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Börte (simply Borte, also Börte Üjin; Cyrillic: Бөртэ үжин; c. 1161–1230) was the first wife of Temüjin, who became Genghis Khan, the founder of the Mongol Empire. Börte became the head of the first Court of Genghis Khan, and Grand Empress of his Empire. Little is known about the details of her early life, but she was betrothed to Genghis at a young age, married at seventeen, and then kidnapped by a rival tribe. Her husband’s daring rescue of her may have been one of the key events that started him on his path to becoming a conqueror. She gave birth to four sons and five daughters, who, along with their own descendants, were the key bloodline that further expanded the Mongol Empire.

Börte Khatun
Tumanba Khan, His Wife, and His Nine Sons.jpg
A Mughal miniature painting of Genghis Khan, his wife Börte, and their sons.
Great Khatun of the Mongol Empire and Khamag Mongol
Tenure1189–1230
Mongolianᠧᠠᠭᠸᠬᠬᠸᠬ ᠸᠥᠢᠸᠢᠸᠦᠸ ᠸᠬᠸᠸᠬᠬ ᠬᠸᠬᠬᠸ ᠬᠸᠬᠸ ᠬᠬᠸᠬᠸᠬᠸ ᠂ᠵᠸᠵᠸᠸᠵᠵᠵᠸ ᠂ᠢᠢᠸᠸᠢᠢᠸ ᠹᠶᠹᠭᠬᠭ
SuccessorMoqe
Born1161
Khentii, Mongolia
Died1230 (aged 68–69)
Avarga, Mongolia
Burial
SpouseGenghis Khan
IssueJochi
Chagatai
Ögedei
Tolui
Khochen Bekhi
Alakhai Bekhi
Tümelün
Alaltun
Checheikhen
HouseOnggirat
FatherDei Seichen
MotherTacchotan
ReligionTengrism

Early lifeEdit

Few historical facts are known about her early life, but Mongolians have many legends about her. What little is known is generally from The Secret History of the Mongols.

Börte was born around 1161 into the Olkhonud of Khongirad. This tribe was friendly to the Borjigin tribe, into which Temüjin was born. She was the daughter of Dei-Sechen and Chotan.[1] She was described as having a "fair complexion" with "light in her face and fire in her eyes," meaning that she was intelligent.[2] The girls that came from the Olkhonud tribe were known for being particularly beautiful.[3]

The marriage was arranged by her father and Yesügei, Genghis' father, when she was 10 and he was 9 years old. Temüjin then stayed with her family until he was called back to help his mother and younger siblings, due to the poisoning of Yesügei by an enemy.[4]

In 1178, approximately 7 years later, Temüjin traveled downstream along the Kelüren River to find Börte. When Dei-Sechen saw that Temüjin had returned for Börte he was delighted and had the pair “united as man and wife”.[3] With the permission of Dei-Sechen, he took Börte and her mother to live in his family's yurt, which was camped along the Senggür river.[5] Börte's dowry was a fine black sable jacket.[6]

AbductionEdit

Soon after she married Temüjin, the Three Merkits attacked the family camp at dawn. Temüjin, and his family and friends were able to escape on horses, but there was no horse left for Börte to escape on. She was taken captive by the Merkits and given to one of their warriors as a spoil of war. The raid was in retaliation for the abduction of Hoelun, Temüjin's mother, by his father Yesügei many years earlier.[7] Temüjin was deeply distressed by the abduction of his wife and remarked that his bed “was made empty” and his breast was “torn apart”.[3] He was determined to bring Börte back, and rescued her several months later with the aid of his allies Wang Khan and Jamukha. Some scholars describe this event as one of the key crossroads in Temüjin’s life, which moved him along the path towards becoming a conqueror.[8][9]

“As the pillaging and plundering went on, Temüjin moved among the people that were hurriedly escaping, calling, ‘Börte, Börte!’ And so he came upon her, for Lady Börte was among those fleeing people. She heard the voice of Temüjin and, recognizing it, she got off the cart and came running towards him. Although it was still night, Lady Börte and Qo’aqčin both recognized Temüjin’s reins and tether and grabbed them. It was moonlight; he looked at them, recognized Lady Börte, and they fell into each other’s arms.”[3] -The Secret History of the Mongols

Börte had been held captive for eight months, and she gave birth to Jochi after she was rescued, leaving doubt as to who the father of the child was, because her captor took her as a "wife", and therefore could have possibly impregnated her. However, Genghis let Jochi remain with his family and claimed him as his own son. He was supposed to be Genghis' successor but because of his doubt of being Jochi's real father, his brothers would not accept him as ruler and Genghis had to choose another son. Jochi then became leader of the Golden Horde.

