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Auberge de Bavière

The Auberge de Bavière (Maltese: Berġa tal-Baviera) is a palace in Valletta, Malta. It was built as Palazzo Carneiro in 1696, and it was the residence of Grand Master Marc'Antonio Zondadari in the early 18th century. In 1784, it was converted into the auberge for the Anglo-Bavarian langue of the Order of Saint John, and it remained so until the French occupation of Malta in 1798.

Auberge de Bavière
Berġa tal-Baviera
Baviera.jpg
View of Auberge de Bavière
Former namesPalazzo Carneiro
Palazzo Carniero
Carnera Palace
Auberge de Baverie
General information
StatusIntact
TypePalace
Architectural styleMannerism
LocationValletta, Malta
Coordinates35°54′5.5″N 14°30′51.1″E / 35.901528°N 14.514194°E / 35.901528; 14.514194
Current tenantsLands Authority
Completed1696
ClientGaspare Carneiro
OwnerGovernment of Malta
Technical details
MaterialLimestone
Floor count2
Design and construction
ArchitectCarlo Gimach

It was used by the British military in the 19th and early 20th centuries, briefly housing a military hospital in World War I. It was subsequently used as a school, a hostel for bombed-out people in World War II, and it was also used by a number of government agencies. Since 1997, it has been the main offices of the Lands Authority (previously known as the Government Property Department).

The palace is located in the northern part of Valletta, near the English Curtain and the Jews' Sally Port. It overlooks St. Elmo Bay and the entrance of Marsamxett Harbour. The surrounding neighbourhood is popularly known as il-Baviera after the auberge.[1]

HistoryEdit

Palazzo CarneiroEdit

 
Auberge de Bavière overlooking the English Curtain and the Jews' Sally Port

The Portuguese Balì Fra Gaspare Carneiro had bought the site in 1693 against a payment to the Treasury of the Order.[2] Palazzo Carneiro was built in 1696, by Fra Carneiro, on a site where a lime kiln had stood.[3] The building was designed by the Maltese architect Carlo Gimach, who was a personal friend of Carneiro. The building was one of the last examples of austere and staid architecture in the 17th century, before the much more ornate Baroque style became more popular.[4]

The site was rented for 31 scudi per year for the term of his life and that of one other person nominated by him, and thereafter reverted to the common treasury.[5] Carneiro also owned the country residence Palazzo or Villa Blacas, now found in Hamrun. After the death of Carneiro, the building in Valletta remained known for himself as Palazzo Carneiro.[6] He left the building to the Order after his death.[7]

The palace was the residence of Grand Master Marc'Antonio Zondadari from 1702 until his death in 1722.[8] It was for sometime rented out to different distinguished people.[9] In 1725 Grand Master de Vilhena was symbolically given a sword and a hat, known officially as 'stoc' and 'piliet', similar to other heads of European powers by Pope Benedict XII. For this occasion on 19 April 1725 the papacy sent its Papal Legate, Monsignior Giovanni Francesco Abbate Olivieri. The Grand Master made large ceremonies for this occasion, and embellished Palazzo Carneiro with the finest settings to receive the Papal Legate.[10]

Auberge de BavièreEdit

 
Plaque on the auberge

With mutual understanding, the King of Bavaria persuaded George III, of the House of Hanover, to set up a joint Langue of the Order of St John.[11] In December 1782[12][2] the Elector of Bavaria, through Gaetano Bruno, bought the palazzo for 20000 scudi and it began to be used by the newly formed Anglo-Bavarian Langue which was instituted by Grand Master Emmanuel de Rohan-Polduc two years later in 1784.[8][13] It was then officially known as Albergo de Bavari or the variants.[14]

Richard Colt Hoare visited the island in the period when the Langue was set up.[15] He names the building as Carnera Palace and has called the union of Bavaria and England as an illusion.[15] Most knights of the Langue were Bavarians who did not want to form part of the continuous existing German Langue. Though an agreement was reached to form a Langue with England, very few interested Englishmen were found to join the Order. The Langue was given responsibility to safeguard the Bastian of St Lazarus, close to the English Curtain.[11]

Other than an auberge for German knights, the building became used for a secret society of the Freemasons composed of multiple European nationalities, including French knights, known as the St John of Secrecy and Harmony Lodge. A notable visit to the building took place in 1785 by Count Leopold Reichsgraf von Kollowrat-Krakowsky, the German Grand Prior of Bohemia, who was a well known Freemason. He had already took a prominent role in establishing the auberge.[16] The building is rich in history related to Freemasonry.[17][18][19][20][21][22]

Knight from Poland eventually joined the order in June 1985, hosted at the auberge. The coat-of-arms on the façade remained the one of England and Bavaria but a flag representing the Poles was hosted on the façade. Russian knights joined in January 1797. At this point the coat-of-arms had some additions with an eagle supporting it from below and a crown above it, both symbolic for the Russian knights.[23]

