Aunt Jemima

Aunt Jemima is a brand of pancake mix, syrup, and other breakfast foods. The Aunt Jemima pancake mix was advertised in 1889 as the first ready-mix. By 1915 it had become one of the most recognized brands in US history, and changed US trademark law.

Aunt Jemima
Aunt Jemima logo (red).png
Logo in use since 2021
Product typePancake mix, syrup, breakfast foods
OwnerQuaker Oats
CountryUnited States
IntroducedNovember 1, 1889; 131 years ago (1889-11-01)
MarketsWorldwide
Websiteauntjemima.com

Nancy Green portrayed Aunt Jemima at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, one of the first Black corporate models in the United States. Subsequent advertising agencies hired dozens of actors to perform the role as the first organized sales promotion campaign.

The Aunt Jemima character was based on the enslaved "Mammy" archetype. Since its debut, the character has been criticized as an example of exploited African American women. "Aunt Jemima" is sometimes used as a female version of the derogatory epithet "Uncle Tom" or "Rastus".

The brand is currently owned by the Quaker Oats Company of Chicago, a subsidiary of PepsiCo. In June 2020, Quaker Oats announced that the Aunt Jemima brand would be retired "to make progress toward racial equality."

HistoryEdit

 
Rutt's recipe from November 1, 1889, on display at Patee House museum in St. Joseph, Missouri

St. Joseph Gazette editor Chris L. Rutt, of St. Joseph, Missouri, and his friend Charles G. Underwood bought a flour mill in 1888. Rutt and Underwood's Pearl Milling Company faced a glutted flour market. After experimenting, they sold their excess flour as a pancake mix in paper bags with a generic label, "Self-Rising Pancake Flour", later dubbed "the first ready-mix".[1][2][3] To distinguish their pancake mix, in the autumn of 1889 Rutt appropriated the Aunt Jemima name and image from lithographed posters seen at a vaudeville house in St. Joseph, Missouri.[2][3]

1889 Formula for Aunt Jemima mix:

  • 100 lb [45 kg] Hard Winter Wheat
  • 100 lb [45 kg] Corn Flour
  • 7 12 lb [3.4 kg] B.W.T. Phosphates from Provident Chem[ical] St L[ouis]
  • 2 34 lb [1.2 kg] Bicarb[onate] Soda
  • 3 lb [1.4 kg] Salt.

However, Rutt and Underwood could not raise enough capital and quickly ran out of money.[3] They sold their company to the Randolph Truett Davis Milling Company (also in St. Joseph, Missouri) in 1890, then the largest flouring mill on the Missouri River, having an established reputation with wholesale and retail grocers throughout the Missouri Valley.[1][3][4] Davis improved the flavor and texture of the product by adding rice flour and corn sugar, and simplified the ready-mix by adding powdered milk. Only water was needed to prepare the batter.[3]

The Davis Milling Company was renamed Aunt Jemima Mills in February 1914.[1][4] By 1915, the Aunt Jemima brand was so well recognized that it changed trademark infringement precedent, the "Aunt Jemima Doctrine",[5] a critical principle of trademark law protection against any similar mark that would cause consumer confusion.

The Quaker Oats Company purchased the Aunt Jemima Mills Company in 1926, and formally registered the Aunt Jemima trademark in April 1937.[1] It remains one of the longest continually running logos and trademarks in the history of American advertising.[6]

Quaker Oats introduced Aunt Jemima syrup in 1966. This was followed by Aunt Jemima Butter Lite syrup in 1985 and Butter Rich syrup in 1991.[1]

Aunt Jemima frozen foods were licensed out to Aurora Foods in 1996, which was absorbed into Pinnacle Foods Corporation in 2004.[1]

CharacterEdit

 
"Jemima" character on 1899 cakewalk sheet music cover

Aunt Jemima is based on the common enslaved "Mammy" archetype, a plump Black woman wearing a headscarf who is a devoted and submissive servant.[6][7] Her skin is dark and dewy, with a pearly white smile. Although depictions vary over time, they are similar to the common attire and physical features of "mammy" characters throughout history.[8][9][10][11][12]

The term "aunt" and "uncle" in this context was a Southern form of address used with older enslaved peoples. They were denied use of courtesy titles, such as "mistress" and "mister".[13][14]

