title, and since then the islands have been internally self-governing territories of the English crown and latterly the British crown.[32]

On 7 October 1406, 1,000 French men at arms led by Pero Niño invaded Jersey, landing at St Aubin's Bay and defeated the 3,000 defenders but failed to capture the island.[33]

In the late 16th century, islanders travelled across the North Atlantic to participate in the Newfoundland fisheries.[34] In recognition for help given to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, King Charles II of England gave Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret, bailiff and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies in between the Hudson and Delaware rivers, which he promptly named New Jersey. It is now a state in the United States.[35][36]

 
Liberation Day celebrations in Jersey, 9 May 2012

Aware of the military importance of Jersey, the British government had ordered that the bailiwick be heavily fortified. On 6 January 1781, a French invasion force of 2,000 men set out to take over the island, but only half of the force arrived and landed. The Battle of Jersey lasted about half an hour, with the English successfully defending the island. There were about thirty casualties on each side, and the English took 600 French prisoners who were subsequently sent to England. The French commanders were slain.

Trade laid the foundations of prosperity, aided by neutrality between England and France.[37] The Jersey way of life involved agriculture, milling, fishing, shipbuilding and production of woollen goods. 19th-century improvements in transport links brought tourism to the island.

During the Second World War, some citizens were evacuated to the UK but most remained. Jersey was occupied by Germany from 1 July 1940 until 9 May 1945, when Germany surrendered.[38] During this time the Germans constructed many fortifications using Soviet slave labour. After 1944, supplies from mainland France were interrupted by the D-Day landings, and food on the island became scarce. The SS Vega was sent to the island carrying Red Cross supplies and news of the success of the Allied advance in Europe. The Channel Islands were one of the last places in Europe to be liberated. 9 May is celebrated as the island's Liberation Day, where there are celebrations in Liberation Square.

In 2020, Jersey suffered from the global COVID-19 pandemic. The island was placed into a lockdown, with significant restrictions on freedom of movement for residents on 30 March.

GovernanceEdit

PoliticsEdit

 
The States building in St. Helier

Jersey is a British Crown dependency and is not part of the United Kingdom - it is officially part of the British Islands. As one of the Crown dependencies, Jersey is autonomous and self-governing, with its own independent legal, administrative and fiscal systems.[39] Jersey's government has described Jersey as a "self-governing, democratic country with the power of self-determination".[40]

Because Jersey is a dependency of the British Crown, Queen Elizabeth II reigns in Jersey.[41] "The Crown" is defined by the Law Officers of the Crown as the "Crown in right of Jersey".[42] The Queen's representative and adviser in the island is the Lieutenant Governor of Jersey - Sir Stephen Dalton since 13 March 2017. He is a point of contact between Jersey ministers and the UK Government and carries out some functions in relation to immigration control, deportation, naturalisation and the issue of passports.[43]

 
Sir John Chalmers McColl as Lieutenant Governor of Jersey

In 1973, the Royal Commission on the Constitution set out the duties of the Crown as including: ultimate responsibility for the 'good government' of the Crown dependencies; ratification of island legislation by Order in Council (Royal Assent); international representation, subject to consultation with the island authorities before concluding any agreement which would apply to them; ensuring the islands meet their international obligations; and defence.[44]

Legislature and governmentEdit

Jersey's unicameral legislature is the States Assembly. It includes 49 elected members: 8 senators (elected on an island-wide basis), 12 Connétables (often called 'constables', heads of parishes) and 29 deputies (representing constituencies), all elected for four-year terms as from the October 2011 elections.[45] There are also five non-voting members appointed by the Crown: the Bailiff, the Lieutenant Governor of Jersey, the Dean of Jersey, the Attorney General and Solicitor General.[46] Jersey has one of the lowest voter turnouts internationally, with just 33% of the electorate voting in 2005, putting it well below the 77% European average for that year.[47]

The Council of Ministers, consisting of a Chief Minister and nine ministers, makes up part of the Government of Jersey.[48][49] Each minister may appoint up to two assistant ministers.[50] A Chief Executive is head of the civil service.[51] Some government functions are carried out in the island's parishes.

The Bailiff is President (presiding officer) of the States Assembly,[52] head of the judiciary and as civic head of the island carries out various ceremonial roles.

LawEdit

Jersey is a distinct jurisdiction for the purposes of conflict of laws, separate from the other Channel Islands, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.[53]

Jersey law has been influenced by several different legal traditions, in particular Norman customary law, English common law and modern French civil law.[54] Jersey's legal system is therefore described as 'mixed' or 'pluralistic', and sources of law are in French and English languages, although since the 1950s the main working language of the legal system is English.

The principal court is the Royal Court, with appeals to the Jersey Court of Appeal and, ultimately, to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. The Bailiff is head of the judiciary; the Bailiff and the Deputy Bailiff are appointed by the Crown. Other members of the island's judiciary are appointed by the Bailiff.

ParishesEdit





Jersey is divided into twelve parishes (which have civil and religious functions). They are all named after their parish church. The Connétable is the head of the parish. They are elected at island general elections and sit ex oficio in the States Assembly.

The parishes have various civil administrative functions, such as roads (managed by the Road Committee) and policing (through the Honorary Police). Each parish is governed through direct democracy at Parish Assemblies, consisting of all eligible voters resident in the parish. The Procureurs du Bien Public are the legal and financial representatives of thes parishes.

The parishes of Jersey are further divided into vingtaines (or, in St. Ouen, cueillettes), divisions that are historic. Today they are used chiefly for purposes of local administration and electoral constituency.

External relationsEdit

 
Jersey Airport greets travellers with "Welcome to Jersey" sign in Jèrriais.

