August Allebé

August Allebé (19 April 1838 – 10 January 1927) was an artist and teacher from the Northern Netherlands. His early paintings were in a romantic style, but in his later work he was an exponent of realism and impressionism. He was a major initiator and promoter of Amsterdam Impressionism, the artist's association St. Lucas, and the movement of the Amsterdamse Joffers.[1][2][3] Amsterdam Impressionism – sometimes referred to by art historians as the School of Allebé – was the counterflow to the very strong Hague School in the movement of Dutch Impressionism. As a professor at the Royal Academy of Amsterdam (Rijksakademie van beeldende kunsten) he fostered a cosmopolitan attitude toward art and the promotion and motivation of his students, and provided a significant stimulus to developments in modern art.


Portrait by Allebé of Johannes Luden, 1868, collection Teylers Museum

He was born in Amsterdam. According to the RKD he followed evening classes at Felix Meritis and studied at the Antwerp Academy, the Rijksakademie van beeldende kunsten, and the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris.[4] He was a pupil of Petrus Franciscus Greive, Adolphe Mouilleron, Charles Rochussen and Louis Royer. He became a member of Arti et Amicitiae in Amsterdam from 1863 and a member of Société Royale Belge des Aquarellistes from 1868.[4] In 1870 he became a professor at the Royal Academy of Amsterdam (Rijksakademie van beeldende kunsten) and was a director there from 1880.[4] The RKD lists 179 pupils and it is known that he stayed in correspondence with ex-pupils and several artists came back to the academy to be able to follow classes with him.[4]

He was a strong influence on the Amsterdamse Joffers, and had close ties with Amsterdam Impressionism.

He died in Amsterdam in 1927 and is buried at Zorgvlied cemetery.

A square is named after him in the neighborhood of streets named after 19th- and 20th-century Dutch painters in Overtoomse Veld-Noord, Amsterdam.

Kunstenaarsvereniging Sint LucasEdit

In 1880, the Kunstenaarsvereniging Sint Lucas [nl; de], an artist's association in Amsterdam, was founded with his support.[5] They became part of the Amsterdam art scene, and community center of artists and lovers of painting. Here contacts were made, passed on knowledge and thus the antithesis of successful structured Hague School, which was part of the international movement of impressionism. In addition, links to Amsterdam Soziëteit Arti et Amicitiae were present, which were essential for both institutions.

Some of his well-known studentsEdit

Successful students of AllebéEdit

Gallery of the important studentsEdit


  • Allebé, August 1838 – 1927, Teylers Museum, Dortrecht

In possession of the Museum a.s.f.Edit

  • Historisch Museum, Amsterdam,
  • Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam,
  • Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam,
  • Universiteit van Amsterdam,
  • Dordrechtsmuseum, Dordrecht,
  • Rijksmuseum "Zuiderzeemuseum", Enkhuizen,
  • Teyler Museum, Haarlem,
  • Gemeentemuseum, The Hague,
  • Museum Mesdag, The Hague,
  • Rijksmuseum Köller-Müller, Otterlo,
  • Stania State, Oenkerk,
  • Leiden Universiteit,
  • Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, Rotterdam and
  • Fogelsaugh State, Veonkloster.