A character named "Aunt Jemima" appeared on the stage in Washington, D.C., as early as 1864.[15] Rutt's inspiration for Aunt Jemima was Billy Kersands' American-style minstrelsy/vaudeville song "Old Aunt Jemima", written in 1875. Rutt reportedly saw a minstrel show featuring the "Old Aunt Jemima" song in the fall of 1889, presented by blackface performers identified by Arthur F. Marquette as "Baker & Farrell".[2] Marquette recounts that the actor playing Aunt Jemima wore an apron and kerchief.[2][14]

However, Doris Witt at University of Iowa was unable to confirm Marquette's account.[16] Witt suggests that Rutt might have witnessed a performance by the vaudeville performer Pete F. Baker, who played characters described in newspapers of that era as "Ludwig" and "Aunt Jemima". His portrayal of the Aunt Jemima character may have been a white male in blackface, pretending to be a German immigrant, imitating a black minstrel parodying an imaginary black female slave cook.[16]

Beginning in 1894, the company added an Aunt Jemima paper doll family that could be cut out from the pancake box.[17] Aunt Jemima is joined by her husband, Uncle Rastus (later renamed Uncle Mose to avoid confusion with the Cream of Wheat character, while Uncle Mose was first introduced as the plantation butler).[18] Their children, described as "comical pickannies": Abraham Lincoln, Dilsie, Zeb, and Dinah. The paper doll family was posed dancing barefoot, dressed in tattered clothing, and the box was labeled "Before the Receipt was sold." (Receipt is an archaic rural form of recipe.)[17] Buying another box with elegant clothing cut-outs to fit over the dolls, the customer could transform them "After the Receipt was sold." This placed them in the Horatio Alger rags-to-riches American cultural mythos.[17]

 
1909 ad showing Nancy Green as Aunt Jemima, and rag doll family

Rag doll versions were offered as a premium in 1909: "Aunt Jemima Pancake Flour/Pica ninny Doll/ The Davis Milling Company." Early versions were portrayed as poor people with patches on the trousers, large mouths, and missing teeth. The children's names were changed to Diana and Wade. Over time, there were improvements in appearance. Oil-cloth versions were available circa the 1950s, with cartoonish features, round eyes, and watermelon mouths.[19]

Marketing materials for the line of products centered around the "Mammy" archetype, including the slogan first used at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois: "I's in Town, Honey".[7][16][20]

At that World's Fair, and for decades afterward, they made up legends about the mythical Aunt Jemima.[14][21] She had been a "loyal cook" for a fictional Colonel Higbee's Louisiana plantation on the Mississippi River,[17][20][21][22] using a secret recipe "from the South before the Civil War," with their "matchless plantation flavor," she made the best pancakes in Dixie.[14][17] When Union soldiers during the Civil War threatened to rip off Higbee's mustache, she diverted them with her pancakes long enough for the colonel to escape.[20] She had revived a group of shipwrecked survivors with her flapjacks.[21] A typical magazine ad from the turn of the century created by advertising executive James Webb Young, and the illustrator N.C. Wyeth,[20] shows a heavyset black cook talking happily while a white man takes notes; the ad copy says, "After the Civil War, after her master's death, Aunt Jemima was finally persuaded to sell her famous pancake recipe to the representative of a northern milling company."[21]

The Davis Milling Company was not located in a northern state. Missouri in the American Civil War was a hotly contested slave state. In reality, she never existed, created by marketers to better sell products.[12]

ControversyEdit

 
1920 Saturday Evening Post ad with N.C. Wyeth illustration

Although the Aunt Jemima character was not created until nearly 25 years after the American Civil War, the clothing, dancing, enslaved dialect, singing old plantation songs as she worked, all harkened back to a glorified view of antebellum Southern plantation life as a "happy slave" narrative.[12][17] The marketing legend surrounding Aunt Jemima's successful commercialization of her "secret recipe" contributes to the post-Civil War nostalgia and romanticism of Southern life in service of America's developing consumer culture—especially in the context of selling kitchen items.[6][7][10]

African American women formed the Women's Columbian Association and the Women's Columbian Auxiliary Association to address the exclusion of African Americans from the 1893 World's Fair exhibitions, asking that the fair reflect the success of post-Emancipation African Americans.[17] Instead, the Fair included a miniature West African village whose natives were portrayed as primitive savages.[20] Ida B. Wells was incensed by the exclusion of African Americans from mainstream fair activities; so-called "Negro Day" was a picnic held off-site from the fairgrounds.[17]