Although diplomatic representation is reserved to the Crown, Jersey has been developing its own international identity over recent years. It negotiates directly with foreign governments on matters within the competence of the Government of Jersey. Jersey maintains the Bureau des Iles Anglo-Normandes in Caen, France, a permanent non-diplomatic representation. A similar office, the Maison de Normandie in St. Helier, represents the Conseil général of Manche and the Regional Council of Normandy. It also houses the Consulate of France. In July 2009, a Channel Islands Tunnel was proposed to connect Jersey with Lower Normandy.[55]

Jersey is a member of the British-Irish Council, the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and the Assemblée parlementaire de la Francophonie. Jersey wants to become a full member of the Commonwealth in its own right.[56]

International identityEdit

In 2007, the Chief Minister and the UK Lord Chancellor signed an agreement[18] that established a framework for the development of the international identity of Jersey.

In January 2011, the Chief Minister designated one of his assistant ministers as having responsibility for external relations; he is now often described as the island's 'foreign minister'.[57][58]

Tax information exchange agreements (TIEAs) have been signed directly by the island with several countries.[59]

Relationship with the European UnionEdit

Jersey is a third-party European country to the EU. Its relationship with the EU operates under the free-trade agreement negotiated by the UK. Since 1 January 2021, Jersey has been part of the UK-EU Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement for the purposes of goods and fishing. Goods exported from the island into Europe are not be subject to tariffs and Jersey is solely responsible for management of its territorial waters. Although there is no provision for services, the External Relations Minister Ian Gorst is confident it is compatible with pre-existing relationship. The deal was unanimously approved by the States Assembly.[60]

Before the end of the transition period after the UK withdrew from the EU in 2020, Jersey had a special relationship with the EU. Jersey was within the Union as a European Territory for whose external relationships the UK is responsible.[61] It was part of the EU customs union and the common external tariff applied. There was free movement of goods between Jersey and the EU but free movement of people did not apply to Jersey. Jersey was not part of the single market in financial services. It was not required to implement EU Directives on such matters as the movement of capital, company law or money laundering.

Separation debateEdit

The question of an independent Jersey has been discussed from time to time in the States Assembly. In 2005–08, a working group of the States Assembly examined the options for independence, concluding that Jersey 'is equipped to face the challenges of independence' but making no recommendations.[62] Proposals for Jersey independence continue to be discussed outside the States.[63][64] After the UK decided to leave the European Union in 2016, Sir Philip Bailhache, former External Relations Minister, in 2018 stated that independence "may be the only option if Brexit deal is bad".[65]

In October 2012, the Council of Ministers issued a "Common policy for external relations"[16] which noted "that it is not Government policy to seek independence from the United Kingdom, but rather to ensure that Jersey is prepared if it were in the best interests of islanders to do so". On the basis of the established principles the Council of Ministers decided to "ensure that Jersey is prepared for external change that may affect the island's formal relationship with the United Kingdom and/or European Union".

BrexitEdit

With Brexit and fishing, Jersey takes control of all fishing boats in its waters through a licensing process, however EU boats with a history of fishing in Jersey waters will be granted a permit. Similarly, Jersey boats that have traditionally fished in French waters will be given a permit to continue by the French authorities.[66] The change means that Jersey will control fishing activities for EU boats in Jersey waters which is of concern especially to French fishermen.[67] Jersey boats registered with NEAFC can land crustaceans and fin fish they have caught at the ports of Carteret or Granville, as these species are exempt from the EU sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) requirements for an Export Health Certificate, however specific French permission is required before each landing. Scallops, clams and whelks cannot be landed into the EU without a health certificate.[68]

GeographyEdit

 
Satellite view of Jersey
 
Map of islands of Bailiwick of Jersey

Jersey is an island measuring 118.2 square kilometres (45.6 sq mi) (or 66,436 vergées),[5] including reclaimed land and intertidal zone. It lies in the English Channel, about 12 nautical miles (22 km; 14 mi) from the Cotentin Peninsula in Normandy, France, and about 87 nautical miles (161 km; 100 mi) south of Great Britain.[69] It is the largest and southernmost of the Channel Islands and part of the British Isles, with a maximum land elevation of 143 m (469 ft) above sea level.

About 24% of the island is built-up. 52% of the land area is dedicated to cultivation and around 18% is the natural environment.[70]

It lies within longitude -2° W and latitude 49° N. It has a coastline that is 70 km long and a total area of 119 square kilometres. It measures roughly 9 miles from west to east and 5 miles north to south, which gives it the affectionate name among locals of "nine-by-five".

The island is divided into twelve parishes, the largest of which is St Ouen and the smallest of which is St Clement. The island is characetrised by a number of valleys which generally run north-to-south, such as Waterworks Valley, Grands Vaux, Mont les Vaux, although a few run in other directions, such as Le Mourier Valley. The highest point on the island is Les Platons at 136 m.[71]

There are several smaller island groups that are part of the Bailiwick of Jersey, such as Les Minquiers and Les Écrehous, however unlike the smaller islands of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, none of these are permanently inhabited.

SettlementsEdit

The 2011 Island Plan defines the island's built-up areas as three main entities.[72] The island is effectively a single conurbation, consisting of an urban core, suburbs and exurban rural communities.

The largest settlement is the town of St Helier, which also plays host to the island's seat of government. The town consists of the built-up area of southern St Helier, including First Tower, and some adjoining parts of St Saviour and St Clement, such as Georgetown. The town is the central business district, hosting a large proportion of the island's retail and employment, such as the finance industry.

The primary suburban areas of St Helier consist of the Five Oaks area in St Saviour, and developments along the coast, primarily along main roads to east and west of the town. The south and east coasts from St Aubin to Gorey are largely urbanised, with only small gaps in their development, such as the Royal Golf Course in Grouville.

