Australian rules football in Canada

Australian rules football in Canada (commonly known as "Aussie Rules" or simply "footy") is played in seven provinces - Ontario, Alberta, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The Ontario league, centred on Toronto is a nine-team league, including sides from cities as far afield as Guelph, Hamilton and Ottawa. In western Canada, there are clubs in Edmonton, Calgary and a six-team league in the Vancouver area. There is also a number of junior and women's clubs across Canada.

Australian rules football in Canada
2010 ECAFL Grand Final.jpg
Action from the 2010 ECAFL Grand Final
Governing bodyAFL Canada
National team(s)Canada
First played1905, Vancouver
Registered players876 (adult)
20,000 (junior)[1]
Club competitions
Audience records
Single match32,789 (1987). Melbourne v. Sydney (B.C. Place, Vancouver)

The sport was first introduced in 1905 in Vancouver, and despite a tour from and international against the USA, and an unsanctioned tour to Australia went into permanent recess prior to World War I as a result of Australia's refusal to recognise Canada as a playing nation. The then VFL (now Australian Football League), having briefly gained then lost lucrative North American television broadcasts in the 1980s, attempted to rebuild its audience with a series of exhibition matches between 1987 and 1989. These matches generated significant interest and Canada retains the attendance record for the sport outside of Australia, 32,789 set in 1987 at B.C. Place, Vancouver. As a result of the interest generated the sport was established at the grassroots in 1989 with a competition in Toronto that has continued and expanded to the present. Competition spread from Ontario to other provinces culminating in the establishment of a national governing body, AFL Canada, in 2004. The world governing body, the AFL Commission has recently made great efforts to differentiate it from rugby, producing educational videos such as "What is AFL?" aimed at a North American audience (Video on YouTube).

Canadians are increasingly being sought after to play the sport professionally in Australia which has helped to increase overall interest in Canada. Mike Pyke (who successfully switched from international rugby in 2008) featured prominently in red and white during his successful 2012 AFL Grand Final appearance, performing a victory lap with the Canadian flag. Pyke has inspired others to follow and in 2016, Canadians featured prominently in AFL and AFL Women's recruitment with Andrew McGrath being taken as the top pick in the 2016 AFL draft and rugby convert Kendra Heil being picked in the 2016 AFL Women's draft.

Canada's best international results were posted in the 2014 International Cup with men's team, the Northwind, reaching 5th and the women's team, the Northern Lights, being crowned international champions.


First Establishment: 1904-1911Edit

A request for copies of the Laws of Australian Football by parties from Canada was noted in the Sydney Referee newspaper in 1904.[2] A 1906 report of Australian Football's growth internationally made mention of a Canadian Railway Commissioner early in the century who, while working in Victoria, fell in love with the sport and upon returning to Canada began agitating for it to be played there. He was said to have made several subsequent requests to parties in Australia for support introducing the game.[3]

The game is believed to have been first introduced to British Columbia in 1905,[4] when Canadian-born Captain Robert Nelson Davy of the 6th Regiment began training students of the 101st Canadian Cadet corps in preparation for a planned visit to Australia.[5] The students were from the Vancouver School Board district and included Vancouver High School and King Edward High School[6] among others.

Davy wrote to Australia for assistance. However by 1906 the game's newly formed governing body, the Australasian Football Council (AFC) led by the VFL resolved not to support the game being played outside Australasia and declined any support.[7] West Australian Football League secretary John J Simons however pledged his support through the Young Australia League and began assisting to plan a series of tours between the two countries.

Canada vs the United States: 1912Edit

Canadian Schools had been practicing inter-school competition for around 6 years before the arrival of a touring party from the United States including Sydney schoolboy Eric Cullen-Ward, and San Francisco's Columban Park Boys' School in 1912 (who had successfully started Australian rules football in the United States as "field ball" in American schools in 1910). The Americans had come to Vancouver to help prepare Davy's cadets to compete against a touring Young Australia League from Perth scheduled to arrive that year and ultimately to tour Australia as Canada's first national team.[8][9] They played the first international match between the two countries in 1912 though few if any details of the match survive.

