Autonomous okrugs of Russia

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Autonomous okrug (Russian: автономный округ, lit. 'avtonomny okrug'), occasionally also referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrative division type of some federal subjects. As of 2014, Russia has four autonomous okrugs of its eighty-five federal subjects. The Chukotka Autonomous Okrug is the only okrug which is not subordinate to an oblast. The others three are Arkhangelsk Oblast's Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug within Tyumen Oblast.

Autonomous okrug
Autonomous districts of Russia.png
CategoryFederated state
LocationRussian Federation
Number4
Populations42,090 (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) – 1,532,243 (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug)
Areas177,000 km2 (68,200 sq mi) (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) - 750,000 km2 (289,700 sq mi) (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug)
GovernmentOkrug Government
Subdivisionsadministrative: districts, cities and towns of okrug significance, towns of district significance, urban-type settlements of district significance, selsoviets; municipal: urban okrugs, municipal districts, urban settlements, rural settlements

HistoryEdit

Originally called national okrug, this type of administrative unit was created in the 1920s and widely implemented in 1930 to provide autonomy to indigenous peoples of the North. In 1977, the 1977 Soviet Constitution changed the term "national okrugs" to "autonomous okrugs" in order to emphasize that they were indeed autonomies and not simply another type of administrative and territorial division. While the 1977 Constitution stipulated that the autonomous okrugs are subordinated to the oblasts and krais, this clause was revised on December 15, 1990, when it was specified that autonomous okrugs are subordinated directly to the Russian SFSR, although they still may stay in jurisdiction of a krai or an oblast to which they were subordinated before.

Autonomous OkrugsEdit

Flag Map Name
Domestic names
Capital
Population (2010)[1]
Area
Formation
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Чукотский Aвтономный Oкруг (Chukotskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Chukot: Чукоткакэн Aвтономныкэн Oкруг (Chukotkaken Avtonomnyken Okrug)
Anadyr

Russian: Анадырь (Anadyr)

Chukot: Кагыргын (Kagyrgyn)
50,526 721,481 km2 (278,565 sq mi) 1930-12-10
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Ханты-Мансийский Aвтономный Oкруг (Khanty-Mansiyskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Khanty: Хӑнты-Мансийской Aвтономной Oкруг (Ȟănty-Mansijskoj Avtonomnoj Okrug)

Mansi: Ханты-Мансийский Aвтономный Oкруг (Hanty-Mansijskij Avtonomnyj Okrug)
Khanty-Mansiysk

Russian: Ханты-Мансийск (Khanty-Mansiysk)

Khanty: Ёмвоҷ (Yomvoḉ)

Mansi: Абга (Abga)
1,532,243 534,801 km2 (206,488 sq mi) 1930-12-10
Nenets Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Ненецкий Aвтономный Oкруг (Nenetskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Nenets: Ненёцие Aвтономной Ӈокрук (Nenjocije Awtonomnoj Ŋokruk)
Naryan-Mar

Russian: Нарьян-Мар (Naryan-Mar)

Nenets: Няръянa Mарˮ (Nyar'yana Marq)
42,090 176,810 km2 (68,267 sq mi) 1929-07-15
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Ямало-Ненецкий Aвтономный Oкруг (Yamalo-Nenetskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Nenets: Ямалы-Ненёцие Aвтономной Ӈокрук (Yamaly-Nenyotsiye Avtonomnoj Ŋokruk)
Salekhard

Russian: Салехард (Salekhard)

Nenets: Саляʼ Xарад (Salja’ Harad)
522,904 769,250 km2 (297,009 sq mi) 1930-12-10

Former Autonomous OkrugsEdit

Flag Map Name
Domestic names
Capital
Population
Area
Years
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Агинский Бурятский Aвтономный Oкруг (Aginskiy Buryatskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Buryat: Агын Буряадай Aвтономито Tойрог (Agyn Buryaaday Avtonomito Toyrog)
Aginskoye

Russian: Агинское (Aginskoye)

Buryat: Ага (Aga)
76,383 (2008) 19,592 km2 (7,565 sq mi) 1937–2008
Evenk Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Эвенкийский Aвтономный Oкруг (Evenkiyskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Evenki: Эведы Автомоды Округ (Ēvēde Avtōmōde Okrug)
Tura

Russian: Тура (Tura)