Outside of the town, many islanders live in rural and village settlements and even the more rural areas of the island have considerable amounts of development (even St Ouen, the least densely populated parish still has 270 persons per square kilometre[73]). The most notable exurban development is the Les Quennevais area, which is home to a small precinct of shops, a park and a leisure centre. Many people in these communities regularly travel to St Helier for work and leisure purposes.

Most of the villages are the namesake settlement of their parish, for example St John's Village in St John, however some are not, such as Maufant Village on the border of St Saviour and St Martin.

The Jersey House Price Index has doubled between 2002 and 2020. The mix-adjusted house price for Jersey is £533,000, higher than any UK region including London.[74]

ClimateEdit

The climate is an oceanic climate with mild winters and mild to warm summers.[75]

The Atlantic Ocean has a moderating effect on temperature in Jersey, as water has a much greater specific heat capacity than air and tends to heat and cool slowly throughout the year. This has a warming influence on coastal areas in winter and a cooling influence in summer. The highest temperature recorded was 36.0 °C (96.8 °F) on 9 August 2003 and again on 23 July 2019,[76] and the lowest temperature recorded was −10.3 °C (13.5 °F) on 5 January 1894. By comparison, higher temperatures are found in mainland United Kingdom, which achieved 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) in Faversham, Kent on 10 August 2003. The impact of the Atlantic Ocean and coastal winds ensure that Jersey is slightly cooler than the southern and central parts of England during the summer months. Snow falls rarely in Jersey; some years will pass with no snow fall at all.

The terrain consists of a plateau sloping from long sandy bays in the south to rugged cliffs in the north. The plateau is cut by valleys running generally north–south.

The following table contains the official Jersey Airport averages for 1981-2010 for Jersey, being located 7.2 kilometres (4.5 mi) from St. Helier.

Climate data for Jersey Airport, elevation 84m, 1981-2010
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
18.0
(64.4)
20.3
(68.5)
25.0
(77.0)
28.0
(82.4)
33.0
(91.4)
36.0
(96.8)
36.0
(96.8)
30.2
(86.4)
26.0
(78.8)
21.0
(69.8)
16.0
(60.8)
36.0
(96.8)
Average high °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
8.4
(47.1)
10.4
(50.7)
12.5
(54.5)
15.8
(60.4)
18.4
(65.1)
20.4
(68.7)
20.6
(69.1)
18.7
(65.7)
15.4
(59.7)
11.7
(53.1)
9.2
(48.6)
14.2
(57.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.3
(43.3)
6.1
(43.0)
7.9
(46.2)
9.5
(49.1)
12.6
(54.7)
15.1
(59.2)
17.2
(63.0)
17.5
(63.5)
15.8
(60.4)
13.0
(55.4)
9.6
(49.3)
7.1
(44.8)
11.5
(52.7)
Average low °C (°F) 4.3
(39.7)
3.8
(38.8)
5.3
(41.5)
6.5
(43.7)
9.3
(48.7)
11.8
(53.2)
13.9
(57.0)
14.3
(57.7)
12.9
(55.2)
10.6
(51.1)
7.5
(45.5)
5.0
(41.0)
8.8
(47.8)
Record low °C (°F) −10.3
(13.5)
−9.0
(15.8)
−3.3
(26.1)
−1.6
(29.1)
0.0
(32.0)
5.9
(42.6)
9.0
(48.2)
7.7
(45.9)
6.0
(42.8)
−2.6
(27.3)
−3.0
(26.6)
−4.0
(24.8)
−10.3
(13.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 93.1
(3.67)
68.9
(2.71)
66.1
(2.60)
56.4
(2.22)
55.6
(2.19)
47.5
(1.87)
44.6
(1.76)
49.5
(1.95)
63.9
(2.52)
103.4
(4.07)
105.4
(4.15)
111.3
(4.38)
865.8
(34.09)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 66.1 91.6 134.0 196.5 236.7 245.4 252.7 235.3 184.6 118.8 79.9 63.2 1,904.8
Source: Met Office[77] and Voodoo Skies[78]

EconomyEdit

Jersey's economy is highly developed and dynamic, with a GDP per capita of £45,320[79] in 2019. It is a mixed market economy, with free market principles and an advanced social security infrastructure.[80] The officially currency in Jersey is the pound sterling, though it has its own banknotes and coins, known as the Jersey pound. Jersey's monetary policy is linked to the Bank of England.

Jersey is most notable economically for being one of the largest offshore finance centres. The United Kingdom acts as a conduit for financial services between European countries and the island.[81]

The economy of Jersey is based on financial services (40% of GVA in 2012), tourism and hospitality (hotels, restaurants, bars, transport and communications totalling 8.4% of GVA in 2012), retail and wholesale (7% of GVA in 2012), construction (6.2% of GVA in 2012) and agriculture (1.3% of GVA in 2012).[5]

Thanks to specialisation in a few high-return sectors, at purchasing power parity Jersey has high economic output per capita, substantially ahead of all of the world's large developed economies. Gross national income in 2009 was £3.7 billion (approximately £40,000 per head of population).[5] However, this is not indicative of each individual resident's purchasing power, and the actual standard of living in Jersey is comparable to that in the United Kingdom outside central London. The growth of this sector however has not been without its controversies as Jersey has been characterised by critics and detractors as a place in which the "leadership has essentially been captured by global finance, and whose members will threaten and intimidate anyone who dissents."[47] In June 2005 the States introduced the Competition (Jersey) Law 2005[82] to regulate competition and stimulate economic growth. This competition law was based on that of other jurisdictions. In 2015, Jersey (in conjunction with the Bailiwick of Gunersey) established the Channel Islands Financial Ombudsman (CIFO) to resolve consumer complaints about financial services provided in or from the Channel Islands[see www.ci-fo.org for details and legislative basis].