Young Australia League tour: 1912Edit

A Young Australia League touring party left for Canada from the United States in January 1912.[10] Though the majority of the trip was funded from Western Australia, the Australasian Football Council contributed £240,[11] president of the time the VFL's Con Hickey on the condition that the tour organisers promote Universal football instead feeling it would have a better chance of catching on in North America. However the West Australians were determined instead that Australian rules be played.

Following the Young Australian tour the Canadian Cadets team prepared a reciprocal tour of Australia to Sydney, Perth, Fremantle, Kalgoorlie, Adelaide, Ballarat, Tasmania and Melbourne.[11] $11,000 was raised for the tour[12] with a contingent of 60 cadets aged 18 to 20.[13] The Canadians left from Vancouver on July 10, 1912[14] early July.

Controversial Canadian Cadets tour of Australia: 1912-1913Edit

The Canadian Cadets tour was plagued with trouble from the start. Captain Davy had hoped that Australia would extend a similar reception to the one offered the 1909 American Schoolboys team and had intended to play numerous matches across Australia. However the team was left in the lurch when the AFC refused to recognise the touring party which was not affiliated to it and officially declined participation from Australia's two most powerful leagues, the Victorian Football League and the South Australian Football Association.[15] Like the American tour, it was supported only by Western Australia's Young Australia League and the New South Wales Football Association (NSWAFA).

New South WalesEdit

The Canadian Cadets arrived in Sydney on the RMS Zealandia in 1912 to a hostile reception.

A. E. Nash president of the NSWAFA saw it as an opportunity to promote the idea that the game was spreading abroad. This was something that the NSWAFA in particular believed was important to appeal to the Sydney public which had gained enormous interest in representative rugby. The NSWAFA had invested heavily in a thriving schoolboys competition and sending Sydney schoolboy Eric Cullen-Ward to North America had successfully kick-started the code beyond the league's expectations. The AFC led by the VFL however were convinced that the key to converting Sydneysiders was through its promotion of national competition and as a truly national football code featuring its VFL clubs. Much to the chagrin of the touring Canadians and the NSWAFA, the AFC and VFL scheduled a clashing fixture, featuring the Geelong Football Club against the New South Wales state team. However the AFC's exhibition match move backfired and the Queensland vs New South Wales rugby match being played that week dominated Sydney's media attention. The Canadian tour, swept up in anti-VFL sentiment, was afforded the barest of mentions by the media.[16] Canadian tour manager E.R McTaggart made an advanced visit to promote the match only to have the matches postponed due to Australian organisers difficulties scheduling the tour.[17]

The Cadets arrived on the HMS Zealandia in Sydney on August 4.[18] The Canadians expressed disappointment from the notably cold reception in Sydney, described as "a freezer" and complained to the Sydney papers[19] claiming that they were booed by the Sydney public and had even been discriminated against and abused on public transport purely on the basis of their chosen football code. Organisers claimed that the abuse was so bad that at one point the touring party, mostly self-funded, considered returning home.[20] Captain Davy commented that "the people of Canada won't understand this treatment. They will wonder if there is any thing wrong with the boys or with me. We treated the Australian boys who visited us in a very different fashion".[21] Adding insult to injury the NSWAFA public statement on behalf of the Sydney public placed the blame on the Australasian Football Council and the visiting Canadians.[22] Despite the NSWAFA's "apology" the NSW government offered a formal apology and refunded the expenses while visiting the state.[23] Officials from Newcastle and Goulburn made a concerted effort to atone for Sydney's hostile reception for the scheduled visits[24] however the matches were abandoned due to state of the football grounds.[25] The Sydney matches themselves were low key events, and were rescheduled several times during and there was much difficulty securing grounds to play from rugby authorities. Reportedly skills, particularly bouncing the ball, let the touring side down, though they were competitive against the Australians.

