BT Group plc (trading as BT and formerly British Telecom) is a British multinational telecommunications holding company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It has operations in around 180 countries and is the largest provider of fixed-line, broadband and mobile services in the UK, and also provides subscription television and IT services.
|Public limited company|
|Traded as||LSE: BT.A|
FTSE 100 Component
|Headquarters||BT Centre, |
|Revenue||£23.746 billion (2018)|
|£3.381 billion (2018)|
|£2.032 billion (2018)|
Number of employees
BT's origins date back to the founding in 1846 of the Electric Telegraph Company, the world's first public telegraph company, which developed a nationwide communications network. In 1912, the General Post Office, a government department, became the monopoly telecoms supplier in the United Kingdom. The Post Office Act of 1969 led to the GPO becoming a public corporation. British Telecommunications, trading as British Telecom, was formed in 1980, and became independent of the Post Office in 1981. British Telecommunications was privatised in 1984, becoming British Telecommunications plc, with some 50 percent of its shares sold to investors. The Government sold its remaining stake in further share sales in 1991 and 1993. BT is a Royal Warrant holder of the British Royal Family and has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange, a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange, and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.
BT controls a number of large subsidiaries. BT Global Services division supplies telecoms services to corporate and government customers worldwide, and its BT Consumer division supplies telephony, broadband, and subscription television services in the United Kingdom to around 18 million customers.
- 1 History
- 2 Operations
- 3 Corporate affairs
- 3.1 Buildings and facilities
- 3.2 Divisions
- 3.3 Corporate governance
- 3.4 Pension fund
- 3.5 Sponsorships
- 3.6 Historical financial performance
- 4 Controversies
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
- The Electric Telegraph Company
- British and Irish Magnetic Telegraph Company
- British Telegraph Company
- London District Telegraph Company
- and the United Kingdom Telegraph Company
With the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876 the GPO began to provide telephone services from some of its telegraph exchanges. In 1882 the Postmaster-General, Henry Fawcett started to issue licences to operate a telephone service to private businesses and the telephone system grew under the GPO in some areas and private ownership in others. The GPO's main competitor, the National Telephone Company, emerged in this market by absorbing other private telephone companies, prior to its absorption into the GPO in 1912.
The trunk network was unified under GPO control in 1896 and the local distribution network in 1912. A few municipally owned services remained outside of GPO control. These were Kingston upon Hull, Portsmouth and Guernsey. Hull still retains an independent operator, Kingston Communications, though it is no longer municipally controlled.
Formation of British TelecomEdit
The British Telecom brand was introduced in 1980. On 1 October 1981, this became the official name of Post Office Telecommunications, which became a state-owned corporation independent of the Post Office under the provisions of the British Telecommunications Act 1981. In 1982 BT's monopoly on telecommunications was broken with the granting of a licence to Mercury Communications.
On 19 July 1982, the Government announced its intention to sell shares in British Telecom to the public. On 1 April 1984, British Telecommunications was incorporated as a public limited company (plc) in anticipation of the passing of the Telecommunications Bill. This Bill received Royal Assent on 12 April, and the transfer to British Telecommunications plc from British Telecom as a statutory corporation of its business, its property, its rights and liabilities took place on 6 August 1984.
Initially all shares in the new plc were owned by the Government. In November 1984, 50.2% of the new company was offered for sale to the public and employees. Shares were listed in London, New York, and Toronto and the first day of trading on was 3 December 1984. The Government sold half its remaining interest in December 1991 and the other half in July 1993. In July 1997, the new Labour Government relinquished its Special Share ("Golden Share"), retained at the time of the flotation, which had effectively given it the power to block a takeover of the company, and to appoint two non-executive directors to the Board.
In the 1990s, BT entered the Irish telecommunications market through a joint venture with the Electricity Supply Board, the Irish state owned power provider. This venture, entitled Ocean, found its main success through the launch of Ireland's first subscription-free dial-up ISP, oceanfree.net. As a telecoms company it found much less success, mainly targeting corporate customers. BT acquired 100% of this venture in 1999.
BT's attempted global alliancesEdit
In June 1994 BT and MCI Communications launched Concert Communications Services which was a $1 billion joint venture between the two companies. Its aim was to build a network which would provide easy global connectivity to multinational corporations.
This alliance progressed further on 3 November 1996 when the two companies announced that they had agreed to a merger, creating a global telecommunications company called Concert plc. The proposal gained approval from the European Commission, the US Department of Justice, and the US Federal Communications Commission and looked set to proceed.
However, in light of pressure from investors reacting to the slide in BT's share price on the London Stock Exchange, BT reduced its bid price for MCI, releasing MCI from its exclusivity clause and allowing it to speak to other interested parties. On 1 October 1997, Worldcom made a rival bid for MCI which was followed by a counter-bid from GTE.
BT sold its stake in MCI to Worldcom in 1998 for £4,159 million. As part of the deal, BT also bought out from MCI its 24.9% interest in Concert Communications, thereby making Concert a wholly owned part of BT.
The reaction to the failure of the deal in the City of London was critical of then Chairman Iain Vallance and CEO Peter Bonfield, and the lack of confidence from the failed merger led to their removal.
As BT now owned Concert, and still wanted access to the North American market, it needed a new partner. An AT&T/BT option had been mooted in the past, but stopped on regulatory grounds due to their individual virtual monopolies in their home markets. By 1996, this had receded to the point where a deal was possible and a deal was consummated in 1998.
At its height, the Concert managed network was extensive. Although Concert continued signing customers, its rate of revenue growth slowed, so that in 1999 David Dorman was made CEO with a brief to revive it.
In late 2000 the BT and AT&T boards fell-out – partly due to each partner's excess debt, and the resulting board room clear-outs – partly due to Concert's extensive annual losses. AT&T recognized that Concert was a threat to its ambitions if left intact, and so negotiated a deal where Concert was split in two in 2001: North America and Eastern Asia went to AT&T, the rest of the world and $400M to BT. BT's remaining Concert assets were merged into its BT Ignite, later BT Global Services group.
