Autostrade of Italy

The Autostrade (Italian: [autoˈstraːde]; singular autostrada [autoˈstraːda]) are roads forming the Italian national system of motorways. The total length of the system is about 6,758 kilometres (4,199 mi).[1] In North and Central Italy, the Autostrade mainly consists of tollways managed by Autostrade per l'Italia, a holding company controlled by the Benetton family.[2][3] Other operators include ASTM, ATP, and Autostrade Lombarde in the north-west; Autostrada del Brennero, A4 Holding, Concessioni Autostradali Venete, and Autovie Venete in the north-east; Strada dei Parchi, SALT, SAT, and Autocisa in the center; and CAS in the south.

Interactive map of Autostrade in Italy

HistoryEdit

Italy became the first country to inaugurate motorways reserved for motor vehicles with A1.[4] The Milano-Laghi motorway (connecting Milan to Varese) was devised by Piero Puricelli, a civil engineer and entrepreneur. He received the first authorization to build a public-utility fast road in 1921, and completed the construction (one lane each direction) between 1924 and 1926. By the end of the 1930s, over 400 kilometers of multi- and dual-single-lane motorways were constructed throughout Italy, linking cities and rural towns.

Traffic lawsEdit

 
An autostrada regulation sign along an entrance ramp

Italy's autostrade must not be used by:[5]

  • Pedestrian and animals (except in rest areas)
  • Pedal-cycles
  • Moped
  • Motorcycles having an engine displacement less than 150 cubic centimetres (9.2 cu in) (if equipped with an internal combustion engine)
  • Sidecars having an engine displacement less than 250 cc (15 cu in) (if equipped with an internal combustion engine)
  • Motorized tricycles designed for the transport of people with up to 2 seats having an engine displacement less than 250 cc (15 cu in) (if equipped with an internal combustion engine) or having an engine power less than 15 kilowatts (20 PS; 20 bhp)
  • Motorcycle-like vehicles (motoveicoli) not included in previous categories having an empty vehicle weight up to 400 kg (880 lb) or a gross vehicle mass up to 1,300 kg (2,900 lb)
  • Cars with a design speed on flat road less than 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph) [6]
  • Vehicles without tyres
  • Agricultural vehicles and technical vehicles (e.g. heavy equipment)

SpeedEdit

 
Autostrada sign

Italy's autostrade have a standard speed limit of 130 km/h (80 mph) for cars. Limits for other vehicles (or during foul weather and/or low visibility) are lower. Legal provisions allow operators to set the limit to 150 km/h (95 mph) on their concessions on a voluntary basis if there are three lanes in each direction and a working SICVE, or Safety Tutor, which is a speed-camera system that measure the average speed over a given distance. In 2016, no road was utilizing this possibility.

The first speed limit, to 120 km/h (75 mph), was enacted in November 1973 as a result of the 1973 oil crisis.[7] In October 1977, a graduated system was introduced: cars with engine displacement above 1.3 L (79 cu in) had a 140 km/h (85 mph) speed limit, cars of 900-1299 cm3 had a limit of 130 km/h (80 mph), those of 600-899 cm3 could drive at 110 km/h (70 mph), and those of 599 cm3 (36.6 cu in) or less had a maximum speed of 90 km/h (55 mph).[7] In July 1988 a blanket speed limit of 110 km/h (70 mph) was imposed on all cars above 600 cm3 (the lower limit was kept for smaller cars) by the short-lived PSDI government. In September 1989 this was increased to 130 km/h (80 mph) for cars above 1.1 L (67 cu in) and 110 km/h (70 mph) for smaller ones.[8]

