An azo coupling is an organic reaction between a diazonium compound and another aromatic compound that produces an azo compound. In this electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction, the aryldiazonium cation is the electrophile and the activated arene is a nucleophile. In most cases, including the examples below, the diazonium compound is also aromatic.
The process of conversion of primary aromatic amines into its diazonium salt is called diazotization. Diazonium salts are important synthetic intermediates that can undergo coupling reactions to form azo dyes and electrophilic substitution reactions to introduce functional groups.
Uses of the reactionEdit
The product will absorb longer wavelengths of light (specifically they absorb in the visible region) than the reactants because of increased conjugation. Consequently, aromatic azo compounds tend to be brightly colored due to the extended conjugated systems. Many are used as dyes (see azo dye). Important azo dyes include methyl red and pigment red 170.
Examples of azo C-coupling reactionsEdit
The related dye called aniline yellow is produced from the reaction of aniline and the diazonium salt.
Examples of azo N-coupling reactionsEdit
In alkaline media, diazonium salt can react with most primary and secondary amines that exist as a free base and produce triazene. This chemical reaction is called azo N-coupling or the synthesis of azoamines.
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