In 2000, BT acquired Esat Telecom Group plc, and all its subsidiary companies, and Ireland On Line. It also purchased Telenor's minority shareholding in Esat Digifone. The Esat Telecom Group was split in two with the landline and internet operations were combining with Ocean to became part of BT Ignite. Esat Group was renamed Esat BT in July 2002, and eventually BT Ireland in April 2005. Esat Digifone became part of BT Wireless, before being spun off into a separate independent company mmo2 plc (now Telefónica Europe). EsatBT installed the first DSL lines in Ireland, to try and compete heavily with former state telecoms company Eircom and operate one exchange, in Limerick.
2001 debt crisisEdit
By 2001, BT had a debt of £30 billion, much of which was acquired during the bidding round for the 3rd generation mobile telephony (commonly known as 3G) licences. It had also failed in its series of proposed global mergers, and the funds flowing from its then virtual monopoly of the UK market place had been largely removed. It was also headed by two executives who had little support from the London Stock Exchange, particularly in light of a 60% drop in share price in sixteen months.
Europe's largest rights issueEdit
In May 2001 BT carried out corporate Europe's largest ever rights issue, allowing it to raise £5.9 billion. A few days before, it sold stakes in Japan Telecom, in mobile operator J-Phone Communications, and in Airtel of India to Vodafone.
Sale of Yell Group and demerger of O2Edit
A demerger followed in November 2001, when the former mobile telecommunications business of BT, BT Cellnet, was hived off as a separate business named "mmO2". This included BT owned or operated networks in other countries, including BT Cellnet (UK), Esat Digifone (Ireland), and Viag Interkom (Germany). All networks now owned or operated by mmO2 (except Manx Telecom) were renamed as O2. The de-merger was accomplished via a share-swap, all British Telecommunications plc shareholders received one mmO2 plc and one BT Group plc (of which British Telecommunications is now a wholly owned subsidiary) share for each share they owned. British Telecommunications plc was de-listed on 16 November, and the two new companies started trading on 19 November.
During Bonfield's tenure the share price went from £4 to £15, and back again to £5. Bonfield's salary to 31 March 2001 was a basic of £780,000 (increasing to £820,000) plus a £481,000 bonus and £50,000 of other benefits including pension. He also received a deferred bonus, payable in shares three years' later, of £481,000, and additional bonuses of £3.3 million.
mmO2 plc was replaced by O2 plc in a further share-swap in 2005, and subsequently bought in an agreed takeover by Telefónica for £18 billion and delisted. In 2004, BT launched Consult 21, a consultation organisation that was to aid BT 21CN in the eventual conversion to digital telephony.
In 2004, BT was awarded the contract to deliver and manage N3, a secure and fast broadband network for the NHS National Programme for IT (NPfIT) program, on behalf of the English National Health Service (NHS).
In 2005 BT made a number of acquisitions. In February 2005, BT acquired Infonet (now re-branded BT Infonet), a large telecoms company based in El Segundo, California, giving BT access to new geographies. It also acquired the Italian company Albacom. Then in April 2005, it bought Radianz from Reuters (now rebranded as BT Radianz), which expanded BT's coverage and provided BT with more buying power in certain countries.
In October 2006, BT confirmed that it would be investing 75% of its total capital spending, put at £10 billion over five years, in its new Internet Protocol (IP) based 21st century network (21CN). Annual savings of £1 billion per annum were expected when the transition to the new network was to have been completed in 2010, with over 50% of its customers to have been transferred by 2008. (For actual progress see BT 21CN). That month the first customers on to 21CN was successfully tested at Adastral Park in Suffolk.
2007 to 2012Edit
In January 2007, BT acquired Sheffield-based ISP, PlusNet plc, adding 200,000 customers. BT stated that PlusNet will continue to operate separately out of its Sheffield head-office. On 1 February 2007, BT announced agreed terms to acquire International Network Services Inc. (INS), an international provider of IT consultancy and software.
BT acquired Wire One Communications in June 2008 and folded the company into "BT Conferencing", its existing conferencing unit, as a new video business unit In July 2008, BT acquired the online business directory firm Ufindus for £20 million in order to expand its position in the local information market in GB. On 28 July 2008, BT acquired Ribbit, of Mountain View, California, "Silicon Valley's First Phone Company". Ribbit provides Adobe Flash/Flex APIs, allowing web developers to incorporate telephony features into their software as a service (SaaS) applications.
In the early days of its fibre broadband rollout, BT said it would deliver fibre-to-the-premises (FTTP) to around 25% of the Country, with the rest catered for by the slower fibre-to-the-cabinet (FTTC), which uses copper wiring to deliver the final stretch of the connection. In 2014, with less than 0.7% of the company's fibre network being FTTP, BT dropped the 25% target, saying that it was "far less relevant today" because of improvements made to the headline speed of FTTC, which had doubled to 80Mbit/s since its fibre broadband rollout was first announced. To supplement FTTC, BT offered an 'FTTP on Demand' product. In January 2015, BT stopped taking orders for the on-demand product.
On 1 April 2009, BT Engage IT was created from the merger of two previous BT acquisitions, Lynx Technology and Basilica. Apart from the name change not much else changed in operations for another 12 months. On 14 May 2009, BT said it was cutting up to 15,000 jobs in the coming year after it announced its results for the year to 31 March 2009. Then in July 2009, BT offered workers a long holiday for an up front sum of 25% of their annual wage or a one-off payment of £1000 if they agree to go part-time.
On 6 April 2011, BT launched the first online not-for-profit fundraising service for UK charities called BT MyDonate as part of its investment to the community. The service will pass on 100% of all donations made through the site to the charity, and unlike other services which take a proportion as commission and charge charities for using their services, BT will only pass on credit/debit card charges for each donation. The service allows people to register to give money to charity or collect fundraising donations. BT developed MyDonate with the support of Cancer Research UK, Changing Faces, KidsOut, NSPCC and Women's Aid.
2013 to presentEdit
In March 2013, BT was allocated 4G spectrum in the UK following an auction and assignment by Ofcom, after paying £201.5m.