List of current AutostradeEdit

Number Length (km) Length (mi) Southern or western terminus Northern or eastern terminus Route name Formed Removed Notes
  A 1 759.8 472.1 Milan Naples Autostrada del Sole 01964-01-011964 current E35, E45
  A 2 202.1 125.6 Rome Naples Autostrada del Sole 01962-01-011962 01988-01-011988 Absorbed into the A1
  A 2 442.9 275.2 Salerno Reggio Calabria Autostrada del Mediterraneo 02017-01-012017 current E45, E90, E841
  A 3 51.7 32.1 Naples Salerno 01974-01-011974 current E45
  A 4 522.4 324.6 Turin Trieste Serenissima 01927-01-011927 current E55, E64, E70
  A 5 141.4 87.9 Turin Mont Blanc Autostrada della Valle d'Aosta 01961-01-011961 current E25, E612
  A 6 123.7 76.9 Turin Savona La Verdemare 01960-01-011960 current E717
  A 7 135.5 84.2 Milan Genoa Serravalle 01935-01-011935 current E25, E62
  A 8 43.6 27.1 Milan Varese Autostrada dei Laghi 01924-01-011924 current E35, E62
  A 9 30.9 19.2 Lainate Chiasso Autostrada dei Laghi 01924-01-011924 current E35
  A 10 158.1 98.2 Genoa Ventimiglia Autostrada dei Fiori 01967-01-011967 current E25, E74, E80
  A 11 81.7 50.8 Florence Pisa Autostrada Firenze-Mare 01933-01-011933 current E76
  A 12 210.0 130.5 Genoa Rosignano Marittimo Autostrada Azzurra 01967-01-011967 current E80
  A 13 116.7 72.5 Bologna Padua 01970-01-011970 current
  A 14 743.4 461.9 Bologna Taranto Autostrada Adriatica 01966-01-011966 current E45, E843
  A 15 108.5 67.4 Parma La Spezia Autocamionale della Cisa 01975-01-011975 current E33
  A 16 172.5 107.2 Naples Canosa di Puglia Autostrada dei Due Mari 01966-01-011966 current E842
  A 17 242 150 Naples Bari 01969-01-011969 01973-01-011973 Absorbed into the A14 and A16
  A 18 76.8 47.7 Messina Catania 01971-01-011971 current E45
  A 18 SR-Gela 40.0 24.9 Syracuse Rosolini 01983-01-011983 current E45
  A 19 191.6 119.1 Palermo Catania 01970-01-011970 current E90, E932
  A 20 183.0 113.7 Messina Buonfornello 01972-01-011972 current E45, E90
  A 21 238.3 148.1 Turin Brescia Autostrada dei Vini 01968-01-011968 current E70
  A 22 315.0 195.7 Brenner Modena Autostrada del Brennero 01968-01-011968 current E45
  A 23 119.9 74.5 Palmanova Tarvisio Autostrada Alpe-Adria 01966-01-011966 current E55
  A 24 158.8 98.7 Rome Teramo Autostrada dei Parchi 01969-01-011969 current E80
  A 25 115.0 71.5 Torano di Borgorose Pescara Autostrada dei Parchi 01969-01-011969 current E80
  A 26 197.1 122.5 Genoa Gravellona Toce Autostrada dei Trafori 01976-01-011976 current E25, E62
  A 27 82.5 51.3 Venice Belluno Autostrada d'Alemagna 01972-01-011972 current
  A 28 48.8 30.3 Portogruaro Conegliano 01974-01-011974 current
  A 29 114.8 71.3 Palermo Mazara del Vallo Autostrada del Sale 01972-01-011972 current E90
  A 30 55.3 34.4 Caserta Salerno 01975-01-011975 current
  A 31 88.7 55.1 Badia Polesine Piovene Rocchette Autostrada della Val d'Astico 01976-01-011976 current
  A 32 73.0 45.4 Turin Fréjus Road Tunnel Autostrada del Frejus 01983-01-011983 current E70
  A 33 23.0 14.3 Cuneo Carrù 02005-01-012005 current
  A 34 17.5 10.9 Villesse Gorizia 02013-01-012013 current
  A 35 54.8 34.1 Castegnato Melzo BreBeMi 02014-01-012014 current
  A 36 23.0 14.3 Cassano Magnago Lentate sul Seveso Pedemontana Lombarda 02015-01-012015 current
  A 50 31.3 19.4 Ring road around Milan Tangenziale Ovest di Milano 01968-01-011968 current E35, E62
  A 51 30.7 19.1 Ring road around Milan Tangenziale Est di Milano 01971-01-011971 current
  A 52 21.6 13.4 Ring road around Milan Tangenziale Nord di Milano 01994-01-011994 current
  A 53 9.2 5.7 Bereguardo Pavia 01960-01-011960 current
  A 54 8.4 5.2 Ring road around Pavia Tangenziale Ovest di Pavia 01994-01-011994 current
  A 55 57.5 35.7 Ring road around Turin Tangenziale di Torino 01976-01-011976 current E70
  A 56 20.2 12.6 Ring road around Naples Tangenziale di Napoli 01972-01-011972 current
  A 57 26.7 16.6 Ring road around Mestre Tangenziale di Mestre 01972-01-011972 current E55
  A 58 31.8 19.8 Ring road around Milan Tangenziale Est Esterna di Milano 02014-01-012014 current
  A 59 2.9 1.8 Ring road around Como Tangenziale di Como 02015-01-012015 current
  A 60 4.5 2.8 Ring road around Varese Tangenziale di Varese 02015-01-012015 current
  A 90 68.2 42.4 Ring road around Rome Grande Raccordo Anulare di Roma 01951-01-011951 current E80
  A 91 18.4 11.4 Rome Fiumicino Airport 01959-01-011959 current E80
A 93 42.3 26.3 Marene Asti 02007-01-012007 current E74
  •       Former

