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Axiomatic semantics define the meaning of a command in a program by describing its effect on assertions about the program state. The assertions are logical statements—predicates with variables, where the variables define the state of the program.
- Algebraic semantics (computer science) — in terms of algebras
- Denotational semantics — by translation of the program into another language
- Operational semantics — in terms of the state of the computation
- Formal semantics of programming languages — overview
- Predicate transformer semantics — describes the meaning of a program fragment as the function transforming a postcondition to the precondition needed to establish it.
- Assertion (computing)
- Winskel, Glynn (1993-02-05). The Formal Semantics of Programming Languages: An Introduction. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-73103-4.