Tourism supports not only hotels, but also retail and services: in 2015 there were 717,600 visitors spending £243 million.[83] Duty-free goods are available for purchase on travel to and from the island.

 
Aerial view of fields in Saint Clement, Jersey

In 2017, 52% of the Island's area was agricultural land (a decrease since 2009).[70] Major agricultural products are potatoes and dairy produce; agriculture's share of GVA increased 5% in 2009, a fifth successive year of growth.[5] Jersey cattle are a small breed of cow widely known for its rich milk and cream; the quality of its meat is also appreciated on a small scale.[84][85] The herd total in 2009 was 5,090 animals.[5] Fisheries and aquaculture make use of Jersey's marine resources to a total value of over £6 million in 2009.[5]

Farmers and growers often sell surplus food and flowers in boxes on the roadside, relying on the honesty of customers to drop the correct change into the money box and take what they want. In the 21st century, diversification of agriculture and amendments in planning strategy have led to farm shops replacing many of the roadside stalls.

53,460 people were employed in Jersey as of December 2010: 24% in financial and legal services; 16% in wholesale and retail trades; 16% in the public sector; 10% in education, health and other private sector services; 10% in construction and quarrying; 9% in hotels, restaurants and bars.[5]

Jersey along with Guernsey has its own lottery called the Channel Islands Lottery that was launched in 1975.

On 18 February 2005, Jersey was granted Fairtrade Island status.[86]

TaxationEdit

Jersey is not a tax-free jurisdiction. Taxes are levied on properties (known as 'rates') and a Personal Income Tax, Corporate Income Tax and goods and services tax exist.[87]

Before 2008, Jersey had no value-added tax. Many companies, such as Amazon and Play.com, took advantage of this and a loophole in European law, known as low-value consignment relief, to establish a tax-free fulfilment industry from Jersey.[88] This loophole was closed by UK authorities in 2012, leading to the closure of most of industry.[88]

There is a 20% standard rate for Income Tax and a 5% standard rate for GST. The island has a 0% default tax rate for corporations, however higher rates apply to financial services, utility companies and large corporate retailers.[87]

Jersey is considered to be a tax haven by some organisations - for example the Financial Secrecy Index ranks Jersey as 18th as of 2018.[89] Jersey does not feature, however, in the March 2019 revised EU list of non-cooperative jurisdictions for tax purposes.[90]

TransportEdit

The primary mode of transport on the island is the motor vehicle. Jersey has a road network consisting of 557 km of roads and there are a total of 124,737 motor vehicles registered on the island as of 2016.[91]

There are no longer any railways on the island, however there used to be two main railway lines, the Jersey Western Railway and the Jersey Eastern Railway. The Western Railway track has been converted to a cycle track. Public transport in Jersey consists of a bus network. There is also a taxi network.

Jersey has a large network of lanes, some of which are classified as green lanes, which have a 15 mph speed limit and where priority is afforded to pedestrians, cyclists and horse riders.

Jersey has an airport and a number of ports, which are operated by Ports of Jersey.[92]

CurrencyEdit

 
The Jersey £5 note
 
Jersey stamps commemorating the 150th anniversary of the birth of General William Mesny

The official currency of Jersey is the pound sterling. Jersey issues its own postage stamps, banknotes (inlcuding a £1 note which is not issued in the UK) and coins that circulate alongside all other sterling coinage. Jersey currency is not legal tender outside Jersey; however it is acceptable tender[93] in the UK and can be surrendered at banks in exchange for UK currency. Due to French tourism, many places accept the euro.

In July 2014, the Jersey Financial Services Commission approved the establishment of the world's first regulated Bitcoin fund, at a time when the digital currency was being accepted by some local businesses.[94]

DemographicsEdit

 
Mont Orgueil was built in the 13th century after its split from Normandy.

Censuses have been undertaken in Jersey since 1821. In the 2011 census, the total resident population was estimated to be 97,857, of whom 34% live in Saint Helier, the island's only town.[95] Approximately half the island's population was born in Jersey; 31% of the population were born elsewhere in the British Isles, 7% in continental Portugal or Madeira, 8% in other European countries and 4% elsewhere.[96]

The people of Jersey are often called Islanders or, in individual terms, Jerseyman or Jerseywoman. Some Jersey-born people identify as British.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
187156,627—    
195155,244−2.4%
196159,489+7.7%
197169,329+16.5%
198176,050+9.7%
199184,082+10.6%
200187,186+3.7%
201197,857+12.2%
2019106,800+9.1%
2019 estimate[6]

ImmigrationEdit

Jersey belongs to the Common Travel Area[97] and the definition of "United Kingdom" in the British Nationality Act 1981 is interpreted as including the UK and the Islands together.[98]

For immigration and nationality purposes, the United Kingdom generally treats Jersey as though it were part of the UK. Jersey is constitutionally entitled to restrict immigration[99] by non-Jersey residents, but control of immigration at the point of entry cannot be introduced for British, certain Commonwealth and EEA nationals without change to existing international law.[100] Immigration is therefore controlled by a mixture of restrictions on those without residential status purchasing or renting property in the island and restrictions on employment. Migration policy is to move to a registration system to integrate residential and employment status.[100] Jersey maintains its own immigration[101] and border controls. United Kingdom immigration legislation may be extended to Jersey by order in council (subject to exceptions and adaptations) following consultation with Jersey and with Jersey's consent.[102] Although Jersey citizens are full British citizens, an endorsement restricting the right of establishment in European Union states other than the UK is placed in the passports of British citizens connected solely with the Channel Islands and Isle of Man.[103] Those who have a parent or grandparent born in the United Kingdom, or who have lived in the United Kingdom for five years, are not subject to this restriction.

