Atlantic Transport Line

The Atlantic Transport Line was an American passenger shipping line based in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1901 the company was folded into the International Mercantile Marine Company (IMM).

Atlantic Transport Line
IndustryShipping
Founded1881 in United States
FounderBernard N Baker
Defunct1936
Headquarters,
Area served
North Atlantic
ServicesPassenger and Cargo transport, including live cattle

History edit

The line developed with railroad support as an offshoot of Bernard N. Baker's Baltimore Storage and Lighterage Company in 1881. Although American owned, the Atlantic Transport Line operated from Britain, with British registered and manned vessels, most of which were British built. General cargo, live cattle and small numbers of passengers were carried from Baltimore and Philadelphia to British ports and the line developed an excellent reputation for shipping valuable horses. A full-scale weekly passenger service between New York and London commenced in 1892 and today the line is best remembered for its exclusively first class direct London to New York passenger/cargo service operated by its four Minne-class ships: Minneapolis, Minnehaha, Minnetonka and Minnewaska from 1900 to 1915.

In 1898 the U.S. Government bought seven of the Line's ten ships for use as military transports in the Spanish–American War (Baker lent another for use as a hospital ship). The line survived this potentially devastating blow because Baker pulled off a sensational deal and bought a British competitor's five brand new ships almost immediately as replacements. The Atlantic Transport Company of West Virginia was formed at this time to assert American ownership of the line's overseas assets. Baker's attempt to sell the line to British owners in the late 1890s sparked the chain of events that lead to the formation of the IMM.

The line's most important ships were all sunk during the First World War. After the war four huge replacements for the Minne-class ships were planned. Only two of these were built however, and the passenger service, which recommenced in 1923, never matched pre-war successes. With first class travel declining, a tourist third-class ship was introduced in 1925 and for two seasons operated a second. But the line was faltering even before the Wall Street Crash and with the recession of 1931 its remaining ships were laid up or transferred to other IMM lines, and it effectively ceased to exist. The American holding company survived until 1936. Minnewaska was the last ship the Atlantic Transport Line operated.