List of bretelle and raccordi autostradaliEdit

Some autostrade are called bretelle, diramazioni or raccordi because they are short and have few exits.

Bretelle, diramazioni or raccordi are generally connections between two motorways, or connections between motorways and important cities without a motorway.

They have the same number (sometimes with the suffix dir) as one of the two autostrade linked, a combination of the numbers of the two autostrade linked, or the number of the main autostrada.

Number Name (length) Connection
  Raccordo Milano-Piazzale Corvetto (2 km) A1 - Milano Piazzale Corvetto
  Diramazione Capodichino (3 km) A1 - Aeroporto di Capodichino - A56
  Diramazione Roma nord (23 km) A1 - GRA
  Diramazione Roma sud (20 km) A1 - GRA
  Variante di Valico (32,966 km) A1 - A1
  A2 dir. Napoli (2 km) A2 - A3
  A2 dir. Reggio Calabria (9 km) A2 - Reggio Calabria
  Raccordo Chivasso (6 km) A4 - Verolengo
  Raccordo Ivrea-Santhià (23,6 km) A4 - A5
Raccordo Aosta-Gran San Bernardo (7,9 km) A5 - SS27
  Diramazione per Fossano (6,6 km) A6 - Fossano
  Diramazione Gallarate-Gattico (23,2 km) A8 - A26
  Diramazione Lucca-Viareggio (20 km) A11 - A12
  Diramazione per Livorno (4,5 km) A12 - Livorno
  Diramazione per Padova sud (4,3 km) A13 - Padova
  Diramazione per Ferrara (6,3 km) A13 - Ferrara - RA8
  Raccordo per Tangenziale di Bari (4,6 km) A14 - Tangenziale di Bari
  Diramazione per Ravenna (29,8 km) A14 - Ravenna
  Diramazione La Spezia-Santo Stefano di Magra Santo Stefano di Magra - A15 - La Spezia
  Diramazione per Catania (3,7 km) A18 - Catania
  Raccordo A19-Palermo (5,2 km) A19 - Circonvallazione di Palermo
  Diramazione per Fiorenzuola (12,3) A1 - A21
  Diramazione Stroppiana-Santhià (29,7 km) A4 - A26
  Diramazione Predosa-Bettole (17 km) A7 - A26
  Diramazione Alcamo-Trapani (36,9 km) A29 - Trapani
  Diramazione per Birgi (13,1 km) A29dir - Aeroporto di Trapani-Birgi
  Bretella aeroporto Falcone e Borsellino (4 km) A29 - Aeroporto di Palermo
  Raccordo per via Belgio (5,6 km) A29 - Circonvallazione di Palermo
  Diramazione per Pinerolo (23,44 km) A55 - Pinerolo
  Diramazione per Moncalieri (6,18 km) A6 - Moncalieri
  Raccordo della Falchera (3,13 km) A55 - A4 - SR 11
  Bretella/raccordo aeroporto (6,73 km) A57 - Aeroporto di Venezia