On 1 August 2013, BT launched its first television channels, BT Sport, to compete with rival broadcaster Sky Sports. Plans for the channels' launch came about when it was announced in June 2012 that BT had been awarded a package of broadcast rights for the Premier League from the 2013–14 to 2015–16 season, broadcasting 38 matches from each season. In February 2013, BT acquired ESPN Inc.'s UK and Ireland TV channels, continuing its expansion into sports broadcasting. ESPN America and ESPN Classic were both closed, while ESPN continued to be operated by BT. On 9 November 2013, BT announced it had acquired exclusive rights to the Champions League and Europa League for £897m, from the 2015 season, with some free games remaining including both finals.
On 1 November 2014, BT created a new central business services (CBS) organisation to provide customer services and improve operational efficiency levels.
On 24 November 2014, shares in BT rose considerably on the announcement that the company was in talks to buy back O2, while at the same time confirmed it was also in talks to acquire EE. BT subsequently entered into exclusive talks to buy EE for £12.5 billion on 15 December 2014 and confirmed on 5 February 2015, subject to regulatory approval. The deal will combine BT's 10 million retail customers and EE's 24.5 million direct mobile subscribers. Deutsche Telekom will own 12% of BT, while Orange S.A. will own 4%.
In March 2015, launched a 4G service as BT Mobile BT Group CEO Gavin Patterson announced that BT plans to migrate all of its customers onto the IP network by 2025, switching off the company's ISDN network.
On 15 January 2016, BT received final unconditional approval by the Competition and Markets Authority to acquire EE. The deal was officially completed on 29 January 2016 with Deutsche Telekom now owning 12% of BT, while Orange S.A. own 4%.
On 1 February 2016, BT announced a new organisational structure that will take effect from April 2016 following the successful acquisition of EE. The EE brand, network and high street stores will be retained and will become a second consumer division, operating alongside BT Consumer. It will serve customers with mobile services, broadband and TV and will continue to deliver the Emergency Services Network contract which was awarded to EE in late 2015. There will be a new BT Business and Public Sector division that will have around £5bn of revenues and will serve small and large businesses as well as the public sector in the UK and Ireland. It will comprise the existing BT Business division along with EE's business division and those parts of BT Global Services that are UK focused. There will also be another new division; BT Wholesale and Ventures that will comprise the existing BT Wholesale division along with EE's MVNO business as well as some specialist businesses such as Fleet, Payphones and Directories. Gerry McQuade, currently Chief Sales and Marketing Officer, Business at EE, will be its CEO.
On 8 June 2017, BT appointed KPMG as its new auditor to replace PwC in the wake of the fraud scandal in Italy that triggered a major profit warning earlier this year. In last April, KPMG fired six US employees over a scandal that calls into question efforts to ensure that public company accounts are being properly scrutinised.
On 8 July 2017, The Daily Telegraph reported that BT "has called in consultants from McKinsey to conduct a review of its businesses in the hope of saving hundreds of millions of pounds per year. The work, dubbed 'Project Novator', is understood to include a potential merger of BT's struggling global services corporate networking and IT unit with its business and public sector division".
On 28 July 2017, BT announced organisational changes to "simplify its operating model, strengthen accountabilities and accelerate its transformation" and involves bringing together its BT Consumer and EE divisions into a new unified BT Consumer division that will operate across three brands – BT, EE and Plusnet. It will take effect from 1 April 2018.
On 18 April 2018, BT announced further organisational changes following unification of its BT Consumer and EE divisions, and involves bringing together its BT Business and Public Sector and BT Wholesale and Ventures divisions into a new unified division known as BT Enterprise. It will also include BT's Ventures business which "acts as an incubator for potential new growth areas of the company" and will report as a single unit from 1 October 2018.
BT Group is a holding company; the majority of its businesses and assets are held by its wholly owned subsidiary British Telecommunications plc. BT's businesses are operated under special government regulation by the British telecoms regulator Ofcom (formerly Oftel). BT has been found to have significant market power in some markets following market reviews by Ofcom. In these markets, BT is required to comply with additional obligations such as meeting reasonable requests to supply services and not to discriminate.
BT runs the telephone exchanges, trunk network and local loop connections for the vast majority of British fixed-line telephones. Currently BT is responsible for approximately 28 million telephone lines in GB. Apart from KCOM Group, which serves Kingston upon Hull, BT is the only UK telecoms operator to have a Universal service Obligation, (USO) which means it must provide a fixed telephone line to any address in the UK. It is also obliged to provide public call boxes.
As well as continuing to provide service in those traditional areas in which BT has an obligation to provide services or is closely regulated, BT has expanded into more profitable products and services where there is less regulation. These are principally, broadband internet service and bespoke solutions in telecommunications and information technology.
Buildings and facilitiesEdit
As BT operates in around 180 countries, it owns and leases a range of buildings and facilities in the UK and around the world. In 2001, it sold some of its UK property portfolio for £2.38 billion to Telereal Trillium in a 30-year leaseback. The deal included 6,700 properties and contributed towards alleviating its debt at the time, with the main advantage being flexibility as it allows BT to vacate property over time, so as to adapt to changing operational requirements.