Fleet edit

Ship Launched ATL Service Notes
Columbia 1914 1935–1936 Ex Belgic, ex Belgenland. Scrapped 1936
Korea 1901 1915–1916 Purchased from the Pacific Mail Steamship Company in 1915. In 1916 the ship was sold to Toyo Kisen Kaisha of Yokohama, Japan, and renamed Korea Maru. Scrapped 1934
Mackinaw 1890 1897–1923 Ex British Crown. Scrapped 1923
Maine 1887 1887–1899 Ex Swansea. Converted to a hospital ship for the Boer War. Wrecked 1914
Maine 1903 1903–1907 Sold and renamed Virginian. Scrapped 1948
Maine 1904 1913–1917 Ex Sierra Blanca. Torpedoed by UC-17 1917
Maine 1919 1920–1931 Ex War Riddle. Sold and renamed Skala. Scrapped 1955
Manchuria 1903 1915–1918 Requisitioned as a troop transport. On return transferred to the American Line. Sold and renamed President Johnson. Resold and renamed Santa Cruz. Scrapped 1952
Manhattan 1898 1898–1927 Chartered to the Phoenix Line 1911 - 1914. Scrapped 1927
Manitoba 1892 1892–1898 Sold to US Government and renamed USAT Logan. Sold and renamed Candler. Scrapped 1924
Manitou 1897 1898–1902 Ex Victoria. Transferred to Red Star Line. Requisitioned 1915 - 1919. On return renamed Poland then transferred to White Star Line in 1922. Scrapped 1925.
Marquette 1897 1898–1904 Ex Boadicea. Transferred to Red Star Line. Torpedoed by U-35 1915
Maryland 1886 1886–1912 Sold and renamed Redentore. Wrecked 1913
Maryland 1913 1913–1933 Scrapped 1933
Massachusetts 1891 1892–1898 Requisitioned by US Government and renamed USAT Sheridan. Scrapped in 1923
Massachusetts 1902 1902–1911 Sold and renamed Kansan. Torpedoed 1917
Memphis 1891 1907–1908 Ex America. Scrapped 1908
Menominee 1897 1898–1905 Ex Alexandria. Transferred to Red Star Line. Scrapped 1927
Mesaba 1897 1898–1918 Ex Winifreda. Torpedoed by UB-118 1918
Mesaba 1918 1919–1925 Ex War Icarus. Transferred to White Star Line and renamed Delphic. Subsequently, sold to Clan Line and renamed Clan Farquhar. Scrapped 1948
Michigan 1890 1890–1896 Transferred to the National Line. Sold to US Government and renamed USAT Kilpatrick. Resold and renamed Acropolis. Subsequently, resold and renamed Washington. Finally sold and renamed Great Canton. Scrapped 1924
Michigan 1899 1899–1900 Transferred to the Dominion Line and renamed Irishman. Scrapped 1924
Michigan 1897 1914–1926 Ex Monmouth, ex Irishman. Sold and renamed Candido. Scrapped 1927
Minneapolis 1899 1900–1915 Requisitioned by UK government. Torpedoed by U-35 1916
Minnehaha 1900 1900–1917 Torpedoed by U-48 1917
Minnekahda 1917 1920–1931 Laid up and eventually scrapped in 1936
Minnesota 1887 1887–1926 Renamed Mahopac in 1917. Scrapped in 1926
Minnesota 1903 1917–1923 Chartered by US government in 1919 and renamed USS Troy. Scrapped 1923
Minnesota 1900 1927–1930 Ex Zeeland, ex Northland. Scrapped 1930
Minnetonka 1901 1901–1918 Torpedoed by U-64 and U-67 1918
Minnetonka 1924 1924–1934 Scrapped 1934
Minnewaska 1894 1897–1898 Ex Persia. Requisitioned by the US Government and renamed USAT Thomas. Scrapped 1928
Minnewaska 1908 1909–1916 Total loss after being mined by UC-23 1916
Minnewaska 1923 1923–1931 Sold to Red Star Line. Scrapped 1934
Mississippi 1890 1890–1898 Requisitioned by US government and renamed USAT Buford. Scrapped 1929
Mississippi 1902 1902–1906 Transferred to Red Star Line and renamed Samland. Transferred to White Star Line 1911 - 1913 and temporarily renamed Belgic. Scrapped 1931
Mississippi 1914 1914–1933 ATL's only diesel-powered ship. Scrapped 1933
Missouri 1888 1888–1898 Sold to US Government and renamed USAT Egbert. Sold and renamed Stanley Dollar. Wrecked 1905
Missouri 1903 1903–1908 Sold and renamed Missourian. Torpedoed by U-52 1917
Missouri 1913 1913–1933 Scrapped 1933
Mobile 1892 1892–1898 Sold to US Government and renamed USAT Sherman. Resold and renamed Calawaii. Scrapped 1933
Mobile 1890 1907–1911 Ex Europe. Sold and renamed Throger. Renamed Guvernoren. Burnt at sea 1915
Mohawk 1892 1892–1898 Sold to US Government and renamed USAT Grant. Resold and renamed Chinouk. Scrapped 1946
Mohawk 1885 1899–1903 Ex Belgic. Scrapped 1903
Mohegan 1898 1898–1898 Ex Cleopatra. Sank 1898
Mongolia 1903 1915–1920 Transferred to the American Line and subsequently to the Panama Pacific Line. Sold and renamed President Fillimore. Subsequently, resold and renamed Panamanian. Scrapped 1947
Montana 1887 1887–1913 Sold and renamed Resurrezione. Scrapped 1926
Montana 1919 1920–1935 Ex Defender. Scrapped 1935
Montauk 1919 1920–1935 Ex Champion. Scrapped 1935
Siberia 1901 1915–1916 Sold and renamed Siberia Maru. Scrapped 1934
Suffolk 1881 1882–1886 Wrecked 1886
Surrey 1881 1881–1889 Renamed Michigan in 1888. Sold and renamed Harry Luckenbach. Torpedoed by U-84 1918
Sussex 1882 1882–1885 Sank 1885

References edit

Sources edit

  • Brown, Giles (Aug 1948). "The Hindu Conspiracy, 1914–1917". The Pacific Historical Review. 17 (3). University of California Press: 299–310. doi:10.2307/3634258. ISSN 0030-8684. JSTOR 3634258.
  • Plowman, Matthew (2003). "Irish Republicans and the Indo-German Conspiracy of World War". New Hibernia Review. Center for Irish Studies at the University of St. Thomas: 81–105. ISSN 1092-3977.

External links edit