Tour Date Location Result
7 August 1912 Sydney Football Ground, Sydney, New South Wales Canada 2.9 (21) def. by New South Wales schoolboys 8.12 (60)[26]
10 August 1912 Sydney Football Ground, Sydney, New South Wales Canada 4.12 (38) def. by New South Wales schoolboys 8.8 (56)[27][28][29]


In contrast to the New South Wales tour, the cadets received a parade in Melbourne and a full page welcoming in The Argus.[30] However they faced a stern lack of support from Victorian football authorities, the cadets who had trained to play in the home of football, instead competed and lost in other sports including lacrosse at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. A rare exception was during the visit to Newport a local amateur team agreed to play an unsanctioned match and were completely shocked to have been soundly beaten by the visitors.[30]

Tour Date Location Result
27 August 1912 Newport, Victoria Canada 6.0 (36) def Newport 2.0 (12)[26]

Western AustraliaEdit

Part of the pre-match marching ceremony at the W.A.C.A Ground

The Canadians went on to Western Australia where they were greeted with much fanfare and were hosted by the WAFL (who had sponsored the Young Australia League) where they would play several matches and with the experience gathered on the tour, displayed much improved performance. In Perth, the West Australian Football League organised a match featuring the Young Australia League[30] Matches in West Australia drew by far the largest attendances of the Australian tour.

11 September 1912 Perth Oval, Perth, Western Australia Canada 5.5 def. by Young Australia League 7.3
11 September 1912 Perth Oval, Perth, Western Australia Canada 3.7 def 88th Cadets (East Perth) 0.4
Christian Brothers College, Fremantle Canada 7.3 def Christian Brothers College 3.10
Canada 2.0 def. by Goldfields 8.0
Canada 2.8 drew Busselton 2.8
Christian Brothers College, Fremantle Canada 7.5 def Christian Brothers College 4.7
1 October 1912 Midland Junction Canada 5.8 defeated Kendall 3.3[31]


Australia declines support and demise of the game: 1914-1919Edit

Upon returning to Vancouver, the game continued be played with the Vancouver School Board thanking the hospitality of the local leagues in Western Australia,[33] but critical of the Australasian Football Council who had refused support it,[32] and just prior to World War I extending an invitation for another tour from the Young Australia League.[34] Following the North American tour from and to Australia, the AFC demanded that the West Australian Football Association stop all of its financial subsidies of international football, which it did in 1913.[35]

There were reports that despite the failed tour the sport continued to be played in the high schools at least until the war though the Vancouver Board began increasingly playing rugby after the successful 1912 Vancouver rugby tour against Stanford Rugby in the United States.[36]

A proposal was debated by the Australasian Football Council in 1915 of a tour to Canada, with a decision deferred until after the war.[37]

Canada was never granted membership to the council and the game appears to have died out there during World War I.

Exhibition matches and revival: 1987-1989Edit

In the late 1980s, TSN broadcasts in Canada showed highlights of the Victorian Football League from Australia. However as the league's once lucrative North American broadcast rights dried up and in response it initiated a series of exhibition matches between 1987 and 1989 in an attempt to rebuild its audience.

The first major exhibition matches in Canada attracted three of the largest crowds for the sport in the world, along with much interest. The 1987 game holds the record for a VFL/AFL match held outside Australia.

Year Location Stadium Teams Result Attendance Media
1987 Vancouver Melbourne v. North Melbourne 7,980
1987 Vancouver BC Place Melbourne v. Sydney Melbourne 20.19 (139) def. Sydney 12.9 (81) 32,789 Video on YouTube
1987 Vancouver Collingwood v. Hawthorn
1988 Toronto Varsity Stadium Collingwood v. Hawthorn 18,500
1989 Toronto Toronto Skydome Geelong v. Melbourne Melbourne 14.19 (103) def. Geelong 13.12 (90) 24,639


Local development and the Canadian Australian Football Association: 1989-1993Edit

The Canadian Australian Football Association was established in May 1989 when two clubs, the Mississauga Mustangs and the Toronto Panthers were formed and played in the inaugural Conacher Cup game in Toronto, Ontario. Since then, the game of Australian football in Canada has expanded considerably nationwide.

In 1990, the Scarborough Rebels, the North York Hawks and the Hamilton Wildcats joined, with the Balmy Beach Saints coming on board in 1992. The North York Hawks later relocated and became known as the Broadview Hawks.

The Brampton Wolverines, the league's seventh team, were formed in 1993. The Scarborough Rebels relocated and became the Lawrence Park Rebels.

Canada gains a national team: 1993-2002Edit

Canada take on Nauru in the 2008 International Cup

In 1993, a Canadian representative team, known as the Northwind, beat a British (BARFL) representative team.

In 1994 and 1995, the Canadians again defeated the British at home.

In 1995, several local CAFA games were broadcast on a Hamilton cable television channel.