Grand EmpressEdit

Börte was the senior and first wife of Temüjin. She was revered by the Mongols after he became Genghis Khan, and she was crowned the Grand Empress. Börte on several occasions heavily influenced her husband's decisions. One such occasion was when Otčigin came into Genghis Khan's tent while he was still in bed with Börte, and asked for help against the Qongqotan tribe. Before Genghis Khan could say anything, Börte "sat up in bed, covering her breasts with the edge of the blanket" and described the cruelty of the Qongqotan. After listening to his wife speak, Genghis Khan decided to help Otčigin.[3]

As Genghis Khan continued to expand his influence and empire, Börte remained behind and assisted Genghis' brother Temüge in ruling the Mongol homeland. Other wives accompanied Genghis Khan on his campaigns, while she ruled her own territory and managed her own court.[10] Most of the Kherlen River was assigned to her, land that had before belonged to the Tatars.[11] Only her sons were considered to be candidates to succeed Temüjin as Khans.

Börte is often portrayed as "a beautiful woman dressed in a white silken gown, with gold coins in her hair, holding a white lamb, and riding a white steed".[12]

See alsoEdit

ChildrenEdit

Börte's sons:

Daughters:

  • Kua Ujin Bekhi, the eldest, was betrothed to Tusakha, son of Senggum, and grandson of Wang Khan, ruler of the Keraite tribe; she eventually married Botu, of the Ikires tribe, and widower of her paternal aunt Temulun.
  • Alakhai Bekhi, married first to Alaqush Digit Quri, chieftain of the Ongüt tribe; then to his nephew and heir Jingue; and finally to her stepson Boyaohe
  • Tümelün, married to Chigu, son of Anchen, son of Dei Seichen, Börte's father
  • Alaltun married Chaur Setsen, son of Taiju Kurgen of the Olkanut tribe.[13] She is often mistaken with Il-Alti, a daughter by a concubine, who was given to the Uyghur chieftain Idi Qut.[13]
  • Checheikhen, married to Törölchi, son of Quduka beki, of the Oirat tribe.

Although several of Genghis Khan's children by other wives or concubines received some form of recognition in the empire, including land or military commands, including troops, only Börte's children were recognized as potential Great Khans. She, together with his mother Hoelun, was counted as one of his most trusted advisors.[citation needed]

Modern representationsEdit

Given her significant role in Genghis Khan's life, Börte has appeared as a prominent character in the many films and television series based on her husband's life and conquests. The actresses who have portrayed her include Susan Hayward in The Conqueror, Françoise Dorléac in Genghis Khan (1965 film) and Chuluuny Khulan in the 2007 Oscar nominated Russian film Mongol.[14]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Onon, Urgunge (ed.). The secret history of the Mongols; The life and times of Chinggis Khan (Chapter 1) (PDF). section 65.
  2. ^ Onon, Urgunge (ed.). The secret history of the Mongols; The life and times of Chinggis Khan (Chapter 1) (PDF). sections 65–66.
  3. ^ a b c d e Rachewiltz, Igor de (December 2015). "The Secret History of the Mongols: A Mongolian Epic Chronicle of the Thirteenth Century". Western Washington University.
  4. ^ Onon, Urgunge (ed.). The secret history of the Mongols; The life and times of Chinggis Khan (Chapter 1) (PDF). sections 61, 66, 68.
  5. ^ Onon, Urgunge (ed.). The secret history of the Mongols; The life and times of Chinggis Khan (Chapter 2) (PDF). section 94.
  6. ^ Onon, Urgunge (ed.). The secret history of the Mongols; The life and times of Chinggis Khan (Chapter 2) (PDF). section 96.
  7. ^ Onon, Urgunge (ed.). The secret history of the Mongols; The life and times of Chinggis Khan (Chapter 2) (PDF). sections 98–102.
  8. ^ "Historic Kidnapping Cases That Will Make You Want to Hold Your Loved Ones Closer". HistoryCollection.co. 2018-10-03. Retrieved 2019-07-28.
  9. ^ Editors, History com. "Genghis Khan". HISTORY. Retrieved 2019-07-28.
  10. ^ Ratchnevsky, Paul (1991). Genghis Khan: His Life and Legacy. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 164–65. ISBN 0-631-16785-4.
  11. ^ Weatherford. The Secret History of the Mongol Queens. p. 28.
  12. ^ Stone, Zofia. Genghis Khan: A Biography. Alpha Editions, 2017.
  13. ^ a b Ad-din, Rashid. Jami Al Tawarikh (Compendium of Chronicles).
  14. ^ Mongol: The Rise of Genghis Khan, retrieved 2019-07-26

SourcesEdit

  • René Grousset. Conqueror of the World: The Life of Chingis-khan (New York: The Viking Press, 1944) ISBN 0-670-00343-3.
  • Ratchnevsky, Paul. Genghis Khan: His Life and Legacy. (Blackwell Publishing 1991) ISBN 0-631-16785-4.
  • Man, John. Genghis Khan: Life, Death and Resurrection (London; New York : Bantam Press, 2004) ISBN 0-593-05044-4.
  • Onon, Urgunge, tr. and ed. and introduction. The Secret History of the Mongols: The Life and Times of Chinggis Khan. (Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005) ISBN 0-203-98876-0
  • Weatherford, Jack. (2010). The Secret History of the Mongol Queens. Broadway Paperbacks, New York. ISBN 978-0-307-40716-0