Black scholars Hallie Quinn Brown, Anna Julia Cooper, and Fannie Barrier Williams used the World's Fair as an opportunity to address how African American women were being exploited by white men.[17][23] In her book A Voice from the South (1892), Cooper had noted the fascination with "Southern influence, Southern ideas, and Southern ideals" had "dictated to and domineered over the brain and sinew of this nation."[17]

These educated progressive women saw "a mammy for the national household" represented at the World's Fair by Aunt Jemima.[17] This directly relates to the belief that slavery cultivated innate qualities in African Americans. The notion that African Americans were natural servants reinforced a racist ideology renouncing the reality of African American intellect.[17]

Aunt Jemima embodied a post-Reconstruction fantasy of idealized domesticity, inspired by "happy slave" hospitality, and revealed a deep need to redeem the antebellum South.[17] There were others that capitalized on this theme, such as Uncle Ben's Rice and Cream of Wheat's Rastus.[14][17]

Edit

 
1935 Quaker Oats plantation pancakes ad with Anna Robinson

The earliest advertising was based upon a vaudeville parody, and remained a caricature for many years.[2][3][7]

Quaker Oats commissioned Haddon Sundblom, a nationally known commercial artist, to paint a portrait of Anna Robinson. The Aunt Jemima package was redesigned around the new likeness.[3][16]

James J. Jaffee, a freelance artist from the Bronx, New York, also designed one of the images of Aunt Jemima used by Quaker Oats to market the product into the mid-20th century.

Just as the formula for the mix has changed several times over the years, so has the Aunt Jemima image. In 1968, the face of Aunt Jemima became a composited creation. She was slimmed down from her previous appearance, depicting a more “svelte” look, wearing a white collar, and geometric print "headband" still resembling her previous kerchief.[3][24][25][26]

 
The Aunt Jemima logo used until December 2020

In 1989, as she marked her 100th anniversary, her image was again updated, with all head-covering removed, revealing wavy, gray-streaked hair, gold-trimmed pearl earrings, and replacing her plain white collar with lace. At the time, the revised image was described as a move towards a more "sophisticated" depiction, with Quaker marketing the change as giving her "a more contemporary look" and which remains on the products as of 2020.[24][25]

RebrandingEdit

On June 17, 2020, following the killing of George Floyd and subsequent protests, Quaker Oats announced that Aunt Jemima will be retired and replaced with a new name and image "to make progress toward racial equality."[27][28] The image will be removed from packaging later in 2020, while the name change will happen at a later date.[29][30]

Days earlier, American satirical news outlet The Onion published a fictional article about a similar announcement.[31]

Descendants of Aunt Jemima models Lillian Richard and Anna Short Harrington objected to the change. Vera Harris, a family historian for Richard's family, said "I wish we would take a breath and not just get rid of everything. Because good or bad, it is our history."[32] Harrington's great-grandson Larnell Evans said "This is an injustice for me and my family. This is part of my history." Evans lost a lawsuit against Quaker Oats (and others) for billions of dollars in 2015.[33]

PerformersEdit

The African American Registry of the United States suggests Nancy Green and others who played the caricature of Aunt Jemima[30] should be celebrated in lieu of what has been widely condemned as a stereotypical and racist brand image. The registry wrote "we celebrate the birth of Nancy Green in 1834. She was a Black storyteller and one of the first Black corporate models in the United States."[34]

Following Green's work as Aunt Jemima, very few were well-known. Advertising agencies (such as J. Walter Thompson, Lord and Thomas, and others) hired dozens of actors to portray the role, often assigned regionally, as the first organized sales promotion campaign.[3][21]

Quaker Oats ended local appearances for Aunt Jemima in 1965.[35]

Nancy GreenEdit

Nancy Green was the first spokesperson hired by the R. T. Davis Milling Company for the Aunt Jemima pancake mix.[1] Green was born a slave in Montgomery County, Kentucky.[3][36] Dressed as Aunt Jemima, Green appeared at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, beside the "world's largest flour barrel" (24 feet high), where she operated a pancake-cooking display, sang songs, and told romanticized stories about the Old South (a happy place for blacks and whites alike). She appeared at fairs, festivals, flea markets, food shows, and local grocery stores; her arrival heralded by large billboards featuring the caption, "I'se in town, honey."[3][7][36]

