Azzone Visconti

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Azzone Visconti (7 December 1302 – 16 August 1339) was lord of Milan from 1329 until his death. After the death of his uncle, Marco Visconti, he was threatened with excommunication and had to submit to Pope John XXII. Azzone reconstituted his family's land holdings, taking numerous cities. He died in 1339.

Azzone Visconti
Lord of Milan
Azzone Visconti
Coat of armsCoat of arms of the House of Visconti (1277).svg
Reign1329 - 1339
PredecessorGaleazzo I
SuccessorLuchino
Born7 December 1302
Died16 August 1339
BuriedSan Gottardo, Milan
Noble familyHouse of Visconti
Spouse(s)Caterina di Savoia
IssueLuchina
FatherGaleazzo I Visconti
MotherBeatrice d'Este
OccupationCondottiero

BiographyEdit

Born in Ferrara, he was the sole legitimate son of Galeazzo I Visconti and Beatrice d'Este. In 1322 he was lord of Piacenza, but in the same year, together with his father, was forced to flee.[citation needed] In 1325, Azzone commanded troops at the battles of Altopascio and Zappolino, both victories over the Guelphs.[1]

In 1327, his father Galeazzo and all of the other leading members of the Visconti family were arrested under suspicion of assassinating Galeazzo's younger brother Stefano. Their territories were confiscated by the Emperor, and local families took control of many cities that had long been tied to the Viscontis. Milan itself was ruled by a new Imperial appointee and a council that was hostile to the Viscontis. Therefore, when Galeazzo died later that year, Visconti power was at a low point.[1]

Azzone immediately became involved in a struggle with his uncle Marco for control of Milan. In 1329, with the support of another uncle, Giovanni, he bought the title of imperial vicar of Milan from the emperor Louis IV for 60,000 (or 125,000) florins.[2] (At the same time, Giovanni was appointed to several high offices by Nicholas V, the Imperial antipope.) Azzone paid only 12,000 of the promised florins, the feeble Louis being unable to force the payment.[citation needed] In the same years,[when?] Marco was killed and Azzone was named as one of the assassins, but he was never condemned.[citation needed]

This maneuver drew the ire of Pope John XXII, who excommunicated Azzone, placed the city of Milan under interdict, and threatened an invasion by his French allies.[3] Under this pressure, Azzone was forced to submit to the Pope and renounce his Imperial vicariate, although he did retain political power within Milan, and on 15 March 1330 he was appointed signore of Milan.[4]

In 1331, Azzone married Catherine of Savoy, daughter of Louis II of Vaud.[5] In the August of the same year he allied with Theodore I, Marquess of Montferrat, against King Robert of Anjou, in order to capture his possessions in north-western Italy. In 1332 he also conquered Bergamo and Pizzighettone, continuing in 1335 with Lodi, Crema and other Lombardy lands who had ceded themselves to the Papal States, as well as Vercelli and Cremona.

By February 1339, Azzone was suffering from gout. Faced with a revolt by Lodrisio Visconti, who had hired a company of mercenary troops, he had Luchino Visconti command the Milanese army.[6] Lodrisio was defeated by the Milanese at the battle of Parabiago and imprisoned in the castle of San Colombano al Lambro.

Azzone died 16 August 1339 of a gout attack,[a] and was buried in the church of San Gottardo, which he had commissioned some years before. He had no male heirs (having had only a daughter, Luchina) and was succeeded as lord of Milan by Giovanni and another uncle, Luchino. Besides his political and military career, he is remembered for his great construction works in Milan and other cities of Lombardy.

 
Azzone Visconti's tomb in the church of San Gottardo in Corte (formerly the chapel of the Royal Palace of Milan), was sculpted by Giovanni di Balduccio and his workshop. The relief on it shows Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian investing Azzone Visconti as imperial vicar. The monument was dismantled during the neoclassical reconstruction of the church, and rebuilt in modern times in the way we can see it now; however several parts of it had been meanwhile lost.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Jane Black states Azzone died on 16 August 1339. She does not mention cause of death.[6]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Black 2009, p. 68.
  2. ^ Ruggiero 2015, p. 59.
  3. ^ Black 2009, p. 39.
  4. ^ Black 2009, p. 39-40.
  5. ^ Gamberini 2014, p. 79.
  6. ^ a b Black 2009, p. 42.

SourcesEdit

  • Black, Jane (2009). Absolutism in Renaissance Milan: Plenitude of Power under the Visconti and the Sforza 1329-1535. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191609886.
  • Gamberini, Andrea (2014). A Companion to Late Medieval and Early Modern Milan: The Distinctive Features of an Italian State. Brill.
  • Ruggiero, Guido (2015). The Renaissance in Italy: A Social and Cultural History of the Rinascimento. Cambridge University Press.
Italian nobility
Preceded by Lord of Milan
1329–1339
Succeeded by