Autostrade of Italy

Map of the autostrade of Italy
Interactive map of Autostrade in Italy

The Autostrade (Italian: [autoˈstraːde]; singular autostrada [autoˈstraːda]) are roads forming the Italian national system of motorways. The total length of the system is about 6,758 kilometres (4,199 mi).[1] In North and Central Italy, the Autostrade mainly consists of tollways managed by Atlantia S.p.A. (formerly Autostrade S.p.A.), a holding company controlled by the Benetton family[2][3]. Other operators include ASTM, ATP, and Autostrade Lombarde in the north-west; Autostrada del Brennero, A4 Holding, Concessioni Autostradali Venete, and Autovie Venete in the north-east; Strada dei Parchi, SALT, SAT, and Autocisa in the center; and CAS in the south.

HistoryEdit

Italy became the first country to inaugurate motorways reserved for motor vehicles with A1.[4] The Milano-Laghi motorway (connecting Milan to Varese) was devised by Piero Puricelli, a civil engineer and entrepreneur. He received the first authorization to build a public-utility fast road in 1921, and completed the construction (one lane each direction) between 1924 and 1926. By the end of the 1930s, over 400 kilometers of multi- and dual-single-lane motorways were constructed throughout Italy, linking cities and rural towns.

SpeedEdit

 
Autostrada sign

Italy's autostrade have a standard speed limit of 130 km/h (81 mph) for cars. Limits for other vehicles (or during foul weather and/or low visibility) are lower. Legal provisions allow operators to set the limit to 150 km/h (93 mph) on their concessions on a voluntary basis if the following conditions are met: three lanes in each direction and a working SICVE, or Safety Tutor, speed-camera system that measure the average speed. In 2016, no road was utilizing this possibility.

The first speed limit, to 120 km/h (75 mph), was enacted in November 1973 as a result of the 1973 oil crisis.[5] In October 1977, a graduated system was introduced: cars of above 1,300 cc (79 cu in) had a 140 km/h (87 mph) speed limit, cars of 900-1299 cc had a limit of 130 km/h (81 mph), those of 600-899 cc could drive at 110 km/h (68 mph), and those of 599 cc (36.6 cu in) or less had a maximum speed of 90 km/h (56 mph).[5] In July 1988 a blanket speed limit of 110 km/h (68 mph) was imposed on all cars above 600 cc (the lower limit was kept for smaller cars) by the short lived PSDI government. In September 1989 this was increased to 130 km/h (81 mph) for cars above 1,100 cc (67 cu in) and 110 km/h (68 mph) for smaller ones.[6]