Green refused to cross the ocean for the 1900 Paris exhibition.[16][37] She was replaced by Agnes Moodey, "a negress of 60 years", who was then reported as the original Aunt Jemima.[38] Green died in 1923, and was buried in an unmarked pauper's grave near a wall in the northeast quadrant of Chicago's Oak Woods Cemetery.[20][37][39][40] A headstone was placed on September 5, 2020.[41]

Lillian RichardEdit

 
Historical marker dedicated to Lillian Richard, Aunt Jemima portrayer

Lillian Richard was hired to portray Aunt Jemima in 1925, and remained in the role for 23 years. Richard was born in 1891, and grew up in the tiny community of Fouke 7 miles west of Hawkins in Wood County, Texas. In 1910, she moved to Dallas, working initially as a cook. Her job "pitching pancakes" was based in Paris, Texas.[21] After she suffered a stroke circa 1947–1948, she returned to Fouke, where she lived until her death in 1956. Richard was honored with a Texas Historical Marker in her hometown, dedicated in her name on June 30, 2012.[42][43][44]

Hawkins, Texas, east of Mineola, is known as the "Pancake Capital of Texas" because of longtime resident Lillian Richard. The local chamber of commerce decided to use Hawkins' connection to Aunt Jemima to boost tourism.[42] In 1995, State Senator David Cain introduced Senate Resolution No. 73 designating Hawkins as the "Pancake Capital of Texas", which was passed into law; the measure was spearheaded by Lillian's niece, Jewell Richard-McCalla.[21]

Anna RobinsonEdit

Anna Robinson was hired to play Aunt Jemima at the 1933 Century of Progress Chicago World's Fair.[1][2] Robinson answered an open audition, and her appearance was more like the "mammy" stereotype than the slender Nancy Green.[16] Born circa 1899, she was also from Kentucky and widowed (like Green), but in her 30s with 8 years of education.[45] She was sent to New York City by Lord and Thomas to have her picture taken. "Never to be forgotten was the day they loaded 350 pounds of Anna Robinson on the Twentieth Century Limited."[2]

She appeared at prestigious establishments frequented by the rich and famous, such as El Morocco, the Stork Club, "21", and the Waldorf-Astoria.[3][45] Photos show Robinson making pancakes for celebrities and stars of Broadway, radio, and motion pictures. They were used in advertising "ranked among the highest read of their time".[2] The Aunt Jemima packaging was redesigned in her likeness.[3][16]

Robinson reportedly worked for the company until her death in 1951,[1][3] although the work was sporadic and for mere weeks in a year.[45] Nevertheless, this was not enough to escape the hard life into which she was born.[45] Her $1,200 total payment in 1939 (equivalent to $22,056 in 2019) was almost the entirety of the household's annual income.[45] The official Aunt Jemima history timeline claimed she was "able make enough money to provide for her children and buy a 22-room house where she rents rooms to boarders."[46] (See also the same claim for Anna Short Harrington.) According to the 1940 census, she rented an apartment in a four-flat in Washington Park with her daughter, son-in-law, and two grandchildren. By contrast, John Stuart, the CEO of Quaker Oats (who inherited the company from his father) had a home in Winnetka; he did not take in boarders.[45]

Rosa Washington RilesEdit

Rosa Washington Riles became the third face on Aunt Jemima packaging in the 1930s, and continued until 1948. Rosa Washington was born in 1901 near Red Oak in Brown County, Ohio, one of several children of Robert and Julie (Holliday) Washington and a grand-daughter of George and Phoeba Washington.[47] She was employed as a cook in the home of a Quaker Oats executive and began pancake demonstrations at her employer's request. She died in 1969, and is buried near her parents and grandparents in the historic Red Oak Presbyterian Church cemetery of Ripley, Ohio.[47] An annual Aunt Jemima breakfast has been a long-time fundraiser for the cemetery, and the church maintains a collection of Aunt Jemima memorabilia.[13][47][48][49]

Anna Short HarringtonEdit

Anna Short Harrington began her career as Aunt Jemima in 1935 and continued to play the role until 1954. She was born in 1897 in Marlboro County, South Carolina. The Short family lived on the Pegues Place plantation as sharecroppers.[50] In 1927, she moved to Syracuse, New York. Quaker Oats discovered her cooking pancakes at the 1935 New York State Fair.[51][52][53] Harrington died in Syracuse in 1955.[50][51][52][53]