Buildings and stationsEdit
Some of its UK buildings and stations are:
- Adastral Park – headquarters of BT Labs in Suffolk
- Baynard House – building in City of London
- BT Riverside Tower – headquarters of BT Northern Ireland in Belfast
- BT Tower – building in Swansea
- Goonhilly Satellite Earth Station – satellite earth station in Cornwall
- Guardian telephone exchange – telephone exchange in Manchester
- Madley Communications Centre – satellite earth station in Herefordshire
- National Network Management Centre – network operations centre in Shropshire
- Stadium House – building in Cardiff
BT remains one of the largest owners of telecommunications towers in the UK and were a major node in its microwave network. Its BT Tower in London is notable for numerous reasons such as being the tallest building in the UK from its construction in the 1960s until the early 1980s, its revolving restaurant at the top known as 'Top of the Tower' in operation through the late 1960s and 1970s, and remains one of the UK's most important communications nerve centres, the heart of a vast broadcasting and communications network. It carries approximately 95% of the UK's TV content, including live broadcasts and 99% of all live football games as well as pioneering the first international HD, 3D and 4K television transmissions. It serves media production and distribution customers around the world and as part of the Things Connected Network launched in London, it became the highest building in the world to host an Internet of things (IoT) base station in September 2016. Some of its towers are:
- BT Tower in London
- BT Tower in Birmingham
- Charwelton BT Tower in Northamptonshire
- Heaton Park BT Tower in Manchester
- Morborne Hill BT Tower in Cambridgeshire
- Purdown BT Tower in Bristol
- Pye Green BT Tower in Staffordshire
- Stokenchurch BT Tower in Buckinghamshire
- Sutton Common BT Tower in Cheshire
- Tinshill BT Tower in West Yorkshire
- Tolsford Hill BT Tower in Kent
- Turners Hill BT Tower in West Midlands
- Wotton-under-Edge BT Tower in Gloucestershire
- Zouches Farm in Bedfordshire
Some of its other UK facilities are:
BT Group is organised into the following divisions:
- BT Consumer – provides retail telecoms services to consumers in the UK including:
- EE – mobile network operator, provides mobile and fixed communications services to consumers in the UK
- BT Business and Public Sector – provides retail telecoms and IT services to businesses and the public sector in the UK and Ireland
- BT Global Services – provides telecoms and IT services to multinationals
- BT Wholesale and Ventures – provides network products and services to communications providers (CPs), voice services to UK customers via 999, 118 500 and Next Generation Text Service, services for media companies and broadcasters and its ventures side encompasses a portfolio of businesses offering a range of products and services
- Openreach – fenced-off wholesale division, established in 2005 following a review by Ofcom and commenced operations in 2006, employing 25,000 engineers previously employed by BT. Its purpose is to ensure that other communications providers have the same operational conditions as BT, and is responsible for the provision and repair in the "last mile" of copper wire.
Internal service unitEdit
- Technology – responsible for the innovation, design, test, build and operation of BT's global networks and systems
- Jan du Plessis – Chairman
- Philip Jansen – Chief Executive
- Simon Lowth – Group Chief Financial Officer
- Iain Conn – Non-executive director
- Isabel Hudson – Non-executive director
- Mike Inglis – Non-executive director
- Matthew Key – Non-executive director
- Nick Rose – Non-executive director
- Jasmine Whitbread – Non-executive director
- Timotheus Höttges – Non-independent non-executive director
- Rachel Canham – Company secretary and general counsel
- Gavin Patterson – Chief Executive
- Simon Lowth – Group Chief Financial Officer
- Marc Allera – CEO of BT Consumer
- Bas Burger – CEO of BT Global Services
- Sabine Chalmers – General counsel
- Gerry McQuade – CEO of BT Enterprise (BT Business and Public Sector and BT Wholesale and Ventures)
- Ed Petter – Corporate affairs director
- Cathryn Ross – Director of regulatory affairs
- Michael Sherman – Chief strategy and transformation officer
- Howard Watson – Chief technology and information officer (CTIO) of BT Technology, Service & Operations
- Alison Wilcox – HR director
- Dan Fitz – Company secretary
- Clive Selley – CEO of Openreach
BT has the second largest defined benefit pension plan of any UK public company. The trustees valued the scheme at £36.7 billion at the end of 2010; an actuarial valuation valued the deficit of the scheme at £9.043 billion as of 31 December 2008. Following a change in the regulations governing inflation index linking, the deficit was estimated at £5.2 billion in November 2010.
On 31 July 2012, it was announced that BT agreed a three-year sponsorship deal with Ulster Rugby and sees BT become the Official Communications Partner. BT's logo will appear on the Ulster Rugby shirt sleeve for all friendlies, Heineken Cup and RaboDirect Pro12 matches as well as a significant brand presence at their home ground; Ravenhill Stadium.
On 29 July 2013, it was announced that BT had partnered up with Scottish Rugby Union in a four-year sponsorship deal with its two professional clubs; Edinburgh Rugby and Glasgow Warriors that will commence from August 2013. The deal involves BT Sport becoming the new shirt sponsor for both clubs as well as being promoted with BT Group at their respective home grounds; Scotstoun Stadium and Murrayfield Stadium.
On 28 May 2014, it was announced that BT agreed a £20 million four-year sponsorship deal with Scottish Rugby Union which includes BT securing the naming rights for Murrayfield Stadium which becomes BT Murrayfield Stadium, become sponsor of the Scotland sevens team, become principal and exclusive sponsor of Scotland's domestic league and cup competitions from next season, taking over the role from The Royal Bank of Scotland Group (RBS), and become sponsor of Scottish Rugby's four new academies that aims to drive forward standards for young players who have aspirations to play professionally.
On 14 April 2015, it was announced that as part of BT's current £20 million four-year sponsorship deal with Scottish Rugby Union that was announced in May 2014, BT has completed its sponsorship portfolio following an additional investment of £3.6 million for the 3 years remaining of its sponsorship deal, to become the new shirt sponsor for the Scotland national teams.
On 27 January 2016, it was announced that BT, alongside YouTube will be the new joint headline sponsors in a three-year deal with Edinburgh International Television Festival. The two companies will "share prominence across all branding of the 41st TV Festival, including the famous MacTaggart Lecture and will work closely with the festival organisers in their bid to reflect new trends in a rapidly transforming industry, from new ways of distributing content to technical innovations such as Virtual Reality".
BT is the founding and principal partner of the Wayne Rooney Foundation, which was established to improve the lives of children and young people. The Foundation will run events "to raise vital funds to support the work of key organisations dedicated to supporting disadvantaged and vulnerable children and young people". These organisations are four chosen charities which are, Manchester United Foundation, NSPCC, Claire House Children's Hospice and Alder Hey Children's Hospital. The first of these events was Wayne's testimonial match in August 2016 between Manchester United F.C. and Everton F.C. which raised £1.2 million. The match was screened live through BT Sport with BT MyDonate being the official fundraising platform for the testimonial, with both online and text options for donations promoted during the match.