Historical large-scale immigration was facilitated by the introduction of steamships (from 1823). By 1840, up to 5,000 English people, mostly half-pay officers and their families, had settled in Jersey.[24] In the aftermath of 1848, Polish, Russian, Hungarian, Italian and French political refugees came to Jersey. Following Louis Napoléon's coup of 1851, more French proscrits arrived. By the end of the 19th century, well-to-do British families, attracted by the lack of income tax, were settling in Jersey in increasing numbers, establishing St Helier as a predominantly English-speaking town.

Seasonal work in agriculture had depended mostly on Bretons and mainland Normans from the 19th century. The growth of tourism attracted staff from the United Kingdom. Following liberation in 1945, agricultural workers were mostly recruited from the United Kingdom – the demands of reconstruction in mainland Normandy and Brittany employed domestic labour.

Until the 1960s, the population had been relatively stable for decades at around 60,000 (excluding the Occupation years). Economic growth spurred immigration and a rise in population, which is, by 2013, about 100,000. From the 1960s Portuguese workers arrived, mostly working initially in seasonal industries in agriculture and tourism.

Immigration has helped give aspects of Jersey a distinct urban character, particularly in and around the parish of St Helier, which contributes much to ongoing debates between development and sustainability throughout the island.[104]

LanguageEdit

Languages spoken as of 2001[73]
Language Main language Secondary language Total speakers
English 82,349 3,443 85,792
Portuguese 4,002 3,300 7,305
French 338 14,776 15,114
Jèrriais (Jersey French) 113 2,761 2,874
Other 384 4,496 4,880

ReligionEdit

 
St Thomas' Catholic Church in St Helier

Religion in Jersey has a complex history, drawn largely from different Christian denominations. In 2015, Jersey's first ever national survey of religion found that two fifths of Jersey people have no religion, with only small handfuls of Jersey people belonging to the non-Christian religions. In total, 54% said they had some form of religion, and 7% were not sure. Of those that specified a denomination of Christianity, equal proportions were 'Catholic' or 'Roman Catholic' (43%) as were 'Anglican' or 'Church of England' (44%). The remaining eighth (13%) gave another Christian denomination.[105]

The established church is the Church of England, from 2015 under the See of Canterbury (previously under the Winchester diocese). In the countryside, Methodism found its traditional stronghold. A substantial minority of Roman Catholics can also be found in Jersey. There are two Catholic private combined primary and secondary schools: De La Salle College in Saint Saviour is an all-boys school, and Beaulieu Convent School in Saint Saviour is an all-girls school; and FCJ primary school in St. Saviour. A Catholic order of Sisters has a presence in school life.

CultureEdit

 
Jèrriais road sign ("The black road") in Saint Ouen.

Until the 19th century, indigenous Jèrriais – a variety of Norman – was the language of the island, though French was used for official business. During the 20th century, British cultural influence saw an intense language shift take place and Jersey today is predominantly English-speaking.[21] Jèrriais nonetheless survives; around 2,600 islanders (three percent) are reckoned to be habitual speakers, and some 10,000 (12 percent) in all claim some knowledge of the language, particularly amongst the elderly in rural parishes. There have been efforts to revive Jèrriais in schools, and the highest number of declared Jèrriais speakers is in the capital.

 
Actress Lillie Langtry, nicknamed the Jersey Lily.

The dialects of Jèrriais differ in phonology and, to a lesser extent, lexis between parishes, with the most marked differences to be heard between those of the west and east. Many place names are in Jèrriais, and French and English place names are also to be found. Anglicisation of the place names increased apace with the migration of English people to the island.

Some Neolithic carvings are the earliest works of artistic character to be found in Jersey. Only fragmentary wall-paintings remain from the rich mediaeval artistic heritage, after the wholesale iconoclasm of the Calvinist Reformation of the 16th century.

The island is particularly famous for the Battle of Flowers, a carnival held annually since 1902.[106] Other festivals include La Fête dé Noué[107] (Christmas festival), La Faîs'sie d'Cidre (cidermaking festival),[108] the Battle of Britain air display, Jersey Live Music Festival, Branchage Film Festival, food festivals, and parish events.

The island's patron saint is Saint Helier.[109]

MediaEdit

BroadcastEdit

 
A Channel Television crew interview the Bailiff of Jersey

BBC Radio Jersey provides a radio service, and BBC Channel Islands News with headquarters in Jersey provides a joint television news service with Guernsey. ITV Channel Television is a regional ITV franchise shared with the Bailiwick of Guernsey but with its headquarters in Jersey.

Channel 103 is a commercial radio station. Bailiwick Radio broadcasts two music services, Classics and Hits, online at bailiwickradio.com, Apple & Android apps and on TuneIn. Radio Youth FM is an internet radio station run by young people.[110]

Bailiwick Express is one of Jersey's digital online news sources.[citation needed]

Daily newspaperEdit

Jersey has only one newspaper, the Jersey Evening Post, which is printed six days a week, and has been in publication since 1890.

MusicEdit

 
The Band of the Island of Jersey play at many events[111]

The traditional folk music of Jersey was common in country areas until the mid-20th century. It cannot be separated from the musical traditions of continental Europe, and the majority of songs and tunes that have been documented have close parallels or variants, particularly in France. Most of the surviving traditional songs are in French, with a minority in Jèrriais.

In contemporary music, Guru Josh was most notable for his internationally successful debut hit Infinity and its re-releases, reaching number one in numerous European countries. Furthermore, Nerina Pallot has enjoyed international success. Music festivals in Jersey include Jersey Live, Weekender, Rock in the Park, Avanchi presents Jazz in July, the music section of the Jersey Eisteddfod and the Liberation Jersey Music Festival.[112]

CinemaEdit

In 1909, T. J. West established the first cinema in the Royal Hall in St. Helier, which became known as West's Cinema in 1923 (demolished 1977). The first talking picture, The Perfect Alibi, was shown on 30 December 1929 at the Picture House in St. Helier. The Jersey Film Society was founded on 11 December 1947 at the Café Bleu, West's Cinema. The large Art Deco Forum Cinema was opened in 1935 – during the German occupation this was used for German propaganda films.