Trafori (T)Edit

Important alpine tunnels ((in Italian) trafori) are identified by the capital letter "T" followed by a single digit number. Currently there are only three T-classified tunnels: Mont Blanc Tunnel (T1), Great St Bernard Tunnel (T2) and Frejus Road Tunnel (T4). Tunnels that cross the border between Italy and France (T1, T4) or Switzerland (T2), are treated as motorways (green signage, access control, and so on), although they are not proper motorways. The code T3 was once assigned to the Bargagli-Ferriere Tunnel in Ligurian Appennines before it was reclassified as SP 226.

  Traforo del Monte Bianco
  Traforo del Gran San Bernardo
  Traforo del Frejus

Raccordi autostradali (RA)Edit

RA stands for Raccordo autostradale (translated as "motorway connection"), a relatively short spur route that connects an autostrada to a nearby city or tourist resort not directly served by the motorway. These spurs are owned and managed by ANAS (with some exceptions, such as the RA7 that became A53 when assigned to a private company for maintenance). Some spurs are toll-free motorways (type-A), but most are type-B or type-C roads. All RA have separate carriageways with two lanes in each direction. Generally, they do not have an emergency lane.

Symbol Number
  RA1 A1 - A13 - A14

(Tangenziale di Bologna)

  RA2 A3 - Avellino
  RA3 A1 - Siena
  RA4 A3 - Reggio Calabria - SS106
  RA5 A3 - Potenza
  RA6 A1 - Perugia
  A53 (or RA7) A7 - Tangenziale di Pavia
  RA8 A13 - Ferrara - Porto Garibaldi
  RA9 A16 - Benevento
  RA10 Torino - A55 - Turin Airport
  RA11 Ascoli - A14 - Porto d'Ascoli
  RA12 A25 - Chieti - A14 - Pescara
  RA13 A4 - SS202
  RA14 RA13 - Fernetti (state border with Slovenia)
  RA15 A18 - A19 - Aut. CT-SR

(Tangenziale di Catania)

  RA16 A28 - SS13 Pontebbana

Strade extraurbane principaliEdit

 
Strada extraurbana principale sign

Type B highway (or strada extraurbana principale), commonly but unofficially known as superstrada (Italian equivalent for expressway), is a divided highway with at least two lanes in each direction, paved shoulder on the right, no cross-traffic and no at-grade intersections. Access restrictions on such highways are exactly the same as autostrade. Signage at the beginning and the end of the highways is the same, except the background color is blue instead of green. The general speed limit on strade extraurbane principali is 110 km/h. Strade extraurbane principali are not tolled. All strade extraurbane principali are owned and managed by ANAS, and directly controlled by the Italian government or by the regions.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://www.aiscat.it/pubblicazioni/downloads/Trim%201-2_2014.pdf
  2. ^ Benetton Family to Control Italian Toll Road Operator
  3. ^ Infrastructure company controlled by the Benetton family
  4. ^ Service Areas on Motorways in Italy
  5. ^ Art. 175 Nuovo codice della strada
  6. ^ Art. 372 Regolamento di esecuzione del codice della strada
  7. ^ a b "Disegno di Legge" [draft law], Legislative Decree (in Italian), Senato della repubblica (967), p. 2, 1988-04-07
  8. ^ Novella de Luca, Maria (1989-09-28). "'Via libera ai 130 km/h' la camera aumenta i limiti di velocità" [Green light for 130 km/h: chamber increases speed limits]. La Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-01-18.

External linksEdit