On 26 May 2017, it was announced that BT is to sponsor the 2017 British Urban Film Festival (BUFF) and sees BT host every event of the film festival, including the Awards at the BT Tower. BT will also broadcast the awards ceremony on BT.com and will have the opportunity to screen films acquired from the festival on its BT TV store platform.
On 6 September 2017, it was announced that BT had extended its current £20 million four-year sponsorship deal with Scottish Rugby Union that was announced in May 2014, for a further three years beginning from June 2018. The new deal sees BT retain the naming rights to BT Murrayfield Stadium, alongside its role as principal partner of the Scotland national team and Scotland 7s. BT's logo will continue to be displayed on the front of Scotland rugby shirts across the world, in the Six Nations Championship, as well as the summer and autumn test matches. BT will also continue to be promoted at Edinburgh Rugby and Scotstoun Stadium in Glasgow.
Historical financial performanceEdit
BT's financial results have been as follows:
|Year ending 31 March||2008||2009||2010||2011||2012||2013||2014||2015||2016||2017||2018|
|Profit/(loss) before tax (£m)||1,976||(134)||1,007||1,717||2,421||2,501||2,827||3,172||3,473||2,354||2,616|
|Net profit/(loss) (£m)||1,738||(81)||1,029||1,504||2,003||2,091||2,018||2,135||2,588||1,908||2,032|
|Basic eps (p)||21.5||3.2||13.3||19.4||23.7||26.7||25.7||26.5||33.2||19.2||20.5|
|Year ending 31 March||1992||1993||1994||1995||1996||1997||1998||1999||2000||2001||2002||2003||2004||2005||2006||2007|
|Profit/(loss) before tax (£m)||3,073||1,972||2,756||2,662||3,019||3,203||3,214||4,295||2,942||(1,031)||1,461||3,157||1,945||2,693||2,633||2,484|
|Net profit/(loss) (£m)||2,044||1,220||1,767||1,731||1,986||2,077||1,702||2,983||2,055||(1,875)||1,008||2,702||1,414||1,539||1,644||2,852|
|Basic eps (p)||33.2||19.8||28.5||27.8||31.6||32.8||26.6||46.3||31.7||(25.8)||12.1||31.4||16.4||18.1||19.5||34.4|
In 2001, BT discovered it owned a patent (U.S. Patent 4,873,662) which it believed gave it patent rights on the use of hyperlink technology on the World Wide Web. The corresponding UK patent had already expired, but the US patent was valid until 2006. On 11 February 2002, BT began a court case relating to its claims in a US federal court against the Internet service provider Prodigy Communications Corporation. In the case British Telecommunications plc v. Prodigy, the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York ruled on 22 August 2002 that the BT patent was not applicable to web technology and granted Prodigy's request for summary judgment of non-infringement.
In early 2008 it was announced that BT had entered into a contract (along with Virgin Media and TalkTalk) with the spyware company Phorm (responsible under their 121Media guise for the Apropos rootkit) to intercept and analyse their users' click-stream data and sell the anonymised aggregate information as part of Phorm's OIX advertising service. The practice, known as "behavioural targeting" and condemned by critics as "data pimping", came under intense fire from various internet communities and other interested-parties who believe that the interception of data without the consent of users and web site owners is illegal under UK law (RIPA). At a more fundamental level, many have argued that the ISPs and Phorm have no right to sell a commodity (a user's data, and the copyrighted content of web sites) to which they have no claim of ownership. In response to questions about Phorm and the interception of data by the Webwise system Sir Tim Berners-Lee, credited as the creator of the World Wide Web protocol, indicated his disapproval of the concept and is quoted as saying of his data and web history:
It's mine – you can't have it. If you want to use it for something, then you have to negotiate with me. I have to agree, I have to understand what I'm getting in return. I myself feel that it is very important that my ISP supplies internet to my house like the water company supplies water to my house. It supplies connectivity with no strings attached. My ISP doesn't control which websites I go to, it doesn't monitor which websites I go to.— Sir Tim Berners-Lee, 2008
Huawei infrastructure accessEdit
Beginning in 2010 the UK intelligence community investigated Huawei, the Chinese supplier of BT's new fibre infrastructure with increasing urgency after the United States, Canada and Australia prevented the company from operating in their countries. Although BT had notified the UK government in 2003 of Huawei's interest in their £10bn network upgrade contract, they did not raise the security implications as BT failed to explain that the Chinese company would have unfettered access to critical infrastructure. On 16 December 2012 the prime minister David Cameron was supplied with an in-depth report indicating that the intelligence services had very grave doubts regarding Huawei, and that UK governmental, military, and civilian privacy may have been under serious threat.
On 7 June 2013, British lawmakers concluded that BT should not have allowed Huawei access to the UK's communications network without ministerial oversight, saying they were 'deeply shocked' that BT did not inform government that they were allowing Huawei and ZTE, both with ties to the Chinese military, unfettered access to critical national systems. Furthermore, ministers discovered that the agency with the responsibility to ensure Chinese equipment and code was threat-free was entirely staffed by Huawei employees. Subsequently, parliamentarians confirmed that in case of an attack on the UK there was nothing that could be done to stop Chinese infiltration.
By 2016 Huawei had put measures in place to ensure the integrity of UK national security. Specifically their UK work is now overseen by a board that includes directors from GCHQ, the Cabinet Office and the Home Office.
ZTE, another Chinese company that supplies extensive network equipment and subscriber hardware used with BT 'Infinity', was also under scrutiny by parliament's intelligence and security committee after the US, Canada, Australia and the European Union declared the company a security risk.
Alleged complicity with drone strikes in Yemen and SomaliaEdit
In September 2012, BT entered into a $23 million deal with the US military to provide a key communications cable connecting RAF Croughton, a US military base on UK soil, with Camp Lemonnier, a large US base in Djibouti. Camp Lemonnier is used as a base for American drone attacks in Yemen and Somalia, and has been described by The Economist as "the most important base for drone operations outside the war zone of Afghanistan."