In July 1995, the Hamilton Wildcats played a Canadian All-Star team in front of 21,000 fans during the half-time break at a Canadian Football League (gridiron) match.

In 1999, the first USA v Canada game was played (49th Parallel Cup, named after the 49th parallel north). The Revolution narrowly defeated Team Canada (Northwind). Later matches enforced strict rules based on player origins. The 49th Parallel Cup is held every two years.

In 2002, Canada participated in the inaugural Australian Football International Cup, with Canada represented by the Northwind team consisting purely of Canadian-born players. The Canadian national team has competed in every International Cup since its inception and now competes with its national women's team named the Northern Lights.

Continued grassroots growth and the emergence of AFL Canada: 2003-Edit

Quebec Saints, 2010 premiers

In 2003, the first junior league in Canada, the North Delta Junior Australian Football League, was formed.

AFL Canada was formed as governing body on 30 July 2004, when the Canadian Australian Football League changed its official name. The move corresponded with funding from the Australian Football League, and a junior participation program was put in place. The clubs were split into two regional leagues, the Ontario Australian Football League and the North West Pacific Football League. The remaining Alberta-based clubs participate in AFL Canada organised regional conferences such as the British Columbia Cup.

In 2005, the Northwind participated in the 2005 International Cup.

In early 2006, AFL Canada sent a small delegation to the AFL exhibition match in Los Angeles. London and Windsor folded due to distance but the new OAFL club, the Central Blues, formed and began competing. In Alberta, the Calgary Bears also formed and the Westcoast challenge commenced.

In early 2007, the Ottawa Swans formed, and affiliated with the OAFL, and the Demons relocated from Mississauga to High Park in Toronto.

In late 2007, AFL Canada hosted the Ironbark challenge, including the 49th Parallel Cup between Canada vs United States, including historic first women's and junior (under 17) tests between the two countries. Canada defeated the United States for the first time at both senior and junior level, but were soundly defeated in the women's match. The tournament also included a touring Japanese team and attracted a record attendance of 2,500 at Thunderbird Stadium in Vancouver.[39]

Notable players with connections to CanadaEdit

Several professional and international players have strong connections to Canada.

In early 2008, junior Northwind representative Scott Fleming moved to Australia to play with the Broadbeach Cats semi-professional club in the AFL Queensland State League at 17 years of age.

Later the same year, former Canadian rugby union international Mike Pyke was signed by the Sydney Swans AFL team as an international rookie at 24 years of age.[40]

Andrew McGrath, who was born in Canada,[41] was drafted first overall in the 2016 AFL draft by Essendon.[42]

Kendra Heil signed with Collingwood of AFL Women's in 2017.[43]

Currently on an AFL club list
Player Connections to Canada, References AFL Years* AFL Matches* AFL Goals* Notes
Andrew McGrath Born in Mississauga, Ontario to Canadian parents 2016- 103 18 #1 2016 AFL draft[44][45]
David Cuningham Parent[46] 2016- 38 20 #23 2016 AFL draft
Harley Balic Parent[46] 2016-2018 4 3 #38 2015 AFL draft
Mike Pyke Born and raised in Victoria, British Columbia by Canadian parents[47] 2009-2015 110 48 #57 2009 AFL Rookie Draft (Former Canadian rugby international)
Currently on an AFLW club list
Player Connections to Canada, References AFLW Years* AFLW Matches* AFLW Goals* Notes
Kendra Heil From Simcoe, Ontario[48] 2016 - - 2016 AFLW draft (free agent) Collingwood Football Club (AFLW), Essendon Football Club (VFLW) and Northern Lights national team player

World XVIII membersEdit

Men's World XVIIIEdit

  • Eric Klein (2017)
  • Scott Fleming (2008)
  • Emmanuel Mattata (2008)
  • Stefan Leyhane (2002)
  • Steve Rutledge
  • Rob McEwan
  • Paul Loghanne

Women's World XVIIIEdit

  • Valerie Moreau
  • Lara Hilmi
  • Aimee Legault
  • Nicola Kirwan
  • Hilary Perry

Governing bodyEdit

The governing body for Aussie Rules in Canada is AFL Canada.

National teamEdit

Team Canada for men is known as the Northwind. Team Canada for women is known as the Northern Lights.