Evenki: Typy (Turu)
16,979 (2007) 763,197 km2 (294,672 sq mi) 1930–2007
Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Коми-Пермяцкий Aвтономный Oкруг (Komi-Permyatskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Komi-Permyak: Коми-Пермяцкöй Aвтономнöй Oкруг (Komi-Permjacköj Avtonomnöj Okrug)
Kudymkar

Russian: Кудымкар (Kudymkar)

Komi-Permyak: Кудымкöр (Kudymkör)
132,824 (2005) 32,770 km2 (12,653 sq mi) 1930–2005
Koryak Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Корякский Aвтономный Oкруг (Koryakskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Koryak: Чав’чываокруг (Čav’čyvaokrug)
Palana

Russian: Палана (Palana)

Koryak: Пылылъын (Pylylʺyn)
22,580 (2007) 292,600 km2 (112,973 sq mi) 1930–2007
Taymyr Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Таймырский Aвтономный Oкруг (Taymyrskiy Avtonomny Okrug) Dudinka

Russian: Дудинка (Dudinka)
38,372 (2007) 879,929 km2 (339,742 sq mi) 1930–2007
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Усть-Ордынский Бурятский Aвтономный Oкруг (Ust’-Ordynskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Buryat: Усть-Ордын Буряадай Aвтономито Tойрог (Ust’-Ordyn Buryaaday Avtonomito Toyrog)
Ust-Ordynsky

Russian: Усть-Ордынский (Ust-Ordynsky)

Buryat: Ордын Адаг (Ordyn Adag)
134,320 (2008) 22,400 km2 (8,649 sq mi) 1937–2008

Recent developmentsEdit

In 1990, ten autonomous okrugs existed within the RSFSR. Between 2005 and 2008, the three autonomous okrugs in which the titular nationality constituted more than 30% of the population were abolished. Since then, three more have been abolished, leaving four.

The ten autonomous okrugs in 1990 were:

Entity in 1990 Status in August 2008
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug now Agin-Buryat Okrug of Zabaykalsky Krai
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug within Magadan Oblast no longer subordinated to Magadan Oblast
Evenk Autonomous Okrug within Krasnoyarsk Krai now Evenkiysky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai
Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug within Tyumen Oblast (no change)
Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug now Komi-Permyak Okrug of Perm Krai
Koryak Autonomous Okrug within Kamchatka Oblast now Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai
Nenets Autonomous Okrug within Arkhangelsk Oblast (no change)
Taymyr Autonomous Okrug within Krasnoyarsk Krai now Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug within Irkutsk Oblast now Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug of Irkutsk Oblast
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug within Tyumen Oblast (no change)

Ethnic composition of autonomous okrugsEdit

The table below also includes autonomous okrugs which have since changed status.

Autonomous Okrug titular nation Russians other[2]
year 1979 1989 2002 2010 1979 1989 2002 2010 1979 1989 2002 2010
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug[3] 52,2 54,9 62,5 42 40,8 35,1
Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug[3] 61,6 60,2 59 34,9 36,1 38,1
Koryak Autonomous Okrug (all indigenous)[3] 16,3 16,45 26,6 30,3 62,9 62 50,5 46,2 24,9 40,5 46,5
Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Komi) 12,8 11,9 18,6  18,6 66 65,8 62,4 66,1 11,1 9,5 10,8 9
Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (Dolgan and Nenets)[3] 9,6 8,9 13,8 15,7 68,9 67,1 58,6 50,0 5 4,4 7,6 10,1
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug[3] 34,1 36,3 39,6 58,3 56,5 54,4
Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug 1,9 0,9 1,2 1,3 74,3 66,3 66 68,1 1,1 0,5 0,7 0,8
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (all indigenous) 8,1 7,3 23,4 26,7 68,6 66,1 51,8 52,5 9,6 30,8 35,3
Evenk Autonomous Okrug[3] 20 14,1 21,5 22,0 62,5 67,5 61,9 59,4
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Nenets) 10,7 4,2 5,2 5,9 59,1 59,2 58,8 61,7 1,5 1,7 1,9

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "2010 All-Russian Population Census" (PDF). All-Russian Population Census (in Russian). December 22, 2011. Retrieved May 12, 2019.
  2. ^ Are the people who are in parentheses next to the autonomous regions and the second-largest two-part indigenous autonomous regions.
  3. ^ a b c d e f liquidated Autonomous okrug.

See alsoEdit