Human rights groups including Reprieve and Amnesty International have criticised the use of armed drones outside declared war zones. Evidence produced by The Bureau of Investigative Journalism and Stanford University's International Human Rights & Conflict Resolution Clinic suggest that drone strikes have caused substantial civilian casualties, and may be illegal under international law.
In 2013, BT was the subject of a complaint by Reprieve to the Department of Business, Innovation and Skills under the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, following their refusal to explain whether or not their infrastructure was used to facilitate drone strikes. The subsequent refusal of this complaint was appealed in May 2014, on the basis that the UK National Contact Point's decision did not follow the OECD Guidelines. The issue of bias was also raised, due to the appointment of Lord Ian Livingston as government minister for the department which was processing the complaint: Livingston had occupied a senior position at BT when the cable between RAF Croughton and Camp Lemonnier was originally built.
- "Annual Report 2018" (PDF). BT Group plc. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 January 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- "BT Group plc Fact Sheet" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "Our company". BT Group plc. Archived from the original on 14 August 2017. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
- "BT Global Services". BT Group plc. Archived from the original on 10 August 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
- "BT Consumer". BT Group. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
- Haigh, Kenneth Richardson (1968). Cableships and Submarine Cables. Adlard Coles. p. 195. OCLC 497380538.
- "UK media law". Terramedia. Archived from the original on 23 May 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- "Records created and used by the National Telephone Company Limited". Archives Hub. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- KCOM Group: Our History Archived 12 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Post Office and British Telecommunications Public Corporations". Archives Hub. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- "Mercury Communications Ltd". Hansard. 14 June 1982. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- "3 December 1984: BT is sold off in a gamble over privatisation". Money Week. 3 December 2015. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- "Government abandons BT Golden Share". The Independent. 16 July 1997. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- "Sir Peter Bonfield: A profile". BBC News. 31 October 2001. Archived from the original on 22 June 2004. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "Heart-stopping time for Ocean boss in setting up telecom company". Irish Times. 8 January 1999. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- MCI and British Telecom are getting a concerted jump on the competition but is being first enough? 27 October 1994 Archived 2006-06-07 at the Wayback Machine
- "Commission Decision of 14 May 1997 declaring a concentration to be compatible with the common market and the functioning of the EEA Agreement" (PDF). European Commission. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- "FindArticles.com - CBSi". findarticles.com. Archived from the original on 14 August 2004. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "Breaking News, World News & Multimedia". www.nytimes.com. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "WorldCom wins MCI". Money. 10 November 1997. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- "MCI and WorldCom -- How British Telecom Fell Short at Competitive Intelligence -- AuroraWDC.com Competitive Intelligence, Knowledge Management, Market Research, Competitor Analysis". www.aurorawdc.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "AT&T and British Telecom Merge Overseas Operations". New York Times. 27 July 1998. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- "AT&T names president". Money. 28 November 2000. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- "2,000 jobs go as BT's Ignite seeks to stem losses". The Guardian. 13 May 2002. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- "Eircom's DSL attracts 1,000 users". Irish Times. 25 April 2003. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- "BT attacks debt mountain". BBC News. 10 May 2001. Archived from the original on 23 August 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "Vallance resigns from BT". BBC News. 26 April 2001. Archived from the original on 26 March 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "James Ashton: Next BT chair will need to-do list like Sir Christopher Bland's". Evening Standard. 30 January 2017. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- "BT wraps up share sale". 18 June 2001. Archived from the original on 23 November 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2019 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- "BT retreats from Japan and Spain". 1 May 2001. Archived from the original on 23 November 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2019 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- "BT sells Yell for £2.1bn". 27 May 2001. Archived from the original on 23 November 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2019 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- "Technology News, Analysis, Comments and Product Reviews for IT Professionals". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 10 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "BT approves mobiles spin-off". BBC News Online. 23 October 2001. Archived from the original on 28 June 2004. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "BT chief quits early". BBC News. 31 October 2001. Archived from the original on 25 March 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "BT lures Lucent boss with £7m package". BBC News. 12 December 2001. Archived from the original on 25 March 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "BT's Sir Peter Bonfield stands to gain extra £3.3m in share bonuses". Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 12 April 2007.
- "Telefonica bids £18bn for UK's O2". BBC News. 31 October 2005. Archived from the original on 14 July 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "ITU: BT launches consulting business". Archived from the original on 1 May 2013.
- "DoH extends BT N3 deal". The Guardian. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 20 April 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- "BT goes home". 1 December 2004. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2011 – via Find Articles.
- "BT buys on-line retailer Dabs.com". BBC News. 28 April 2006. Archived from the original on 28 March 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Thomson ships BT home hub". Lightreading.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "BT transfers first customer lines to 21CN network". 1 December 2006. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Thurston, Richard (13 November 2008). "Bt buys PlusNet for CRM system". News.zdnet.co.uk. Archived from the original on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "BT buys former Lucent division INS". Computerwire.com. Archived from the original on 30 September 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Datamonitor ComputerWire – BT Appoints New Chairman to Replace Bland". Computerwire.com. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "BT buys Comsat". Telephonyonline.com. Archived from the original on 26 August 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Meyer, David (3 October 2007). "BT buys Lynx Technology". Zdnet.co.uk. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "BT buys Wire One". Archived from the original on 9 July 2008.