In 2019, there were a total of 875 registered senior players in organised competitions across 41 clubs with more than 20,000 junior registrations.[1]

Participation has more than doubled since 2006, when there were over 420 senior (approximately 250 Canadian national) Australian rules football players in Canada out of a total of 484, an increase of 25% from 2005.[49][50] By the end of 2007, this figure had increased to a total of 825 players in organised competitions across 21 clubs, of which 525 were senior and 300 were junior, an increase of over 70% from 2006, and a total of 95% increase over 2 years.[51]

Women's footballEdit

Canada boasts 9 women's football clubs nationwide. Youth girls development programs operate in Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. The national team, formed in 2007, is known as the "Northern Lights". They were formerly known as the "Eagles". They played in the first women's international footy matches during 2007, when they lost twice to the USA Freedom. In 2011 the national women's team competed in the inaugural women's division of the Australian Football International Cup, where they came second to Ireland.[52] In 2014 the Northern lights became world champions when they defeated the Irish Banshees at the AFL International Cup. In 2015 the Northern Lights defeated the USA Freedom to win the annual 49th Parallel Cup.

Leagues and clubsEdit


Alberta Footy Men's LeagueEdit

Club City Province Founded
Calgary Kangaroos Calgary Alberta 2002
Calgary Bears Calgary Alberta 2007
Calgary Cowboys Calgary Alberta 2008
Edmonton Wombats Edmonton Alberta 2009
Calgary Wolves Calgary Alberta 2015

2016 Banff is under development.

Alberta Footy Women's LeagueEdit

Club City Province Founded
Calgary Kookaburras Calgary Alberta 2007
Edmonton Emus Edmonton Alberta 2009
Hillhurst Nighthawks Calgary Alberta 2008
Kensington Kingfishers Calgary Alberta 2008

British ColumbiaEdit

British Columbia Australian Football LeagueEdit

Club City Province Founded
Burnaby Eagles Burnaby British Columbia 2001
Delta BayHawks North Delta British Columbia 2009
Vancouver Cougars (Blue) Vancouver British Columbia 2001
Vancouver Cougars (White) Vancouver British Columbia 2001
West Coast Saints Vancouver British Columbia 2008
Victoria Sharks Victoria British Columbia 2016

North Delta Junior Australian Football LeagueEdit

Club City Province Founded
North Delta Junior Australian Football League North Delta British Columbia 2003


AFL OntarioEdit

Club City Province Founded
Ottawa Swans Ottawa Ontario 2007
Etobicoke Kangaroos Toronto Ontario 2003
Grand River Gargoyles Guelph Ontario 2001
Hamilton Wildcats Hamilton Ontario 1997
High Park Demons Toronto Ontario 1989
Toronto Downtown Dingos Toronto Ontario 1996
Toronto Eagles Toronto Ontario 1989
Toronto Rebels Toronto Ontario 1990
Central Blues Toronto Ontario 2006


Club City Province Founded
Quebec Saints Montreal Quebec 2008

Nova ScotiaEdit

2014 Halifax Dockers founded

Major TournamentsEdit





TV coverage of the AFL in Canada has historically included the weekly highlights program going back to the 1980s. In the mid-1990s when ESPN briefly reacquired the rights to the AFL in US again (due to lobbying by fans associated with AFANA), the sport first appeared on The Sports Network, better known as TSN. In succeeding years, the sport moved between several networks but was primarily on TSN. Coverage remained limited to highlights programs save for one time each year, where the Grand Final (championship game) was usually live. In 2006, due to growing demand and lobbying by AFANA for regular live coverage, the new Setanta Sports acquired rights in both Canada and the USA. In mid-season that year, live matches began appearing regularly on television in Canada for the first time on Setanta Sports (STS). When Setanta's North American operations failed in August 2010, the sport briefly moved to Rogers Sportsnet. Following ESPN winning the rights once again in the US, the sport returned to TSN, where it remains. TSN now airs one live match and one delayed match each round of the AFL season, both available in HD. For many years, fans in extreme western Canada have been able to see coverage via mid-size or large satellite dishes able to catch signals low on the horizon intended for the Pacific via first Australia TV and now by its successor Australia Plus. AFANA provides listings of Canadian TV schedules on its web site [53] along with information on the coverage.[54]

In 2011, the first televised all-Canadian Aussie Rules match was shown on Rogers TV, and featured the Ottawa Swans hosting the Toronto Rebels.