Edith WilsonEdit

Edith Wilson became the face of Aunt Jemima on radio, television, and in personal appearances, from 1948 to 1966. Wilson was the first Aunt Jemima to appear in television commercials. She was born in 1896 in Louisville, Kentucky. Wilson was a classic blues singer and actress in Chicago, New York, and London. She appeared on radio in The Great Gildersleeve, on radio and television in Amos 'n' Andy, and on film in To Have and Have Not (1944). On March 31, 1981, she died in Chicago.[3][54]

Ethel Ernestine HarperEdit

Ethel Ernestine Harper portrayed Aunt Jemima during the 1950s.[3][26] Harper was born on September 17, 1903, in Greensboro, Alabama.[55] Prior to the Aunt Jemima role, Harper graduated from college at the age of 17, taught elementary school for 2 years, high school mathematics for 10 years, moved to New York City where she performed in The Hot Mikado in 1939 and Harlem Cavalcade in 1942, then toured Europe during and after World War II as one of the Ginger Snaps. On March 31, 1979, she died in Morristown, New Jersey.[3][56] She was the last individual model for the character's logo.[26]

Rosie Lee Moore HallEdit

Rosie Lee Moore Hall portrayed Aunt Jemima from 1950 until her death in 1967. Hall was born on June 22, 1899, in Robertson County, Texas. She worked for Quaker Oats in the company's Oklahoma advertising department until she answered their search for a new Aunt Jemima. She suffered a heart attack on her way to church and died on February 12, 1967. She was buried in the family plot in the Colony Cemetery near Wheelock, Texas. Hall was the last "living" Aunt Jemima. On May 7, 1988, her grave was declared an historical landmark.[3][21]

Aylene LewisEdit

Aylene Lewis portrayed Aunt Jemima at the Disneyland Aunt Jemima's Pancake House, a popular eating place at the park on New Orleans Street in Frontierland, from 1957 until her death in 1964. Lewis became well known posing for pictures with visitors and serving pancakes to dignitaries, such as Indian Prime Minister Nehru. She also developed a close relationship with Walt Disney.[2][3]

Key to the cityEdit

The Aunt Jemima character, portrayed at the time by Edith Wilson, received the Key to the City of Albion, Michigan, on January 25, 1964.[57] Actresses portraying Aunt Jemima visited Albion, Battle Creek ("Cereal City"), and other Michigan cities many times over three decades. Grand Rapids had an Aunt Jemima's Kitchen, one of 21 locations, until it was changed to Colonial Kitchen in 1968.[35]

SlangEdit

The term "Aunt Jemima" is sometimes used colloquially as a female version of the derogatory epithet "Uncle Tom" or "Rastus". In this context, the slang term "Aunt Jemima" falls within the "mammy archetype" and refers to a friendly black woman who is perceived as obsequiously servile or acting in, or protective of, the interests of whites.[58]

John Sylvester of WTDY-AM drew criticism after calling Condoleezza Rice an “Aunt Jemima” and Colin Powell an “Uncle Tom”, referring to remarks by singer and civil rights activist Harry Belafonte about their subservience in the George W. Bush administration. He apologized by giving away Aunt Jemima pancake mix and syrup.[59]

Barry Presgraves, then 77-year-old Mayor of Luray, Virginia, was censured 5-to-1 by the town council because he referred to Kamala Harris as "Aunt Jemima" after she was selected by Joe Biden for the Democratic Party vice presidential candidate.[60][61][62][63]

In popular cultureEdit

The 1933 novel Imitation of Life by Fannie Hurst features an Aunt Jemima-type character, Delilah, a maid struggling in life with her widowed employer, Bea. Their fortunes change dramatically when Bea capitalizes on Delilah's family pancake recipe to open a pancake restaurant that attracts tourists at the Jersey Shore. It becomes a great success and eventually is packaged and sold as Aunt Delilah's Pancake Mix. They achieve that success due to selling flour with a smiling Delilah on the box dressed in Aunt Jemima fashion. The Academy Award-nominated 1934 film version of Imitation of Life starring Claudette Colbert and Louise Beavers retains this part of the plot, which was excised from the 1959 remake of Imitation of Life starring Lana Turner and directed by Douglas Sirk.