- Wray, Richard (10 July 2008). "BT buys into social networking directories with £20m for Ufindus". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 13 November 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "BT buys Ribbit for $105m". Gigaom.com. 29 July 2008. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "BT aimed to get true fibre to 25% of UK. The actual figure? 0.7%". Alphr. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- "BT Fibre on Demand: What is it and what will it cost?". Recombu. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- "BT Wholesale Suspend New Orders for 330Mbps FTTP on Demand Broadband – ISPreview UK". ispreview.co.uk. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- "Exclusive: Lynx and Basilica in BT rebrand". Archived from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- BT to shed a further 15,000 job losses Archived 17 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine BBC News, 14 May 2009
- "BT offers holidays for pay cuts". BBC News. 4 July 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Smithers, Rebecca (6 April 2011). "Charitable giving: BT launches website where 100% of donations go to charity". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
- Warman, Matt (6 April 2011). "BT launches MyDonate JustGiving donations rival". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 6 February 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
- Evans, Tara (6 April 2011). "BT launches charity giving service". This is Money. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
- "800 MHz & 2.6 GHz Combined Award". Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "BT launches sports TV channels in battle with Sky". BBC News. 1 August 2013. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "Premier League rights sold to BT and BSkyB for £3bn". BBC News. 13 June 2012. Archived from the original on 9 August 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "BT buys ESPN'S UK and Ireland TV channels". The Guardian. 25 February 2013. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Champions League: BT Sport wins £897m football rights deal Archived 23 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. BBC Sport (9 November 2013). Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- "BT has created a new central business services (CBS) organization to deliver superior customer service and maximize efficiency and effectiveness". Archived from the original on 21 October 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- Goodley, Simon; Farrell, Sean (25 November 2014). "BT in talks with Telefónica to buy O2". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 November 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Williams, Christopher (15 December 2014). "BT in exclusive talks to buy EE for £12.5bn". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 15 December 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "BT in talks to buy EE for £12.5bn". BBC News. 15 December 2014. Archived from the original on 15 December 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "BT to buy mobile firm EE for £12.5bn". BBC News. 5 February 2015. Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- Lunden, Ingrid. "BT Confirms New BT Mobile 4G Service on EE's Network". Archived from the original on 26 February 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "BT plans to switch off ISDN network by 2025". eCall. 27 June 2015. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- "BT takeover of EE gets final Competition and Markets Authority clearance". BBC News. 15 January 2016. Archived from the original on 15 January 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
- "BT Group PLC Completion of the acquisition of EE Limited". 4-traders. 29 January 2016. Archived from the original on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "BT announces new structure". BT News. BT Group PLC. 1 February 2016. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
- "BT reports a 24% jump in quarterly profits amid revamp". BBC News. 1 February 2016. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
- Palmer, Kate (1 February 2016). "BT unveils management overhaul as it reports 'seven-year high' in revenue growth". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
- Christopher, Williams (8 June 2017). "BT appoints KPMG as auditor as PwC is ousted after 33 years in wake of Italian scandal". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 June 2017. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- Financial Times, "KPMG scandal highlights problem of auditing's revolving door", 2017/04/13
- "BT seeks to stem slump with overhaul". Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- English, Simon (28 July 2017). "BT hints at its next boss in shake-up of consumer arm". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- "Organisation and senior management changes at BT". BT News & Media. BT Group PLC. 28 July 2017. Archived from the original on 19 November 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- Gwynn, Simon (28 July 2017). "BT brings EE and Consumer under combined leadership". Campaign. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- Hoscik, Martin (28 July 2017). "BT brings EE, Plusnet and BT brands into a new unified consumer division". SEENIT. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- "Consumer". BT Group. Archived from the original on 22 November 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- "BT forms new business unit BT Enterprise". BT Group. 18 April 2018. Archived from the original on 25 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- Torrance, Jack (18 April 2018). "BT business boss departs in latest shake-up". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 23 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- McCaskill, Steve (18 April 2018). "BT Enterprise combines Business and Wholesale divisions". TechRadar. Archived from the original on 25 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- Williams, Holly (18 April 2018). "BT overhaul continues with merger of enterprise divisions". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 25 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- "Group businesses". BT Group plc. Archived from the original on 2 February 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
- "Significant market power in the UK electronic communications networks and services sector". Practical Law Competition. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
- "Universal Service Obligations". Ofcom. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
- "A Universal Service Obligation (USO) for Broadband". UK Parliament. 22 December 2017. Archived from the original on 2 March 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
- Sabbagh, Dan (27 November 2001). "Property sale to cost BT £40m a year". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 September 2018. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
- "BT Centre". London Architecture. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
- "The opening of the iconic BT Tower in London". The Telegraph. 26 May 2017. Archived from the original on 11 September 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
- "BT wins prestigious Emmy® Award for innovation in TV technology". BT Group. 5 September 2017. Archived from the original on 11 September 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
- J. Gregory Sidak; Andrew P. Vassallo (2015). "Did Separating Openreach from British Telecom Benefit Consumers?". 38 WORLD COMPETITION: L. & ECON. REV. 31. Archived from the original on 30 October 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Board of directors". BT Group. Archived from the original on 8 September 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
- "BT Annual Report 2018" (PDF). BT Group. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 August 2018. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
- Investments, Pensions & (22 December 2014). "The largest U.K. pension funds". Pensions & Investments. Archived from the original on 12 January 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "BT Pension scheme Report and Accounts". Archived from the original on 23 October 2011.