In 2017, the began broadcasting Canada's national teams[55]

Attendance recordsEdit

Exhibition matchesEdit

Canada holds the world record for attendance at a match outside Australia.

International testsEdit


  1. ^ a b c AFL Canada Annual Report 2019
  2. ^ "AUSTRALIAN RULES". Referee. No. 913. New South Wales, Australia. 4 May 1904. p. 8. Retrieved 29 November 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  3. ^ "AUSTRALIAN FOOTBALL". The Australian Star. No. 5726. New South Wales, Australia. 21 June 1906. p. 4 (FIRST EDITION). Retrieved 2 June 2022 – via National Library of Australia.
  4. ^ "Australian". The Australian Star. No. 5417. New South Wales, Australia. 24 June 1905. p. 8 (First Edition). Retrieved 30 September 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  5. ^ "Australian Game". The Sun. No. 593. New South Wales, Australia. 24 May 1912. p. 11 (Final Extra). Retrieved 30 September 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  6. ^ "Cadet Corps". The Mercury. Vol. LXXXV, no. 11, 179. Tasmania, Australia. 12 January 1906. p. 4. Retrieved 1 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  7. ^ "Young Australia League". Sporting Life : Dryblower's Journal. Vol. 2, no. 60. Western Australia. 9 June 1906. p. 4. Retrieved 7 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  8. ^ "Y. A. L. Boys on Tour". The Evening Star. Vol. 15, no. 4316. Western Australia. 21 March 1912. p. 1. Retrieved 29 September 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  9. ^ "News of the World by Our Independent Cable Service". The Sun. No. 560. New South Wales, Australia. 16 April 1912. p. 1 (Final Extra). Retrieved 29 September 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  10. ^ "Young Australia League". The Advertiser. South Australia. 26 January 1912. p. 12. Retrieved 1 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  11. ^ a b "Canadian Cadets". The Sydney Morning Herald. No. 23, 202. New South Wales, Australia. 23 May 1912. p. 9. Retrieved 29 September 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  12. ^ "In the World of Sport". Sydney Mail. No. 5. New South Wales, Australia. 1 May 1912. p. 28. Retrieved 1 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  13. ^ "Local and General". The Narrogin Observer And Williams District Representative. Vol. 7, no. 373. Western Australia. 1 June 1912. p. 2. Retrieved 1 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  14. ^ "News of the World by Our Independent Cable Service". The Sun. No. 560. New South Wales, Australia. 16 April 1912. p. 1 (Final Extra). Retrieved 1 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  15. ^ "Goalkickers". Daily Herald. Vol. 3, no. 720. South Australia. 26 June 1912. p. 5. Retrieved 1 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  16. ^ "THE AUSTRALIAN GAME". The Sydney Morning Herald. No. 23, 243. New South Wales, Australia. 10 July 1912. p. 9. Retrieved 8 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  17. ^ "AUSTRALIAN RULES". Sunday Times. No. 1382. New South Wales, Australia. 14 July 1912. p. 10. Retrieved 8 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  18. ^ "A Personal Page". Australian Town And Country Journal. Vol. LXXXIII, no. 2218. New South Wales, Australia. 7 August 1912. p. 27. Retrieved 3 June 2022 – via National Library of Australia.
  19. ^ Reception was a "Real Freezer" - Commander of the Vancouver Cadets Complains to Sydney Paper. The Province (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) 18 Sep 1912 Page 5
  20. ^ "Canadian Cadets". The Argus (Melbourne). No. 20, 609. Victoria, Australia. 12 August 1912. p. 15. Retrieved 1 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  21. ^ "News of the Week". The Maitland Weekly Mercury. Vol. 7128, no. 972. New South Wales, Australia. 17 August 1912. p. 10. Retrieved 1 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  22. ^ "The Cadets in Sydney". The Daily Telegraph. No. 10370. New South Wales, Australia. 20 August 1912. p. 8. Retrieved 1 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  23. ^ Melbourne was Very Friendly. New South Wales Refunding the Money Spent in that state. The Province (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada)27 Sep 1912 Page 13