  • Hammacher, A.W. (1946): Amsterdamsche Impressionisten en hun Kring, Amsterdam, J.M. Meulenhoff
  • Loos, Wiepke und van Serooskerken, Carpel van Tuyll (1988): Waarde Heer Allebé – Leven en werk van August Allebé (1838–1927), Wanders, ISBN 90-6630-124-4
  • Muller, Sheila D. (2013): Dutch Art – An Encyclopedia, Routledge, ISBN 1-135-49574-2
  • Bouret, Jean: L'École de Barbizon et le paysage française au XIXe siècle, Neuchâtel, 1972
  • Pillement, Georges: Les Pré-Impressionistes, Zug, 1972, CCLC 638279063
  • Berson, Ruth (1989): The new Painting: Impressionism 1874 – 1886, Documentation, 3 Bd., Phaidon Press Ltd. Oxford, ISBN 0-7148-2430-5
  • Broude, Norma (1990): Impressionismus – eine Internationale Bewegung 1860–1920, Dumond Buchverlag Köln, ISBN 3-8321-7454-0
  • Constable, Freda: John Constable, a biography, 1776–1837, Lavenham, Dalton, 1975, ISBN 0-900963-54-9
  • Noon, Patrick (1991): John Parkers Bonington – On the Pleasure of Painting, Balding + Mansell, ISBN 0-300-05108-5
  • Sillevis, John; Kraan, Hans und Dorn, Roland 1987: Die Haager Schule, Meisterwerke der Holländischen Malerei des 19. Jahrhunderts aus Haags Gemeentemuseum, Ausst.Kat. Kunsthalle Mannheim, Edition Braus, ISBN 3-925835-08-3
  • Pfeifer, Ingrid und Hollein, Max (2008): Impressionistinnen, Aust.-Kat. Kunsthalle Frankfurt, Hatje Crantz, ISBN 3-7757-2078-2
  • Die Düsseldorfter Malerschule 1830–1920, Bd. 1 und 2, Ausst.-Kat. D'dorf, ISBN 3-86568-702-4
  • House, John und Stevens Mary Anne (1979): Post-Impresionism, Weidenfeld and Nicolson London, ISBN 0-297-77713-0
  • Guratzsch, Hedwig (1979): Die große Zeit der niederländischen Malerei, Herder, ISBN 3-451-18218-1
  • Brax, Dr. d. (1952): Hollandes en vlaamse Schilderkunst in Zuid-Afríka, J.H. de Bussy Amsterdam
  • Heilmann, Christoph; Clarke, Michael und Sillevis, John (1996): Corot, Courbet und die Maler von Barbizon (Les amis de la nature), Klinkhardt & Biermann, ISBN 3-7814-0395-5
  • Loos, Wiepke; te Rijdt, Robert Jan und van Heteren, Marjan (1997): Niederländische Landschaftsmaler: Meisterwerke des 18. und des 19. Jahrhunderts, Ausst.-Kat. Belser Verlag, ISBN 3-7630-2353-4
  • Bühler, Hans Peter (1979): Die Schule von Barbizon, Verlag F. Bruckmann KG, München, 1979
  • Moffet, Charles S. (1986): The New Painting 1878–1886, Ausst.-Kat. Phaidon Oxford, ISBN 0-7148-2430-5
  • Beyeler, Ernst (2002): Claude Monet und die Geburt des Impressionismus, Ausst.-Kat., Prestel, ISBN 3-7913-5414-0
  • Aschoff, Ulrike (2014): Camille Pissarro – der Vater des Impressionismus, Ausst.-Kat. von der Heydt Museum, ISBN 3-89202-091-4
  • Lorenceau, Bernhard (1996): Johan Barthold Jongkind – 1819 –1891, Brame Lorenceau Paris, ISBN 2-9510156-0-7
  • van Eikeren, Johan H. (1947): De Amsterdamse Joffers: Maria E. van Regteren Altena, Ans van den Berg, Jo Bauer-Stumpff, Nelly Bodenheim., Lizzy Ansingh, Coba Ritsema, Coba Surie, Betsie Westendorp-Osieck, ISBN 90-5897-422-7
  • Glorie, Ingrid (2000): Juffers en Joffers: een eerbewijs aan vrouwen in de schilderkunst, De Doelenpers, ISBN 90-70655-27-6
  • Wright, Christopher (1980): Paintings in Dutch Museums, Philip Wilson Publishers Ltd., London, ISBN 0-85667-077-4


  • J. Knoef, onbekende grafiek van A. Allebé, Oud Holland, 68, 1953, Seite 174–178
  • A. Hoogendoorn, Een jeugdwerk von August Allebé, Oud Holland, 69, 1954, Seite 58 ff.


  1. ^ From about 1610 the old guilds emerged in the Low Countries and the last was disbanded around 1795. Almost every town had such one and they were founded for economic reasons. They must be seen in connection with the 1. Dutch golden age of painting.
  2. ^ It was named after the patron of the painters.
  3. ^ The flow of Amsterdamse Joffers is a movement within the Amsterdam Impressionism. Its members, however, have always chosen their own way.
  4. ^ a b c d August Allebé in the RKD
  5. ^ The patron saint of painters is the Holy St. Luke. This new artist's association has been named after him. The first arts guilds of St. Lucas was founded in the 16th century in the Low Countries. The starting point was the reform movement of 1579 and the shaking of the Catholic state power of the Habsburg Kingdom of Spain. In 1610/11 they were founded in Haarlem, Gouda, Delft, Rotterdam and The Hague. The last of their kind existed in Antwerp until 1795.
  6. ^ a b c d She belonged to the "Amsterdamse Joffers", part of the Amsterdamse Impressionism.
  7. ^ a b c He had got private lessons.
  8. ^ He spent a short time at the academy and left it for Paris.
  9. ^ "Een lieve bloemenschilderes". Het Parool via Delpher (in Dutch). 24 September 1994. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  10. ^ Art historians believe that Piet Mondriaan was student of Prof. Allebé, too.
  11. ^ She had got private lessons.
  12. ^ In 1880 he got the membership of St. Lucas as student.