Aunt Jemima, a minstrel-type variety radio program, was broadcast January 17, 1929 – June 5, 1953, at times on CBS and at other times on the Blue Network. The program had several hiatuses during the overall span."[64]

The 1950s television show Beulah came under fire[needs context] for depicting a "mammy"-like black maid and cook who was somewhat reminiscent of Aunt Jemima.[citation needed]

In the 1960s, Betye Saar began collecting images of Aunt Jemima, Uncle Tom, Little Black Sambo, and other stereotyped African-American figures from folk culture and advertising of the Jim Crow era. She incorporated them into collages and assemblages, transforming them into statements of political and social protest.[65] The Liberation of Aunt Jemima is one of her most notable works from this era. In this mixed-media assemblage, Saar utilized the stereotypical mammy figure of Aunt Jemima to subvert traditional notions of race and gender.[66]

Frank Zappa includes a song titled "Electric Aunt Jemima" on his 1969 album Uncle Meat. Electric Aunt Jemima was the nickname for Zappa's Standel guitar amplifier.[citation needed]

Faith Ringgold’s first quilt story Who's Afraid of Aunt Jemima? (1983) depicts the story of Aunt Jemima as a matriarch restaurateur.[citation needed]

"Burn Hollywood Burn" on Public Enemy's 1990 Album "Fear of a Black Planet" features Big Daddy Kane commenting on the updating of racial tropes with the lyrics, "And black women in this profession / As for playin' a lawyer, out of the question / For what they play Aunt Jemima is the perfect term / Even if now she got a perm."[67]Spike Lee's 2000 film Bamboozled features Aunt Jemima (played by Tyheesha Collins) as one of the dancing "pickaninnies" in the film's deliberately racist TV show Mantan: The New Millennium Minstrel Show, alongside other stereotypical black antebellum South characters like Rastus.

The 2004 mockumentary C.S.A.: The Confederate States of America features numerous depictions of Aunt Jemima-type characters as slaves (referred to as servants) in an alternate timeline in which the Confederacy won the American Civil War.[citation needed]

