Auricularia mesenterica

Auricularia mesenterica, commonly known as the tripe fungus, is a species of fungus in the family Auriculariaceae. Basidiocarps (fruit bodies) grow in undulating densely-packed shelves that adopt a partially resupinate form.[1] A. mesenterica feeds saprotrophically on a number of woody substrates in deciduous forests.

Auricularia mesenterica
Auricularia mesenterica 2 BG.JPG
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Auriculariales
Family: Auriculariaceae
Genus: Auricularia
Species:
A. mesenterica
Binomial name
Auricularia mesenterica
(Dicks.) Pers. 1822
Synonyms
Species synonymy
  • Auricularia corrugata Sowerby (1800)
  • Auricularia lobata Sommerf. (1826)
  • Auricularia mesenterica var. lobata (Sommerf.) Rea (1922)
  • Auricularia mesenterica var. pusio (Berk.) Bres. ex Sacc. (1925)
  • Auricularia mesenteriformis Brongniart (1825)
  • Auricularia pusio Berk. (1881)
  • Auricularia tremelloides Bull.(1787)
  • Auricularia tremelloides var. fusca Bull. (1791)
  • Auricularia tremelloides var. subcaerulea Bull. (1791)
  • Auricularia tremelloides var. violacea Bull. (1791)
  • Helvella mesenterica Bolton (1792)
  • Thelephora mesenterica Pers. (1801)
  • Thelephora mesenterica J.F. Gmel. (1792)
  • Auricularia corrugata Sowerby (1800)
  • Stereum mesentericum (Pers.) (1821)
  • Auricularia mesenteriformis Brongniart (1825)
  • Auricularia lobata Sommerf. (1826)
  • Auricularia mesenterica var. lobata (Sommerf.) Rea (1922)
  • Tremella corrugata Schwein (1832)
  • Auricularia pusio Berk. (1881)
  • Auricularia mesenterica var. pusio Berk. (1925)

Taxonomy and etymologyEdit

Auricularia mesenterica was described by James Dickson as Helvella mesenterica in 1785,[2] and transferred to the genus Auricularia by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon in 1822,[3] Further genetic analysis has revealed an Auricularia mesenterica species complex, with A. mesenterica as the basal species.[4] The specific epithet is a Latin adjective formed from the Ancient Greek word μεσεντεριον (mesenterion), "middle intestine", from μεσο- (meso-, "middle, center") and εντερον (enteron, "intestine"), referring to its shape.[5]

DescriptionEdit

This species forms bracket-like fruit bodies that first appear pale, rubbery, and button-like in shape, expanding to typically 3 to 7 cm across and hardening with age. The fruit bodies often merge into compound structures sometimes running along fallen trunks and branches for more than a meter. The upper surface is gray to brown, tomentose to hispid with concentric zones, while the underside is thickly gelatinous, irregularly folded radially, wavy and putty-like, and reddish-brown. The spore print is white.[6][7]

Distribution and habitatEdit

This species is considered a cosmopolitan species and grows on many different species of angiosperm wood, such as poplar, elm, and ash, typically in summer to fall.[8] It is a common species in Europe, but rare in the Americas and China.[9][4]

UsesEdit

 
Young A. mesenterica
 
Mature A. mesenterica

Before the fruit body fully matures and hardens, young specimens are edible, but in some local populations, these fungi tend to bioaccumulate high levels of heavy metals from their environment.[10] A. mesenterica has shown to have high levels of phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity, having potential as antitumor agent[11]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Barrett, Mary F. (1910). "Three Common Species of Auricularia". Mycologia. 2 (1): 12–18. doi:10.1080/00275514.1910.12020751. ISSN 0027-5514.
  2. ^ Dickson, J (1785). Fasciculus quartus plantarum cryptogamicarum Britanniae, vol 1. London: Nabu Press. p. 34.
  3. ^ Mycol. eur. (Erlanga) 1: 97 (1822)
  4. ^ a b Wu, Fang; Yuan, Yuan; Rivoire, Bernard; Dai, Yu-Cheng (June 2015). "Phylogeny and diversity of the Auricularia mesenterica (Auriculariales, Basidiomycota) complex". Mycological Progress. 14 (6): 42. doi:10.1007/s11557-015-1065-8. ISSN 1617-416X. S2CID 18106194.
  5. ^ "Definition of Mesenteron". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2022-05-02.
  6. ^ Wu, Fang; Tohtirjap, Ablat; Fan, Long-Fei; Zhou, Li-Wei; Alvarenga, Renato L. M.; Gibertoni, Tatiana B.; Dai, Yu-Cheng (2021-11-03). "Global Diversity and Updated Phylogeny of Auricularia (Auriculariales, Basidiomycota)". Journal of Fungi. 7 (11): 933. doi:10.3390/jof7110933. ISSN 2309-608X. PMC 8625027. PMID 34829220.
  7. ^ Looney, B. (2013-05-01). "Systematics of the genus Auricularia with an emphasis on species from the southeastern United States". North American Fungi. doi:10.2509/naf2013.008.006. ISSN 1937-786X.
  8. ^ Kobayashi, Yoshio (1981). The genus Auricularia. OCLC 607635347.
  9. ^ Felipe, Montoya-Alvarez, Andrés (2011-01-01). Phylogenetic Relationships and Review of the Species of Auricularia (Fungi: Basidiomyctes) in Colombia. Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Bogotá - Facultad de Ciencias - Instituto de Ciencias Naturales. OCLC 893124719.
  10. ^ Keskin, Feyyaz; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Akata, Ilgaz; Tepe, Bektas (2021-03-09). "Metal concentrations of wild mushroom species collected from Belgrad forest (Istanbul, Turkey) with their health risk assessments". Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 28 (27): 36193–36204. doi:10.1007/s11356-021-13235-8. ISSN 0944-1344. PMID 33687630. S2CID 232145697.
  11. ^ Payamnoor, Vahide; Kavosi, Mohammad Reza; Nazari, Jamile (2019-03-07). "Polypore fungi of Caucasian alder as a source of antioxidant and antitumor agents". Journal of Forestry Research. 31 (4): 1381–1390. doi:10.1007/s11676-019-00892-2. ISSN 1007-662X. S2CID 92384123.