List of current AutostradeEdit

Number Name km Start End Opened E-roads
  A1 Autostrada del Sole
759.8
Milan Naples
1964
E35, E45
  A2 Autostrada del Mediterraneo
442.9
Salerno Reggio Calabria
2017
E45, E90, E841
  A3
51.7
Naples Salerno
1974
E45
  A4 Serenissima
522.4
Turin Trieste
1927
E55, E64, E70
  A5 Autostrada della Valle d'Aosta
141.4
Turin Mount Blanc
1961
E25, E612
  A6 La Verdemare
123.7
Turin Savona
1960
E717
  A7 Serravalle
135.5
Milan Genoa
1935
E25, E62
  A8 Autostrada dei Laghi
43.6
Milan Varese
1924
E35, E62
  A9 Autostrada dei Laghi
30.9
Lainate Chiasso
1924
E35
  A10 Autostrada dei Fiori
158.1
Genoa Ventimiglia
1967
E25, E74, E80
  A11 Autostrada Firenze-Mare
81.7
Florence Pisa
1933
E76
  A12 Autostrada Azzurra
210.0
Genoa Rosignano Marittimo
1967
E80
  A13
116.7
Bologna Padua
1970
  A14 Autostrada Adriatica
743.4
Bologna Taranto
1966
E45, E843
  A15 Autocamionale della Cisa
108.5
Parma La Spezia
1975
E33
  A16 Autostrada dei Due Mari
172.5
Naples Canosa di Puglia
1966
E842
  A18
76.8
Messina Catania
1971
E45
  A18
40.0
Syracuse Rosolini
1983
E45
  A19
191.6
Palermo Catania
1970
E90, E32
  A20
183.0
Messina Buonfornello
1972
E45, E90
  A21 Autostrada dei Vini
238.3
Turin Brescia
1968
E70
  A22 Autostrada del Brennero
315.0
Brenner Modena
1968
E45
  A23 Autostrada Alpe-Adria
119.9
Palmanova Tarvisio
1966
E55
  A24 Autostrada dei Parchi
158.8
Rome Teramo
1969
E80
  A25 Autostrada dei Parchi
115.0
Torano di Borgorose Pescara
1969
E80
  A26 Autostrada dei Trafori
197.1
Genoa Gravellona Toce
1976
E25, E62
  A27 Autostrada d'Alemagna
82.5
Venice Belluno
1972
  A28
48.8
Portogruaro Conegliano
1974
  A29 Autostrada del Sale
114.8
Palermo Mazara del Vallo
1972
E90
  A30
55.3
Caserta Salerno
1975
  A31 Autostrada della Val d'Astico
88.7
Badia Polesine Piovene Rocchette
1976
  A32 Autostrada del Frejus
73.0
Turin Fréjus Road Tunnel
1983
E70
  A33
23.0
Cuneo Carrù
2005
  A34
17.5
Villesse Gorizia
2013
  A35 BreBeMi
54.8
Castegnato Melzo
2014
  A36 Pedemontana Lombarda
23.0
Cassano Magnago Lentate sul Seveso
2015
  A50 Tangenziale Ovest di Milano
31.3
Ring road around Milan
1968
E35, E62
  A51 Tangenziale Est di Milano
30.7
Ring road around Milan
1971
  A52 Tangenziale Nord di Milano
21.6
Ring road around Milan
1994
  A53
9.2
Bereguardo Pavia
1960
  A54 Tangenziale Ovest di Pavia
8.4
Ring road around Pavia
1994
  A55 Tangenziale di Torino
57.5
Ring road around Turin
1976
E70
  A56 Tangenziale di Napoli
20.2
Ring road around Naples
1972
  A57 Tangenziale di Mestre
26.7
Ring road around Mestre
1972
E55
  A58 Tangenziale Est Esterna di Milano
31.8
Ring road around Milan
2014
  A59 Tangenziale di Como
2.9
Ring road around Como
2015
  A60 Tangenziale di Varese
4.5
Ring road around Varese
2015
  A90 Grande Raccordo Anulare di Roma
68.2
Ring road around Rome
1951
E80
  A91
18.4
Rome Fiumicino Airport
1959
E80
  A92 Autostrada Azzurra
79.6
Rome Civitavecchia
1967
E80
A93
42.3
Marene Asti
2007
E74

List of bretelle and raccordi autostradaliEdit

Some autostrade are called bretelle, diramazioni or raccordi because they are short and have few exits.

Bretelle, diramazioni or raccordi are generally connections between two motorways, or connections between motorways and important cities without a motorway.

They have the same number (sometimes with the suffix dir) as one of the two autostrade linked, a combination of the numbers of the two autostrade linked, or the number of the main autostrada.

Number Name (length) Connection
  Raccordo Milano-Piazzale Corvetto (2 km) A1 - Milano Piazzale Corvetto
  Diramazione Capodichino (3 km) A1 - Aeroporto di Capodichino - A56
  Diramazione Roma nord (23 km) A1 - GRA
  Diramazione Roma sud (20 km) A1 - GRA
  Variante di Valico (32,966 km) A1 - A1
  A2 dir. Napoli (2 km) A2 - A3
  A2 dir. Reggio Calabria (9 km) A2 - Reggio Calabria
  Raccordo Chivasso (6 km) A4 - Verolengo
  Raccordo Ivrea-Santhià (23,6 km) A4 - A5
Raccordo Aosta-Gran San Bernardo (7,9 km) A5 - SS27
  Diramazione per Fossano (6,6 km) A6 - Fossano
  Diramazione Gallarate-Gattico (23,2 km) A8 - A26
  Diramazione Lucca-Viareggio (20 km) A11 - A12
  Diramazione per Livorno (4,5 km) A12 - Livorno
  Diramazione per Padova sud (4,3 km) A13 - Padova
  Diramazione per Ferrara (6,3 km) A13 - Ferrara - RA8
  Raccordo per Tangenziale di Bari (4,6 km) A14 - Tangenziale di Bari
  Diramazione per Ravenna (29,8 km) A14 - Ravenna
  Diramazione La Spezia-Santo Stefano di Magra Santo Stefano di Magra - A15 - La Spezia
  Diramazione per Catania (3,7 km) A18 - Catania
  Raccordo A19-Palermo (5,2 km) A19 - Circonvallazione di Palermo
  Diramazione per Fiorenzuola (12,3) A1 - A21
  Diramazione Stroppiana-Santhià (29,7 km) A4 - A26
  Diramazione Predosa-Bettole (17 km) A7 - A26
  Diramazione Alcamo-Trapani (36,9 km) A29 - Trapani
  Diramazione per Birgi (13,1 km) A29dir - Aeroporto di Trapani-Birgi
  Bretella aeroporto Falcone e Borsellino (4 km) A29 - Aeroporto di Palermo
  Raccordo per via Belgio (5,6 km) A29 - Circonvallazione di Palermo
  Diramazione per Pinerolo (23,44 km) A55 - Pinerolo
  Diramazione per Moncalieri (6,18 km) A6 - Moncalieri
  Raccordo della Falchera (3,13 km) A55 - A4 - SR 11
  Bretella/raccordo aeroporto (6,73 km) A57 - Aeroporto di Venezia