The Odeon Cinema was opened 2 June 1952 and, was later rebranded in the early 21st century as the Forum cinema. Its owners, however, struggled to meet tough competition from the Cineworld Cinemas group, which opened a 10 screen multiplex on the waterfront centre in St. Helier on reclaimed land in December 2002 and the Odeon closed its doors in late 2008. The Odeon is now a listed building.[113][114]

Since 1997, Kevin Lewis (formerly of the Cine Centre and the New Forum) has arranged the Jersey Film Festival, a charity event showing the latest and also classic films outdoors in 35 mm on a big screen. The festival is regularly held in Howard Davis Park, St Saviour.

First held in 2008, the Branchage Jersey International Film Festival[115] attracts filmmakers from all over the world. The 2001 movie The Others was set on the island in 1945 shortly after liberation.

Food and drinkEdit

 
Jersey wonders, or mèrvelles, are a favourite snack consisting of fried dough, found especially at country fêtes. According to tradition, the success of cooking depends on the state of the tide.

Seafood has traditionally been important to the cuisine of Jersey: mussels (called moules in the island), oysters, lobster and crabs – especially spider crabsormers and conger.

Jersey milk being very rich, cream and butter have played a large part in insular cooking. (See Channel Island milk) However, there is no indigenous tradition of cheese making, contrary to the custom of mainland Normandy, but some cheese is produced commercially. Jersey fudge, mostly imported and made with milk from overseas Jersey cattle herds, is a popular food product with tourists.

Jersey Royal potatoes are the local variety of new potato, and the island is famous for its early crop of Chats (small potatoes) from the south-facing côtils (steeply sloping fields). They were originally grown using vraic as a natural fertiliser giving them their own individual taste, only a small portion of those grown in the island still use this method. They are eaten in a variety of ways, often simply boiled and served with butter or when not as fresh fried in butter.

Apples historically were an important crop. Bourdélots are apple dumplings, but the most typical speciality is black butter (lé nièr beurre), a dark spicy spread prepared from apples, cider and spices. Cider used to be an important export. After decline and near-disappearance in the late 20th century, apple production is being increased and promoted. Besides cider, apple brandy is produced. Other production of alcohol drinks includes wine,[116] and in 2013 the first commercial vodkas made from Jersey Royal potatoes were marketed.[117]

Among other traditional dishes are cabbage loaf, Jersey wonders (les mèrvelles), fliottes, bean crock (les pais au fou), nettle (ortchie) soup, vraic buns.

SportEdit

 
A statue of Jersey golfer, Harry Vardon, stands at the entrance to the Royal Jersey Golf Club

In its own right Jersey participates in the Commonwealth Games and in the biennial Island Games, which it first hosted in 1997 and more recently in 2015.[118]

In sporting events in which Jersey does not have international representation, when the British Home Nations are competing separately, islanders that do have high athletic skill may choose to compete for any of the Home Nations – there are, however, restrictions on subsequent transfers to represent another Home Nation.

Jersey is an associate member of the International Cricket Council (ICC). The Jersey cricket team plays in the Inter-insular match among others. The Jersey cricket team competed in the World Division 4, held in Tanzania in October 2008, after recently finishing as runners-up and therefore being promoted from the World Division 5 held in Jersey. They also competed in the European Division 2, held in Guernsey during August 2008. The youth cricket teams have been promoted to play in the European Division 1 alongside Ireland, Scotland, Denmark, the Netherlands and Guernsey. In two tournaments at this level Jersey have finished 6th.

For Horse racing, Les Landes Racecourse can be found at Les Landes in St. Ouen next to the ruins of Grosnez Castle.

The Jersey Football Association supervises football in Jersey. The Jersey Football Combination has nine teams in its top division. Jersey national football team plays in the annual Muratti competition among others.

Rugby union in Jersey comes under the auspices of the Jersey Rugby Association (JRA), which is a member of the Rugby Football Union of England. Jersey Reds compete in the English rugby union system;[119] after four promotions in five seasons, the last three of which were consecutive, they competed in the second-level RFU Championship in 2012–13.[120]

Jersey has two public indoor swimming pools. Swimming in the sea, windsurfing and other marine sports are practised. Jersey Swimming Club have organised an annual swim from Elizabeth Castle to Saint Helier Harbour for over 50 years. A round-island swim is a major challenge that a select number of swimmers have achieved. The Royal Channel Island Yacht Club is based in Jersey.

There is one facility for extreme sports and some facilities for youth sports. Jersey has one un-roofed skateboarding park. Coastal cliffs provide opportunities for rock climbing.

Two professional golfers from Jersey have won the Open Championship seven times between them; Harry Vardon won six times and Ted Ray won once. Vardon and Ray also won the U.S. Open once each. Harry Vardon's brother, Tom Vardon, had wins on various European tours.

An independent body that promotes sports in Jersey and support clubs, 'Jersey Sport' was launched in 2017[121]

LiteratureEdit

 
Victor Hugo in exile, 1850s.

Wace, a Norman poet of the 12th century, is Jersey's earliest known author. Printing arrived in Jersey only in the 1780s, but the island supported a multitude of regular publications in French (and Jèrriais) and English throughout the 19th century, in which poetry, most usually topical and satirical, flourished (see Jèrriais literature). The first Jèrriais book to be published was Rimes et Poésies Jersiaises de divers auteurs réunies et mises en ordre, edited by Abraham Mourant in 1865. Writers born in Jersey include Elinor Glyn, John Lemprière, Philippe Le Sueur Mourant, Robert Pipon Marett and Augustus Asplet Le Gros. Frederick Tennyson and Gerald Durrell were among authors who made Jersey their home. Contemporary authors based in Jersey include Jack Higgins.