In the South Park episode "Gluten Free Ebola" (2014), Aunt Jemima appears in Eric Cartman's delirious dream to tell him that the food pyramid is upside down.[citation needed]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Aunt Jemima History, Quaker Oats, archived from the original on August 23, 2007
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Marquette, Arthur F. (1967). Brands, Trademarks, and Good Will: The Story of the Quaker Oats Company. McGraw-Hill. ASIN B0006BOVBM.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Kern-Foxworth, Marilyn (1994). Aunt Jemima, Uncle Ben and Rastus: Blacks in advertising, Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Public Relations Review. 16 (Fall):59. Connecticut and London: Greenwood Press. Archived from the original on April 24, 2014.
  4. ^ a b Williams, Walter, ed. (1915). A History of Northwest Missouri. 2. The Lewis Publishing Company.
  5. ^ Soniak, Matt (June 15, 2012). "How Aunt Jemima Changed U.S. Trademark Law". Mental Floss. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  6. ^ a b c Richardson, Riché (June 24, 2015). "Can We Please, Finally, Get Rid of 'Aunt Jemima'?". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Caricatures of African Americans: Mammy". Regnery Publishing. November 25, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  8. ^ Griffin, Johnnie (1998). "Aunt Jemima: Another Image, Another Viewpoint". Journal of Religious Thought. 54/55: 75–77.
  9. ^ Manring, M. M. (1998). Slave in a Box: The Strange Career of Aunt Jemima. University of Virginia Press. p. 68. ISBN 0-8139-1811-1.
  10. ^ a b Gritz, Jennie Rothenberg (April 23, 2012). "New Racism Museum Reveals the Ugly Truth Behind Aunt Jemima". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
  11. ^ Zillman, Claire (August 12, 2014). "Why it's so hard for Aunt Jemima to ditch her unsavory past". Fortune. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
  12. ^ a b c Patrick, Jeanette (May 11, 2017), Aunt Jemima and Betty Crocker: American Cultural Icons that Never Existed, National Women's History Museum, retrieved June 19, 2020
  13. ^ a b Berry, Karin D. (June 18, 2020), "It was past time for Aunt Jemima's image to go", The Undefeated, ESPN, retrieved July 17, 2020
  14. ^ a b c d e "The Advertiser's Holy Trinity: Aunt Jemima, Rastus, and Uncle Ben", Moss H. Kendrix: A retrospective, The Museum of Public Relations, archived from the original on May 7, 2006
  15. ^ "Daily national Republican. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1862–1866, August 11, 1864, Second Edition, Image 3". National Endowment for the Humanities. August 11, 1864 – via chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Witt, Doris (2004). Black Hunger: Soul Food and America. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4551-0.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Wallace-Sanders, Kimberly (1962). "Dishing Up Dixie: Recycling the Old South". Mammy: A Century of Race, Gender, and Southern Memory. University of Michigan Press – Ann Arbor. pp. 58–72. ISBN 978-0-472-11614-0.
  18. ^ Dotz, Warren; Morton, Jim (1996). What a Character! 20th Century American Advertising Icons. Chronicle Books. p. 10. ISBN 0-8118-0936-6.
  19. ^ Lamphier, Mary Jane (January 13, 2020). "Aunt Jemima and family!". collectorsjournal.com. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Roberts, Sam (July 18, 2020). "Overlooked No More: Nancy Green, the 'Real Aunt Jemima'". The New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2020.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h Crocker, Ronnie (June 17, 2020). "Homage to Aunt Jemima remains a tricky business". Beaumont Enterprise. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  22. ^ "The Poor Little Bride of 1860". Good Housekeeping. Vol. 70. C.W. Bryan & Company. 1920. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  23. ^ Cooper, Anna Julia. "Women's Cause is One and Universal". BlackPast. Retrieved June 20, 2020. Anna Julia Cooper, in May Wright Sewell, ed., The World’s Congress of Representative Women (Chicago: Rand, McNally, 1894), pp. 711–715.
  24. ^ a b Key, Janet (April 28, 1989). "At Age 100, A New Aunt Jemima". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  25. ^ a b Anderson, Peggy (May 2, 1989). "Aunt Jemima's Ready for the '90s". Associated Press. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  26. ^ a b c Ingrano, Terrance (February 4, 2019). "Strange But True: 'I'se in town, honey!'". Worcester Telegram. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  27. ^ Kesslen, Ben (June 17, 2020). "Aunt Jemima brand to change name, remove image that Quaker says is 'based on a racial stereotype'". NBC News. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  28. ^ Valinsky, Jordan (June 17, 2020). "The Aunt Jemima brand, acknowledging its racist past, will be retired". CNN. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  29. ^ "Aunt Jemima to remove image from packaging and rename brand". TODAY.com. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  30. ^ a b Voytko, Lisette (June 17, 2020). "Aunt Jemima—Long Denounced As A Racist Caricature—Removed By Quaker Oats". Forbes. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
  31. ^ "Quaker Oats Replaces Historically Racist Aunt Jemima Mascot With Black Female Lawyer Who Enjoys Pancakes Sometimes". The Onion. June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  32. ^ Hallmark, Bob (June 22, 2020). "Family of woman who portrayed Aunt Jemima opposes move to change brand". KLTV. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  33. ^ Konkol, Mark (June 18, 2020). "Aunt Jemima's Great-Grandson Enraged Her Legacy Will Be Erased". The Patch. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  34. ^ "Nancy Green, the original "Aunt Jemima"", aaregistry.org, retrieved June 19, 2020