Trafori (T)Edit

Important alpine tunnels ((in Italian) trafori) are identified by the capital letter "T" followed by a single digit number. Currently there are only three T-classified tunnels: Mont Blanc Tunnel (T1), Great St Bernard Tunnel (T2) and Frejus Road Tunnel (T4). Tunnels that cross the border between Italy and France (T1, T4) or Switzerland (T2), are treated as motorways (green signage, access control, and so on), although they are not proper motorways. The code T3 was once assigned to the Bargagli-Ferriere Tunnel in Ligurian Appennines before it was reclassified as SP 226.

  Traforo del Monte Bianco
  Traforo del Gran San Bernardo
  Traforo del Frejus

Raccordi autostradali (RA)Edit

RA stands for Raccordo autostradale (translated as "motorway connection"), a relatively short spur route that connects an autostrada to a nearby city or tourist resort not directly served by the motorway. These spurs are owned and managed by ANAS (with some exceptions, such as the RA7 that became A53 when assigned to a private company for maintenance). Some spurs are toll-free motorways (type-A), but most are type-B or type-C roads. All RA have separate carriageways with two lanes in each direction. Generally, they do not have an emergency lane.

Symbol Number
  RA1 A1 - A13 - A14

(Tangenziale di Bologna)

  RA2 A3 - Avellino
  RA3 A1 - Siena
  RA4 A3 - Reggio Calabria - SS106
  RA5 A3 - Potenza
  RA6 A1 - Perugia
  A53 (or RA7) A7 - Tangenziale di Pavia
  RA8 A13 - Ferrara - Porto Garibaldi
  RA9 A16 - Benevento
  RA10 Torino - A55 - Turin Airport
  RA11 Ascoli - A14 - Porto d'Ascoli
  RA12 A25 - Chieti - A14 - Pescara
  RA13 A4 - SS202
  RA14 RA13 - Fernetti (state border with Slovenia)
  RA15 A18 - A19 - Aut. CT-SR

(Tangenziale di Catania)

  RA16 A28 - SS13 Pontebbana

Strade extraurbane principaliEdit

 
Strada extraurbana principale sign

Type B highway (or strada extraurbana principale), commonly but unofficially known as superstrada (Italian equivalent for expressway), is a divided highway with at least two lanes in each direction, paved shoulder on the right, no cross-traffic and no at-grade intersections. Access restrictions on such highways are exactly the same as autostrade. Signage at the beginning and the end of the highways is the same, except the background color is blue instead of green. The general speed limit on strade extraurbane principali is 110 km/h. Strade extraurbane principali are not tolled. All strade extraurbane principali are owned and managed by ANAS, and directly controlled by the Italian government or by the regions.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://www.aiscat.it/pubblicazioni/downloads/Trim%201-2_2014.pdf
  2. ^ Benetton Family to Control Italian Toll Road Operator
  3. ^ Infrastructure company controlled by the Benetton family
  4. ^ Service Areas on Motorways in Italy
  5. ^ a b "Disegno di Legge" [draft law], Legislative Decree (in Italian), Senato della repubblica (967), p. 2, 1988-04-07
  6. ^ Novella de Luca, Maria (1989-09-28). "'Via libera ai 130 km/h' la camera aumenta i limiti di velocità" [Green light for 130 km/h: chamber increases speed limits]. La Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-01-18.

External linksEdit