EducationEdit

SchoolsEdit

The Government of Jersey provides education through state schools (including a fee-paying option at secondary level) and also supports private schools. The Jersey curriculum follows that of England.[22] It follows the National Curriculum although there are a few differences to adapt for the island,[122] for example all Year 4 students study a six-week Jersey Studies course.[123]

Further and higher educationEdit

Jersey has a college of further education and university centre, Highlands College. As well as offering part-time and evening courses, Highlands is also a sixth form provider, working alongside Hautlieu School which offers the only non-fee-paying sixth form, and works collaboratively with a range of organisations including the Open University, University of Plymouth and London South Bank University. In particular students can study at Highlands for the two-year foundation degree in financial services and for a BSc in social sciences, both validated by the University of Plymouth.

The Institute of Law is Jersey's law school, providing a course for students seeking to qualify as Jersey advocates and solicitors. It also provides teaching for students enrolled on the University of London LLB degree programme, via the International Programmes. The Institute of Law also runs a 'double degree' course: students can obtain the LLB from the University of London and a Licence en droit M1 from Toulouse 1 Capitol University; the two combine 4 years of studies in both English and French. The Open University supports students in Jersey, but they pay higher fees than UK students. Private sector higher education providers include the Jersey International Business School.

EnvironmentEdit

Designations
Official nameSouth East Coast of Jersey, Channel Islands
Designated10 November 2000
Reference no.1043[124]

Three areas of land are protected for their ecological or geological interest as Sites of Special Interest (SSI). Jersey has four designated Ramsar sites: Les Pierres de Lecq, Les Minquiers, Les Écréhous and Les Dirouilles and the south east coast of Jersey (a large area of intertidal zone).[125]

Jersey is the home of the Jersey Zoo (formerly known as the Durrell Wildlife Park[126]) founded by the naturalist, zookeeper and author Gerald Durrell.

BiodiversityEdit

Four species of small mammal are considered native:[127] the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), the Jersey bank vole (Myodes glareolus caesarius), the Lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens) and the French shrew (Sorex coronatus). Three wild mammals are well-established introductions: the rabbit (introduced in the mediaeval period), the red squirrel and the hedgehog (both introduced in the 19th century). The stoat (Mustela erminea) became extinct in Jersey between 1976 and 2000. The Green lizard (Lacerta bilineata) is a protected species of reptile; Jersey is its only habitat in the British Isles.[128]

The red-billed chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax became extinct in Jersey around 1900, when changes in farming and grazing practices led to a decline in the coastal slope habitat required by this species. Birds on the Edge, a project between the Government of Jersey, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust and Jersey National Trust, is working to restore Jersey's coastal habitats and reinstate the red-billed chough (and other bird species) to the island[129]

Jersey is the only place in the British Isles where the agile frog Rana dalmatina is found.[130] The remaining population of agile frogs on Jersey is very small and is restricted to the south west of the island. The species is the subject of an ongoing programme to save it from extinction in Jersey via a collaboration between the Government of Jersey, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust and Jersey Amphibian and Reptile Group (JARG), with support and sponsorship from several other organisations. The programme includes captive breeding and release, public awareness and habitat restoration activities.[131]

Trees generally considered native are the alder (Alnus glutinosa), silver birch (Betula pendula), sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa), hazel (Corylus avellana), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), aspen (Populus tremula), wild cherry (Prunus avium), blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), holm oak (Quercus ilex), oak (Quercus robur), sallow (Salix cinerea), elder (Sambucus nigra), elm (Ulmus spp.) and medlar (Mespilus germanica). Among notable introduced species, the cabbage palm (Cordyline australis) has been planted in coastal areas and may be seen in many gardens.[132]

Notable marine species[133] include the ormer, conger, bass, undulate ray, grey mullet, ballan wrasse and garfish. Marine mammals include the bottlenosed dolphin[134] and grey seal.[135]

Historically the island has given its name to a variety of overly-large cabbage, the Jersey cabbage, also known as Jersey kale or cow cabbage.[136]

Japanese Knotweed Fallopia japonica is an invasive species that threatens Jersey's biodiversity.[137] It is easily recognisable and has hollow stems with small white flowers that are produced in late summer.[138] Other non-native species on the island include the Colorado beetle, burnet rose and oak processionary moth.[137]

Public servicesEdit

Emergency services[139] are provided by the States of Jersey Police with the support of the Honorary Police as necessary, States of Jersey Ambulance Service,[140] Jersey Fire and Rescue Service[141] and the Jersey Coastguard.[142] The Jersey Fire and Rescue Service and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution operate an inshore rescue and lifeboat service; Channel Islands Air Search provides rapid response airborne search of the surrounding waters.[143]

The States of Jersey Fire Service was formed in 1938 when the States took over the Saint Helier Fire Brigade, which had been formed in 1901. The first lifeboat was equipped, funded by the States, in 1830. The RNLI established a lifeboat station in 1884.[144] Border security and customs controls are undertaken by the States of Jersey Customs and Immigration Service. Jersey has adopted the 112 emergency number alongside its existing 999 emergency number.

