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At-Tawbah (Arabic: التوبة‎, "The Repentance"), also known as Barā’ah (Arabic: بَرَاءَة, - "act of setting free or getting rid of obstructions by customs"),[1] is the ninth chapter (sūrah) of the Quran. It contains 129 verses (āyāt) and is one of the last Medinan surah. This sūrah is reported to have been revealed at the time of the Battle of Tabuk.

Sura 9 of the Quran
التوبة
At-Tawbah
The Repentance
ClassificationMedinan
Other namesBara'ah ("Repudiation")
PositionJuzʼ 10 to 11
Hizb no.19 to 21
No. of Rukus16
No. of verses129
No. of Sajdahsnone

It is the only sūrah of the Qur'an that does not begin with the Basmala (Bismillah).

ContentsEdit

Verse 37 documents the prohibition of nasīʾ, the calculation of intercalation for the lunar calendar by the priests of the Banu Kinanah tribe of the Quraysh. This prohibition was repeated by Muhammad during the Farewell Sermon on Mount Arafat, which was delivered during the Farewell Pilgrimage to Mecca on 9 Dhu al-Hijjah AH 10.

According to Zayd ibn Thabit, when the Qu'ran was first being compiled, he found the last verses of this sūrah in the possession of Abu'l-Khuzayma al-Ansari and no one else.[2][3] In another account, Ubay ibn Ka'b informed Zayd that the Prophet taught him the end of this sūrah and recited the same verses.[4] Some, like Ibn Hazm, suggested that Abu Khuzayma was the only one to have the last verses in written form, as Zayd and others had memorized them.[4]

At-Tawbah has the Sword Verse (9:5). Arun Shourie has criticized this and many other verses from the Qur'an. He says the sunnah and the hadith are equally evocative in their support of Jihad, which he deems to be the leitmotiv of the Qur'an.[5]

At-Tawbah also features Verse 29, a verse that appears to promote jihad against "People of the Scripture (i.e. the Jews & Christians)" and as such is a subject of much debate.

ExegesisEdit

In Kitab al-Kafi, Ja'far al-Sadiq has narrated that Imams are not needy to what people own but rather collect religious tax on accord that Allah said 9:103 Take from their wealth (religious tax) and charity by which you purify them and cause them to increase and invoke blessings upon them. Therefore, it is the people who need that the Imam accepts from them.[6]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2015). The Study Qur'an. New York: HarperCollins. p. 503. ISBN 978-0-06-112586-7.
  2. ^ Muḥammad ibn Ismāʻīl Bukhārī, Sahih al-Bukhari, Peace Vision, 1971 p.1727.
  3. ^ F. E. Peters, A Reader on Classical Islam, Princeton University Press 1993 p.180.
  4. ^ a b Ahmad Ali Al-Imam, Variant Readings of the Qurʼan: A Critical Study of Their Historical and Linguistic Origins, International Institute of Islamic Thought, 2006 pp.28-29.
  5. ^ Shourie, Arun. Indian Controversies, Essays in Religion and Politics ASA Publications, New Delhi-110021
  6. ^ Al-Kulayni, Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Ya’qub (2015). Kitab al-Kafi. South Huntington, NY: The Islamic Seminary Inc. ISBN 9780991430864.

External linksEdit