The building remained an auberge until the Order was expelled from the island with the French occupation of Malta.[24] The lodge was ordered to shut down at the auberge by an inquisition order in 1792.[25] However, the lodge itself was probably discontinued around the same time of the French revolution. The secretary of Grand Masters Pinto and de Rohan, Knight Pierre Jean Doublet, who was a freemason, during the French period continued to serve in Malta as a Commissioner.[16]

HospitalEdit

 
Auberge de Bavière et Angleterre in the 1870s
 
Auberge de Baverie as seen from Fort Tigné c. 1864

When Malta became officially part of the French Republic (1798-1800), the building was converted into a military hospital for French soldiers suffering from different forms of venereal disease.[26] This was a consequence of a rise of prostitution in Malta.[27] Sometimes after Malta became a British Protectorate, the building stopped operating as a hospital for sexual transmitted disease.[28]

The building was taken over by the British military authorities in 1824,[2] and it was used as an officers' mess and later the Command Paymaster's headquarters. On 15 June 1915 it opened as the Bavière Hospital, treating British military personnel injured in World War I, and specializing in severe cases in need of surgery, including head and spine injuries. The hospital initially had 100 beds, but these were later increased to 155. The hospital closed on 14 August 1917.[29][30]

Government buildingEdit

 
War damage with rebuilt part (right)

The building was handed over to the civilian authorities in 1921 when Malta was given self-government.[10][31]

In World War II, the palace was converted into a hostel for people whose homes were destroyed by aerial bombardment.[32] The building suffered minor damage in the war, but it was repaired and by the 1960s it became a government school.[3]

The Land Directorate occupied the building from 1979 to 1997, when it was given to the Government Property Department.[31] The palace was rehabilitated and restored in 2001.[10]

HeritageEdit

The building was included on the Antiquities List of 1925 together with the other auberges in Valletta.[33]

The auberge is a Grade 1 national monument, and it is also listed on the National Inventory of the Cultural Property of the Maltese Islands.[34]

Restoration on the building began in September 2018, which is being restored at the same time as the fortifications in the whereabouts are being done.[35]

ArchitectureEdit

 
Panorama of the auberge's façade

Auberge de Bavière is a large two-story building.[36] It has an austere façade[37] containing a centrepiece with the main doorway, above which is an open stone balcony. Six rectangular windows decorated with mouldings flank either side of the centrepiece.[34] The corners of the building have large pilasters, and a cornice runs along the entire building. A courtyard is located at the rear of the building, an unusual feature since at the time courtyards were usually placed at the centre.[4] During his visit to the island, Hoare observed that the coat-of-arms of England and Bavaria were attached on the façade of the building to supposedly symbolise the union.[15] These were probably removed during the French period.

Commemorative coinsEdit

Auberge de Bavière was depicted on two commemorative coins minted in 2015 by the Central Bank of Malta. The coins show the auberge's façade on the reverse and the coat of arms of Malta on the obverse.[38]