Water supplies in Jersey are managed by Jersey Water. Jersey Water supply water from two water treatment works, around 7.2 billion litres in 2018. Water in Jersey is almost exclusively from rainfall-dependent surface water. The water is collected and stored in six reservoirs and there is also a desalination plant that produces up to 10.8 million litres per day (around half of the Island's average daily usage). In 2017, 101 water pollution incidents were reported, an increase of 5% on 2016. Another estimated 515,700 m3 of water is abstracted for domestic purposes from private sources (around 9% of the population).[145]

Electricity in Jersey is provided by a sole supplier, Jersey Electricity, of which the States of Jersey is the majority shareholder.[146] Jersey imports a large amount of its power. Jersey Electricity claims the carbon intensity of its electricity supply is 35g CO2 e / kWh compared to 352g CO2 e / kWh in the UK. 35% of Jersey's imported power comes from hydro-electric sources and 65% from nuclear sources.[147]

Notable peopleEdit

See alsoEdit

Footnotes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ Saint Helier is the de facto capital of Jersey, being the seat of the island's government, however Government House, the official royal residence of the island, is located in Saint Saviour
  2. ^ The largest settlement on Jersey is in fact made up of parts of various parishes and is often referred to as "town" by islanders.
  3. ^ Jersey does not have a de jure official language, but these are the permitted languages in the island's parliament, the States Assembly "P.4/2018 - Jèrriais: Optional use in the States Chamber" (PDF). States of Jersey Greffe. 15 January 2018. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  1. ^ "Anthem for Jersey". Government of Jersey.
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  3. ^ Jersey Annual Social Survey: 2015 (PDF). States of Jersey. p. 8. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  4. ^ "Members". statesassembly.gov.je. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Jersey in Figures 2013 booklet" (PDF). Government of Jersey. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
  6. ^ a b c "Jersey's population increases by 1100 in the last year". ITV. 18 June 2020. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
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  12. ^ a b "Les Écrehous & Les Dirouilles, Jersey". Ramsar Sites Information Service. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  13. ^ "Les Minquiers, Jersey". Ramsar Sites Information Service. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  14. ^ "Les Pierres de Lecq". Ramsar Sites Information Service. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  15. ^ House of Commons Justice Committee (30 March 2010). Crown dependencies. 8th Report of Session 2009–10 (HC 56-1 ed.). The Stationery Office Ltd. ISBN 978-0-215-55334-8.
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  33. ^ Syvret, Marguerite (2011). Balleine's History of Jersey. The History Press. pp. 50–1. ISBN 978-1860776502.
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  35. ^ Weeks, Daniel J. (1 May 2001). Not for Filthy Lucre's Sake. Lehigh University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-934223-66-1.
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  54. ^ See generally S Nicolle (2009). The Origin and Development of Jersey law: an Outline Guide (5th ed.). St Helier: Jersey and Guernsey Law Review. ISBN 978-0-9557611-3-3. and "Study Guide on Jersey Legal System and Constitutional Law". Jersey: Institute of Law. Archived from the original on 28 December 2013.
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  56. ^ Jersey Evening Post, 23 September 2006
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  64. ^ "Sovereignty or dependency on agenda at conference". Thisisjersey.com. 17 September 2010. Archived from the original on 2 July 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
  65. ^ Targett, Tania. "Independence 'may be only option if Brexit deal is bad'". jerseyeveningpost.com. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  66. ^ "Jersey fishermen 'not celebrating' Brexit deal". BBC. 29 December 2020.
  67. ^ https://www.leparisien.fr/economie/brexit-les-pecheurs-francais-empeches-d-acceder-aux-eaux-de-jersey-15-01-2021-8419425.php
  68. ^ "Direct landing of fish to the EU from 1 January 2021". States of Jersey. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  69. ^ Geographically it is not part of the British Isles. As of 15 October 2006, the States of Jersey indicates that the island is situated "only 22 km off the northwest coast of France and 140 km south of England".
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Further readingEdit

  • Balleine's History of Jersey, Marguerite Syvret and Joan Stevens (1998) ISBN 1-86077-065-7
  • Jersey Through the Centuries, Leslie Sinel, Jersey 1984, ISBN 0-86120-003-9
  • A Biographical Dictionary of Jersey, G.R. Balleine

ArchaeologyEdit

  • The Archaeology of the Channel Islands. Vol. 2: The Bailiwick of Jersey by Jacquetta Hawkes (1939)
  • The Prehistoric Foundations of Europe to the Mycenean Age, 1940, C. F. C. Hawkes
  • Jersey in Prehistory, Mark Patton, 1987
  • The Archaeology and Early History of the Channel Islands, Heather Sebire, 2005.
  • Dolmens of Jersey: A Guide, James Hibbs (1988).
  • A Guide to The Dolmens of Jersey, Peter Hunt, Société Jersiaise, 1998.
  • Statements in Stone: Monuments and Society in Neolithic Brittany, Mark Patton, 1993
  • Hougue Bie, Mark Patton, Warwick Rodwell, Olga Finch, 1999
  • The Channel Islands, An Archaeological Guide, David Johnston, 1981
  • The Archaeology of the Channel Islands, Peter Johnston, 1986

CattleEdit

  • One Hundred Years of the Royal Jersey Agricultural and Horticultural Society 1833–1933. Compiled from the Society's Records, by H.G. Shepard, Secretary. Eric J. Boston. Jersey Cattle, 1954

ReligionEdit

  • The Channel Islands under Tudor Government, A.J. Eagleston
  • Reformation and Society in Guernsey, D.M. Ogier
  • International Politics and the Establishment of Presbyterianism in the Channel Islands: The Coutances Connection, C.S.L. Davies
  • Religion, History and G.R. Balleine: The Reformation in Jersey, by J. St John Nicolle, The Pilot Magazine
  • The Reformation in Jersey: The Process of Change over Two centuries, J. St John Nicolle
  • The Chroniques de Jersey in the light of contemporary documents, BSJ, AJ Eagleston
  • The Portrait of Richard Mabon, BSJ, Joan Stevens

External linksEdit