- "BT Pension Scheme Valuation 2008". Archived from the original on 10 September 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- "BT pension deficit falls £2.9bn on CPI inflation link change". Yahoo News. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "Scottish Rugby secures historic sports sponsorship with BT". Scottish Rugby Union. 28 May 2014. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- "BT announces partnership with Ulster Rugby". Ulster Rugby. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Rumsby, Ben (29 July 2013). "BT Sport signs Glasgow and Edinburgh rugby shirt sponsorship deal circumventing Sky advertising ban". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 March 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- "Scottish Rugby announces partnership with BT Sport". Scottish Rugby Union. 29 July 2013. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- "BT Sport announces partnership with Scottish Rugby". BT Group PLC. 29 July 2013. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- Reid, Alasdair (28 May 2014). "Scottish rugby's home renamed BT Murrayfield Stadium in £20m sponsorship deal with broadcasting giant". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 March 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- "Scottish Rugby confirms deal for BT Murrayfield Stadium". BBC Sport. 28 May 2014. Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- "BT completes Scottish Rugby portfolio as Scotland's front of shirt sponsor". Scottish Rugby. 14 April 2015. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
- "BT and YouTube sponsor Edinburgh International Television Festival". BT.com. 27 January 2016. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
- "MyDonate supports Wayne Rooney charity". BT Today. BT Group plc. 20 January 2017. Archived from the original on 13 November 2018. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
- "Wayne Rooney Foundation". Wayne Rooney. Archived from the original on 26 May 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
- Herbert, Ian (20 January 2017). "Wayne Rooney reveals his testimonial made £1.2million but hopes to quadruple that amount to aid four causes". The Independent. Archived from the original on 20 January 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
- Slavin, Harry. "Wayne Rooney testimonial raises over £1million after Manchester United's clash with Everton in the summer". Daily Maildate=20 January 2017. Archived from the original on 20 January 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
- "BUFF partners with BT to sponsor the British Urban Film Festival". BT.com. 27 June 2017. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- "BT partners with BUFF to sponsor the British Urban Film Festival". British Urban Film Festival. 26 May 2017. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Nsubuga, Jimmy (26 May 2017). "Exclusive: BT to host 2017 British Urban Film Festival at world famous tower". Metro. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Grater, Tom (26 May 2017). "British Urban Film Festival gets BT backing". Screen. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- "BT partners with BUFF to sponsor British Urban Film Festival". 4-traders. 26 May 2017. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- "BT extends deal with Scottish Rugby". BT.com. 6 September 2017. Archived from the original on 29 November 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
- "Scottish Rugby and BT to extend partnership until 2021". Scottish Rugby Union. 6 September 2017. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
- Bean, Graham (6 September 2017). "Scottish Rugby extends sponsorship deal with BT until 2021". The Scotsman. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
- Dorsey, Kristy (6 September 2017). "BT extends partnership with Scottish Rugby for another three years". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
- "BT's "Hyperlinking" Patent Litigation Fails". Nswscl.org.au. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- F-Secure Spyware Information Pages: Apropos Archived 10 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "FSecure Spyware Information Pages: PeopleOnPage". F-secure.com. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Williams, Chris (25 February 2008). "ISP data deal with former 'spyware' boss triggers privacy fears". The Register. Archived from the original on 17 December 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Williams, Chris (29 February 2008). "How Phorm plans to tap your internet connection". The Register. Archived from the original on 12 April 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Web users angry at ISPs' spyware tie-up". London Evening Standard. London. Archived from the original on 10 March 2008. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Williams, Chris (4 March 2008). "Data pimping: surveillance expert raises illegal wiretap worries". The Register. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Williams, Chris (17 March 2008). "Net think thank: Phorm is illegal". The Register. Archived from the original on 4 April 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "The Phorm "Webwise" System – a Legal Analysis" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Cellan-Jones, Rory (17 March 2008). "Web creator rejects net tracking". BBC News. Archived from the original on 22 February 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Charles Arthur (8 October 2012). "China's Huawei and ZTE pose national security threat, says US committee". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- "Government admits slip-ups in BT-Huawei deal". Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- Cusick, James (16 December 2012). "China telecoms giant could be cyber-security risk to Britain". The Independent. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- Sandle, Paul (7 June 2013). "Parliamentarians say Huawei-BT deal exposes flawed security controls". Reuters. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- "The Chinese firm taking threats to UK national security very seriously". The Guardian. 7 August 2016. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
- Garside, Juliette (10 October 2012). "Huawei's relationship with BT under investigation by MPs". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 16 November 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- Shead, Sam (13 December 2012). "Huawei and ZTE could pose security and business threat to Europe, says EU report". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- "Contract Award Notice". Procurement Directorate, Defense Information Systems Agency. 26 September 2012. Archived from the original on 20 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- "Death From Afar". The Economist. 3 November 2012. Archived from the original on 25 April 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- "Pakistan Drone Statistics Visualised". The Bureau of Investigative Journalism. 2 July 2012. Archived from the original on 21 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- "Living Under Drones". Stanford University. Archived from the original on 3 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- "Complaint to UK National Contact Point" (PDF). Reprieve. 15 July 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- "Minister in row over BT's link to US drones' war". The Independent. 26 March 2014. Archived from the original on 21 May 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- Baldwin, F.G.C. The History of the Telephone in the United Kingdom (1925)
- Foreman-Peck, J. "The development and diffusion of telephone technology in Britain, 1900–1940," Transactions of the Newcomen Society, (1991–92). 63, pp165–180.
- Foreman-Peck, J., & Millward, R. Public and private ownership of British industry 1820–1990 (1994).
- Hazlewood, A. "The origins of the state telephone service in Britain" Oxford Economic Papers (1953). 5:13–25. in JSTOR
- Holcombe, A. N. (1906). "The Telephone in Great Britain". Quarterly Journal of Economics. 21 (1): 96–135. doi:10.2307/1883751. JSTOR 1883751.
- Johannessen, Neil. Ring up Britain: the Early Years of the Telephone in the United Kingdom (British Telecommunications plc, London, 1991)
- Johnston, S. F. "The telephone in Scotland." in: K. Veitch, ed., Transport and Communications. Publications of the European Ethnological Research Centre; Scottish life and society: a compendium of Scottish ethnology (2009): pp. 716–727 online
- Magill, Frank N. Great Events from History II: Business and Commerce Series, volume 1:1897–1923 (1994) pp 218–23; historiography
- Meyer, Hugo Richard. Public Ownership and the Telephone in Great Britain: Restriction of the Industry by the State and the Municipalities (1907). online
- Pitt, D.C. The telecommunications function in the British Post Office. A case study of bureaucratic adaption (Westmead: Saxon House, 1980).
- Robertson, John Henry. The story of the telephone: A history of the telecommunications industry of Britain (1947)
- Tucker, D. G. (1978). "The Early Development of the British Underground Trunk Telephone Network". Transactions of the Newcomen Society. 49: 57–74. doi:10.1179/tns.1977.005.
- Wetton, Jenny (2007). "The Early History of Telephony in Manchester, 1877–1898". Transactions of the Newcomen Society. 77 (2): 245–260. doi:10.1179/175035207x204833.