  24. ^ "Canadian Cadets". Goulburn Evening Penny Post. New South Wales, Australia. 13 August 1912. p. 2 (Evening). Retrieved 1 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  25. ^ "CANADIAN CADETS AT GOULBURN". Evening News. No. 14, 098. New South Wales, Australia. 14 August 1912. p. 2. Retrieved 8 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  26. ^ a b "Austrian Football". The Sun. No. 658. New South Wales, Australia. 7 August 1912. p. 10 (Final Extra). Retrieved 30 September 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  27. ^ "Canadian Cadets". The Sydney Morning Herald. No. 23, 271. New South Wales, Australia. 12 August 1912. p. 10. Retrieved 1 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  28. ^ "THE CANADIAN CADETS". The Sydney Morning Herald. No. 23, 259. New South Wales, Australia. 29 July 1912. p. 4. Retrieved 8 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  29. ^ Was a curtain raiser to the Geelong vs NSW match
  30. ^ a b c "Canadian Cadets". The Argus (Melbourne). No. 20, 612. Victoria, Australia. 15 August 1912. p. 11. Retrieved 1 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  31. ^ "The Canadian Cadets". The West Australian. Vol. XXVIII, no. 8, 269. Western Australia. 2 October 1912. p. 8. Retrieved 30 September 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  32. ^ a b "Football for 1912". The Daily News. Vol. XXXII, no. 11, 752. Western Australia. 20 February 1913. p. 7 (Third Edition). Retrieved 30 September 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  33. ^ "The Week At a Glance". The Queenslander. No. 2458. Queensland, Australia. 3 May 1913. p. 9. Retrieved 30 September 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  34. ^ "Football". The West Australian. Vol. XXX, no. 3, 708. Western Australia. 4 March 1914. p. 9. Retrieved 30 September 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  35. ^ "FOOTBALL". The West Australian. Vol. XXIX, no. 3, 535. Western Australia. 12 August 1913. p. 4. Retrieved 13 October 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  36. ^ "YOUNG AUSTRALIA LEAGUE". Kalgoorlie Miner. Vol. 18, no. 5136. Western Australia. 20 March 1912. p. 6. Retrieved 3 June 2022 – via National Library of Australia.
  37. ^ "Australasian Football Council". Referee. No. 1451. New South Wales, Australia. 19 August 1914. p. 12. Retrieved 30 September 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  38. ^ IAFC
  39. ^ Northwind blows over Revos from
  40. ^ Swans sign 24-year-old Canadian rugby player from
  41. ^ Twomey, Callum (24 June 2016). "Gun athlete to draft bolter: McGrath's great leap forward". AFL. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  42. ^ Schmook, Nathan (25 November 2016). "Draft wrap: Bombers take McGrath with No. 1 draft pick". Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  43. ^ Prime, Toby (1 November 2016). "Canadian Kendra Heil one of three Eastern Devils recruited to Collingwood as free agents". Herald Sun. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  44. ^ Meet the speedy Canadian-born teenager who made history today in Australian rules football Nick Faris National Post Nov 25, 2016
  45. ^ Quayle, Emma (21 November 2016). "Could Andrew McGrath be Canada's first No.1 AFL draft pick?". The Age. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  46. ^ a b AFLPA multicultural map
  47. ^ Lalor, Peter (8 June 2013). "Canadian Pyke to make his 'crazy game' debut".
  48. ^ "KENDRA HEIL DRAFTED BY COLLINGWOOD MAGPIES". AFL Canada. Sportingpulse. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  49. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2006.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  50. ^ World Footy News – World Footy Census 2004 – North America
  51. ^ AFL International Census 2007 Archived 2011-05-24 at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ "AFL Community Club: Fixture & Results". Archived from the original on 19 January 2012.
  53. ^ "AFL TV Schedules | AFANA".
  54. ^ "Television Info - Aussie Rules TV Coverage for North America in 2022 | AFANA". July 2006.
  55. ^ CBS Corporation has announced it’s launching CBS All Access internationally By Broadcast Dialogue -August 10, 2017
  56. ^ Vancouver Olympics Winter Games 2010 - Our Broadcast - Our Broadcasters Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  1. AFL Canada
  2. AFANA

External linksEdit