Further readingEdit

  • I Cavalieri di Malta della Lingua d'Inghilterra / A. Mifsud. AM. 2(1913-1914)18-20(206-212)
  • Pages 105-107
  • Pages 107-108
  • Women's Royal Naval Service in Malta
  • Freller, Thomas (2001). The Anglo-Bavarian Langue of the Order of Malta. Publikazzjoni Indipendenza (PIN). ISBN 99909-418-6-6.
  • The building became known as the Valletta Lodge. p. 55
  • Malta Military Hospitals 1915-1917
  • Mirabelli, Terence (2015). "The ANZAC experience in Malta - Arrival" (PDF). Ta’ Xbiex: The Island Publications Ltd: 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2016. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Valletta Action Plan – Integrated Cultural Heritage Management Plan". Valletta Local Council. p. 17. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016.
  2. ^ a b c "Statement of all the property transferred to the military and naval authorities from the year 1816 to the end of 1875 with appendix". Foreign and Commonwealth Office Collection. University of Manchester: 20. 1877. JSTOR 60231726. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  3. ^ a b Denaro, Victor F. (1963). "Yet more houses in Valletta" (PDF). Melita Historica. 3 (4): 81–82. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 April 2016.
  4. ^ a b Ellul, Michael (1986). "Carlo Gimach (1651–1730) – Architect and Poet" (PDF). Proceedings of History Week. Historical Society of Malta: 20–22. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 April 2016.
  5. ^ Statement of all the property transferred to the military and naval authorities from the year 1816 to the end of 1875 with appendix. Foreign and Commonwealth Office Collection (in English and Italian). 1877. JSTOR 60231726.(subscription required)
  6. ^ “Carneiro's name is connected with the palace in Valletta, raised over the Forfici at the back of the old slaughterhouse, which became in 1784 the AngloBavarian ...” Mifsud, A. (1914). Knights Hospitallers of the Ven. Tongue of England in Malta. AMS Press. p. 302.
  7. ^ "Malta Historical Society (MHS)". maltahistory.eu5.net.
  8. ^ a b Alfredo Mifsud (1907). Origine della sovranita' Inglese su Malta (in Italian). Malta: Tipografia del Malta. p. 440.
  9. ^ "The Hidden Faces of Valletta - Flimkien ghal Ambjent Ahjar". Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  10. ^ a b c "Auberge de Bavière". Government Property Department. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016.
  11. ^ a b Rix, Juliet (2013). "Malta". Bradt Travel Guides. p. 143. ISBN 9781841624525.
  12. ^ Brockman, Eric (3 March 1961). "Last bastion: sketches of the Maltese islands". Darton, Longman & Todd. p. 34.
  13. ^ Playfair, Robert Lambert (1881). "Handbook to the Mediterranean". 2. J. Murray: 184. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  14. ^ Ellul, Michael (2010). "Malta Limestone goes to Europe: Use of Malta Stone outside Malta". In Joseph F. Grima (ed.). 60th anniversary of the Malta Historical Society: a commemoration. Zabbar: Veritas Press. pp. 371–406. ISBN 978-99932-0-942-3. OCLC 779340904. Archived from the original on 25 March 2019.
  15. ^ a b c Sultana, Donald (1962). "An English Antiquary in Malta in the Eighteenth Century:A Visit of Sir Richard Colt Hoare" (PDF). Journal of the Faculty of Arts. Melitensia. 2 (2): 100.
  16. ^ a b Dandria, David (December 2014). "Sa Maison - A Garden with a History". Treasures of Malta. Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti (61): 57–64.
  17. ^ FORTIA, M. DE (7 June 2019). "MALTE ANCIENNE" – via Google Books.
  18. ^ Avezac, Marie-Armand-Pascal D' (7 June 2019). "Iles de l'Afrique: 3,4". Didot – via Google Books.
  19. ^ SAINT-ALLAIS, M. de (7 June 2019). "L ́ Ordre de Malte: Ses grands Maitres et ses chevaliers". Chez l ́auteur-Delaunay – via Google Books.
  20. ^ Flavigny, Bertrand Galimard (7 June 1998). "Les chevaliers de Malte: des hommes de fer et de foi". Fernand Lanore – via Google Books.
  21. ^ Klüber, Johann Ludwig (7 June 2019). "Essai sur l'Ordre de Malte ou de st. Jean et sur ses rapports avec l'Allemagne en général et avec le Brisgau en particulier [by J.L. Klüber]" – via Google Books.
  22. ^ Lory, Marie (7 June 2019). "Malte". KARTHALA Editions – via Google Books.
  23. ^ https://archive.org/stream/bub_gb_yK80AQAAMAAJ/bub_gb_yK80AQAAMAAJ_djvu.txt
  24. ^ Said Zammir, George A. (2017). The Architectural Heritage of the Maltese Islands (3 ed.). Rabat, Malta: The Minor Seminary. p. 122. ISBN 978-99932-607-4-5. OCLC 234094452.
  25. ^ http://www.gnostic-christianity.org/gnostic/esoteric_index_search.php/?search2=11&id=499
  26. ^ Savona-Ventura, C. (1998). "Human Suffering during the Maltese Insurrection of 1798" (PDF). Storja. 3 (6): 58.
  27. ^ Dalli, Kim (19 October 2014). "When prostitution in a car was a crime... but not on boat". Times of Malta. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  28. ^ Cassar, Paul (3 March 1965). "Medical History of Malta". Wellcome Historical Medical Library. p. 233.
  29. ^ Mirabelli, Terence (2015). "The ANZAC experience in Malta" (PDF). Travel Malta. Australian High Commission in Malta. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 April 2016.
  30. ^ "Military Hospitals in Malta during the Great War 1914–1918". maltaramc.com. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016.
  31. ^ a b Pulis, Victor (2009). Exploring Malta - an Activity Book (Valletta). p. 12.
  32. ^ Cuschieri, Jos. M. (28 March 1966). "Valetta suffered its first aerial siege, and the life it lived is vividly described by its Protection Officer". Times of Malta. p. 45.
  33. ^ "Protection of Antiquities Regulations 21st November, 1932 Government Notice 402 of 1932, as Amended by Government Notices 127 of 1935 and 338 of 1939". Malta Environment and Planning Authority. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016.
  34. ^ a b "Auberge de Baviere" (PDF). National Inventory of the Cultural Property of the Maltese Islands. 28 December 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 April 2016.
  35. ^ "In-naħa t'isfel tal-Belt qed tingħata nifs ġdid". 28 September 2018.
  36. ^ Bonello, Giovanni (2010). Nostalgias of Malta: images by Modiano from the 1900s. Fondazzjoni Patrimonu Malti. p. 51. ISBN 9789993273165. OCLC 696296725.
  37. ^ Badger, George Percy (1838). Description of Malta and Gozo. M. Weiss. pp. 154, 155.
  38. ^ "Auberge de Bavière". Central Bank of Malta. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016.

External linksEdit