  35. ^ a b Buckley, Nick (June 24, 2020). "'Aunt Jemima' was given key to Albion in 1964. The character, based on a stereotype, is being retired". Battle Creek Enquirer. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  36. ^ a b Aulbach, Lucas (June 17, 2020). "Aunt Jemima's image pulled from boxes, putting an end to a story that began in Kentucky". Louisville Courier Journal. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  37. ^ a b Nagasawa, Katherine (June 19, 2020). "The Fight To Preserve The Legacy Of Nancy Green, The Chicago Woman Who Played The Original 'Aunt Jemima'". WBEZ. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  38. ^ ""Aunt Jemima" Back: Famous Baker of Hoe Cakes Returns from Her Service in Corn Kitchen of Paris Exposition"". Independence Daily Reporter. Independence, Kansas. December 3, 1900. p. 4. Retrieved June 24, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.  
  39. ^ Crowther, Linnea (June 19, 2020). "Finally, a proper headstone for the original Aunt Jemima spokeswoman, Nancy Green". legacy.com. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
  40. ^ Gibson, Tammy (August 31, 2020). "Nancy Green, the Original face of Aunt Jemima, Receives a Headstone". The Chicago Defender. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
  41. ^ Johnson, Erick (September 15, 2020). "Nearly 100 years later, original Aunt Jemima gets a headstone". The Chicago Crusader. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
  42. ^ a b Hollister, Stacy (October 2002). "Texas History 101: The northeast town of Hawkins remembers one of its small-town girls". Texas Monthly. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  43. ^ Staff Reports (June 29, 2012). "State Planning to Honor 'Aunt Jemima,' Hawkins with Historical Marker". Longview News-Journal. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  44. ^ "Details - Lillian Richard - Atlas Number 5507016717 - Atlas: Texas Historical Commission". atlas.thc.state.tx.us. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
  45. ^ a b c d e f Hansen, John Mark (June 19, 2020). "The real stories of the Chicago women who portrayed Aunt Jemima". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  46. ^ Aunt Jemima: Our History, Quaker Oats, retrieved June 28, 2020
  47. ^ a b c Tucker, T. J. (January 16, 2001). "Rosa Washington Riles – Aunt Jemima born in Brown County". Ledger Independent. Maysville, Kentucky.
  48. ^ Berry, Karin D. (September 2, 1991). "Aunt Jemima Tribute Falls Flat as Pancake". The Plain Dealer.
  49. ^ Albrecht, Brian E. (May 4, 2001). "Ohioans proud to honor one of own, 'Aunt Jemima'". The Plain Dealer.
  50. ^ a b Sloan, Bob (May 7, 2009). "Book details history of Wallace's own 'Aunt Jemima'". The Cheraw Chronicle. Archived from the original on January 1, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
  51. ^ a b Case, Dick (November 3, 2002). "Book serves up the life of Syracuse's 'Aunt Jemima'". The Post-Standard. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
  52. ^ a b Wight, Conor (June 17, 2020). "The Syracuse resident that portrayed Aunt Jemima, and the racist history of the character". CNYCentral.com. Sinclair Broadcast Group. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  53. ^ a b Croyle, Johnathan (June 18, 2020). "Exploring Syracuse's tie to the controversial 'Aunt Jemima' brand". syracuse.com. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  54. ^ "Edith Wilson, Actress and Jazz Vocalist, 84". The New York Times. Associated Press. April 1, 1981. Retrieved January 1, 2015. Miss Wilson, who portrayed Aunt Jemima for the Quaker Oats Company for 18 years ...
  55. ^ "Miss Ethel Harper Assumes Duties of President of City Federation". The Birmingham Reporter. October 1, 1932. p. 5. Retrieved June 9, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  56. ^ "Ethel 'Aunt Jemima' Harper Dies at 75". Jet: 60. April 19, 1979.
  57. ^ Passic, Frank (January 7, 2007). "The Key To The City". Morning Star. Historic Albion Michigan, Albion History/Genealogy Resources. p. 7. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  58. ^ Cassell's Dictionary of Slang, Jonathon Green, Cassell, March 1999, ISBN 0-304-34435-4, p. 36.
  59. ^ "Radio host Calls Rice 'Aunt Jemima'". NBC News. Associated Press. November 19, 2004. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  60. ^ Jasper, Simone (August 5, 2020). "Virginia mayor who said Joe Biden picked Aunt Jemima as VP faces calls to resign". McClatchy Washington Bureau. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
  61. ^ Hood, John (August 11, 2020). "Luray mayor apologizes for Facebook post at town council meeting". WHSV-TV. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
  62. ^ Armstrong, Rebecca (August 11, 2020). "Luray Town Council Censures Mayor Over 'Aunt Jemima' Post". Daily News-Record. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
  63. ^ Griffith, Janelle (August 13, 2020). "Virginia mayor urged to resign after saying Biden picked 'Aunt Jemima as his VP'". NBC News. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
  64. ^ Dunning, John (1998). On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio (Revised ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-19-507678-3. Retrieved October 1, 2019. Aunt Jemima, minstrel-type variety.
  65. ^ "Betye Saar | American artist and educator". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  66. ^ "Life Is a Collage for Artist Betye Saar". NPR.org. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  67. ^ "Burn Hollywood Burn". genius.com/. Retrieved June 17, 2020. (lyrics of a song by the group Public Enemy)

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit