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The World Surf League (WSL)[1] is the governing body for professional surfers and is dedicated to showcasing the world’s best talent in a variety of progressive formats.[2] The World Surf League was previously known as the Association of Surfing Professionals (ASP) from 1983 to 2014.[3] The organization was founded in 1976 by Fred Hemmings and Randy Rarick.[4]

World Surf League
Current season, competition or edition:
Current sports event 2018 World Surf League
World Surf League Logo.png
Sport Professional Surfing
Founded 1976
Countries International
Headquarters Burleigh Heads, Australia
Most recent
champion(s)
Hawaii John John Florence (men); Australia Tyler Wright (women)
Official website www.worldsurfleague.com

In 2013, the ASP was acquired by ZoSea, backed by Paul Speaker, Terry Hardy, and Dirk Ziff.[5] At the start of the 2015 season, the ASP changed its name to the World Surf League (WSL).[6] Sophie Goldschmidt was appointed as WSL CEO on July 19, 2017.[7] Paul Speaker had stepped down as CEO on January 11, 2017,[8] and Dirk Ziff acted as the interim WSL CEO until Goldschmidt's appointment.

As of December 2017, the WSL had more than 6.5 million Facebook fans, surpassing more established sports such as the National Hockey League, the Association of Tennis Professionals and Major League Soccer.

Contents

HistoryEdit

In March 2015, WSL launched a free downloadable app, which garnered more than a million downloads in its first year. The app provides real-time updates on competitions and provides personalized alerts, letting fans know when their favorite athletes are about to enter the water.

In April 2016, the World Surf League introduced WSL PURE, its philanthropic initiative dedicated to supporting ocean health through research, education and advocacy. WSL PURE has contributed an initial $1.5 million in funding that will support scientists from the Columbia University Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, as they lead research into ocean health & ecosystems, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, and the role the oceans play in climate change.

PredecessorsEdit

  • 1964 to 1972, International Surfing Federation (ISF) held the World Surfing Championships as a single event every two years and was open to all comers.
  • 1973 to 1975, Smirnoff World Pro-Am Surfing Championships, occasionally referred to as the de facto professional world championship because the International Surfing Federation had been unable to establish a format or sponsorship so no official amateur championships were held between 1973 and 1975.
  • 1976 to 1982, International Professional Surfers (IPS) was the original world governing body of professional surfing.

The predecessors of the WSL relates to what organization predominantly represented individual professional surfers at that time. This is an important point because the International Surfing Federation (ISF) still functions to this day as the International Surfing Association (ISA) and also refers to competition winners as world champions (or variants thereof).[9][10]

Creation of the ASPEdit

Ian Cairns watched the demise of the IPS commence throughout 1982 and saw an opportunity. In January 1983, Cairns launched the ASP and lured the world circuit organizers to the new organization, which effectively pushed aside the IPS who were left to operate only the Hawaiian pro events. By December 1984, the ASP had sanctioned the IPS controlled Pipeline Masters as a specialty event available to ASP members to enter for the first time. At the start of the 2015 season, the ASP changed its name to the World Surf League (WSL).[6] The WSL has remained the predominant surfing organization and sanctioning body for professional surfers since its formation.[3] The WSL's first world champions were Tom Carroll (men's) and Kim Mearig (women's) in 1983.

WSL membershipEdit

WSL membership is only available to individuals and a few G.C's.[11]

WSL sanctioned toursEdit

  • WSL Men's Championship Tour (CT)[12]
  • WSL Women's Championship Tour (CT)[13]
  • WSL Men's Qualifying Series (QS)[14]
  • WSL Women's Qualifying Series (QS)[15]
  • WSL Men's Longboard Championships[16]
  • WSL Women’s Longboard Championships[17] and
  • WSL Junior Championships.[18][19]
  • WSL Big Wave Tour[20]

WSL World Title RaceEdit

The WSL World Title Race is used to determine the WSL Men's World Title and the WSL Women’s World Title. The winner is referred to as the WSL Tour Champion.[21]

The WSL Men's World Title is given to the surfer with the most accumulated points from their respective best 9 results from the 11 WSL World Tour events (WSL Qualifying Series (QS) events excluded).[22]

The WSL Women’s World Title is given to the surfer with the most accumulated points from their respective best 8 results from the 10 WSL Women’s Championship Tour events (WSL Qualifying Series (QS) events excluded).

Championship toursEdit

The WSL Men's Championship Tour (CT) is the men's elite competition consisting of the best 34 professional surfers competing in 11 events (as of 2015).[23] The WSL Men's prize money for winning a CT event is $100,000 US.

The WSL Women's Championship Tour is the women's elite competition consisting of the best 17 professional surfers competing in 10 events (as of 2015).[23] The WSL women prize money for winning a CT event is $60,000 US.

Event results are converted to points and count towards the WSL World Title Race and the ultimate prize of being called the WSL World Tour Champion.

WSL Qualifying Series eventsEdit

A WSL QS 10,000 event is held at premium venues with a restricted field and offers WSL QS 10,000 World Rankings points.[14][15][24]

A WSL QS 1000, 1500, 3000 event is a lower level of competition, compared to an WSL QS 6000 and 10,000 event, with their importance indicated by how many points they are assigned: more points means generally better competition and prize money.[14][15][24]

WSL world rankingEdit

WSL Men's Championship Tour and WSL Women's Championship Tour surfers accumulate points from each WSL Championship Tour and WSL Qualifying Series event they compete in which count towards their WSL World Ranking.[25][26] Accumulated points are valid for 12 months from the final date of the scheduled event in which they were earned.[27]

Promotion and relegationEdit

WSL World Ranking determines the promotion or relegation of surfers.[27]

2012 toursEdit

The qualifiers for the 2012 ASP World Tour top 34 surfers was determined using a Rotation Points system.

The qualifiers for the 2012 ASP Women's World Tour was determined by a surfer's rank at the conclusion of the 2011 Tour. The top 10 re-qualified for 2012 and the remaining 7 places were taken from the ASP Star Ranking.

2013-2018 toursEdit

The qualifiers for the following year's WSL Championship Tour top 34 surfers[25] will consist of:

  • Top 22 surfers from the previous season of the WSL World Title Rankings;
  • Top 10 surfers from the previous season of the WSL World Qualifying Series (QS) Rankings (those who haven’t already qualified in the above) and
  • 2 WSL wildcards.

[27]

RulesEdit

Judging[27]Edit

In contests surfers will be scored on a scale of 0.1 to 10.0, these scores will be broken up into increments of one-tenth. The following scale can be used to relate descriptions with the score:

  • 0–1.9 = Poor
  • 2.0–3.9 = Fair
  • 4.0–5.9 = Average
  • 6.0–7.9 = Good
  • 8.0–10.0 = Excellent

Judging criteria[27]Edit

Judges will base the score on how successfully surfers display these following elements in each wave:

  • Commitment and degree of difficulty
  • Innovative and progressive maneuvers
  • Combination of major maneuvers
  • Variety of maneuvers
  • Speed, power and flow

These elements may be weighted differently from day to day and event to event, depending upon on the surfing conditions and the type of breaking wave at each event location. This criterion is different from in longboarding competitions. All of this is focused on creating some type consistency that can be seen throughout the many different events.[28]

The events themselves are previously declared QS 1,000 - QS 10,000 events; among other things this ranking shows what numbers of judges which are required at the event. QS 1,000 - QS 3,000 Qualifying Series events are required to have a six judge panel with four judges on each heat. A QS 4,000 - QS 6,000 Qualifying Series event requires seven judges with five of those judges on each heat. At QS 5,000 - QS 10,000 Qualifying Series events there are only allowed to be 3 judges from any one region. This is then limited to two at any world championship events. All events also require an WSL approved head judge who has the ability to make corrections to errors or any other events that may have affected the results.[27]

RulesEdit

There are many rules out in the water that all revolve around the idea of right of way. A surfer has the right of way if he or she is closer to the area where the wave is breaking, this is more commonly referred to as having the inside position. If another surfer takes off in front of the surfer that has the inside position, then interference will be called, and penalties will be enacted. In most circumstances it does not matter who stood up first but who has the inside position.[27]

A surfer can also be found guilty of interference if they catch more than their maximum number of waves in a heat and that this takes away from the other competitors ability to catch waves. A competitor is also not allowed to interfere with another competitor’s paddling and maneuvering for a wave.[27]

The rules of right of way vary slightly with the type of break. Point Breaks will always have a consistent direct of what is inside, that is, the person further up the line will have right of way. In a single peak situation where there is both a left and a right two people are able to be on the wave at the same time, provided that one goes left and one goes right and that neither crosses the path of the other to go one direction. If this does happen then, the surfer who stood up first will get the right of way. On a multi-peaked wave where the wave eventually comes together, both peaks can be surfed until the surfers come together. When they do the surfer who stood up first has right of way, and the other must maneuver to get off the wave without interrupting the other surfer.[27]

In a one-on-one competition, priority can be declared by the Head Judge. Once the person with priority has paddled for a wave priority is then turned over to the next person until that person does the same. The person with second priority can paddle for waves as long as it does not interfere with the other person who will lose their priority only if they catch a wave.[27]

A surfer who has already taken off or obtained possession of a wave maintains this position until the end of their ride. If another surfer takes off on the inside of this surfer, then this person does not obtain priority and is considered to be snaking. If this surfer does not hurt the other surfers ride, then both people can be scored based. If the judges determine that the snaking did interfere then the person will be penalized. Interference penalties are called by the judges and must have a majority to be declared an actual penalty. Interference are shown as triangles on the score cards in various different ways depending on when or where in the heat they were made. If three or more waves are being scored than one wave will be dropped off the score card. If only the top two waves are being scored, then 50% of the second best-scored wave will be taken off. If a surfer has more than one then 50% of the best waves score will be taken off also. The surfer who has been interfered with will be allowed an additional wave to their maximum as long as it is within the time limit. If a surfer interferes more than twice in a heat then they must leave the competition area.[27]

WSL Championship Tour championsEdit

[29]

Year WSL Men's Championship Tour[30] WSL Women's Championship Tour[30]
Name Points Name Points
2017   John John Florence [2] (HAW) 58,100   Tyler Wright [2] (AUS) 54,400
2016   John John Florence (HAW) 59,850   Tyler Wright (AUS) 72,500
2015   Adriano De Souza (BRA) 57,700   Carissa Moore [3] (HAW) 66,200
2014   Gabriel Medina (BRA) 62,800   Stephanie Gilmore [6] (AUS) 64,200
2013   Mick Fanning [3] (AUS) 54,400   Carissa Moore [2] (HAW) 59,500
2012   Joel Parkinson (AUS) 58,700   Stephanie Gilmore [5] (AUS) 48,400
2011   Kelly Slater [11] (USA) 68,100   Carissa Moore (HAW) 55,000
2010   Kelly Slater [10] (USA) 69,000   Stephanie Gilmore [4] (AUS) 7,284
2009   Mick Fanning [2] (AUS) 7,140   Stephanie Gilmore [3] (AUS) 6,169
2008   Kelly Slater [9] (USA) 8,042   Stephanie Gilmore [2] (AUS) 7,188
2007   Mick Fanning (AUS) 8,136   Stephanie Gilmore (AUS) 6,708
2006   Kelly Slater [8] (USA) 8,124   Layne Beachley [7] (AUS) 6,374
2005   Kelly Slater [7] (USA) 7,962   Chelsea Georgeson (AUS) 7,080
2004   Andy Irons [3] (HAW) 7,824   Sofia Mulanovich (PER) 5,484
2003   Andy Irons [2] (HAW) 8,964   Layne Beachley [6] (AUS) 3,696
2002   Andy Irons (HAW) 8,102   Layne Beachley [5] (AUS) 3,200
2001   C. J. Hobgood (USA) 3,094   Layne Beachley [4] (AUS) 1,760
2000   Sunny Garcia (HAW) 7,270   Layne Beachley [3] (AUS) 5,730
1999   Mark Occhilupo (AUS) 7,120   Layne Beachley [2] (AUS) 8,080
1998   Kelly Slater [6] (USA) 6,398   Layne Beachley (AUS) 7,920
1997   Kelly Slater [5] (USA) 8,260   Lisa Andersen [4] (USA) 8,520
1996   Kelly Slater [4] (USA) 9,540   Lisa Andersen [3] (USA) 12,750
1995   Kelly Slater [3] (USA) 6,040   Lisa Andersen [2] (USA) 12,920
1994   Kelly Slater [2] (USA) 6,660   Lisa Andersen (USA) 7,650
1993   Derek Ho (HAW) 5,510   Pauline Menczer (AUS) 7,080
1992   Kelly Slater (USA) 7,765   Wendy Botha [4] (AUS) 10,205
1991   Damien Hardman [2] (AUS) 12,854   Wendy Botha [3] (AUS) 7,424
1990   Tom Curren [3] (USA) 17,612   Pam Burridge (AUS) 14,440
1989   Martin Potter (UK) 20,665   Wendy Botha [2] (AUS) 14,380
1988   Barton Lynch (AUS) 17,475   Freida Zamba [4] (USA) 7,960
1987/88   Damien Hardman (AUS) 13,690   Wendy Botha (RSA) 8,220
1986/87   Tom Curren [2] (USA) 13,115   Freida Zamba [3] (USA) 9,230
1985/86   Tom Curren (USA) 11,490   Freida Zamba [2] (USA) 5,320
1984/85   Tom Carroll [2] (AUS) 9,460.38   Freida Zamba (USA) 3,400
1983/84   Tom Carroll (AUS) 6,830   Kim Mearig (USA) 3,125
IPS World Circuit
1982   Mark Richards [5] (AUS) 6,917   Debbie Beacham (USA) 3,059.14
1981   Mark Richards [4] (AUS) 6,211.52   Margo Oberg [3] (HAW) 3,850
1980   Mark Richards [3] (AUS) 6,890   Margo Oberg [2] (HAW) 2,000
1979   Mark Richards [2] (AUS) 6,781.14   Lynn Boyer [2] (HAW) 3,722.50
1978   Wayne Bartholomew (AUS) 5,749.25   Lynn Boyer (HAW) 3,986.14
1977   Shaun Tomson (RSA) 5,948.3   Margo Oberg (HAW) 4,850
1976   Peter Townend (AUS) 5,593
Smirnoff World Pro-Am Surfing Championships
1977   Jericho Poppler [2] (USA) &   Reno Abellira [2] (HAW)
1976   Jericho Poppler (USA) &   Mark Warren (AUS)
1975   Mark Richards (AUS)
1974   Reno Abellira (HAW)
1973   Ian Cairns (AUS)
1972   Paul Neilsen (AUS)
1971   Gavin Rudolph (RSA)
1970   Nat Young [2] (AUS)
1969   Corky Carroll & Margo Godfrey (USA)
ISF World Surfing Championships
1972 - San Diego, USA   Jimmy Blears (HAW)   Sharon Webber (USA)
1970 - Torquay / Lorne / Johanna, AUS   Rolf Aurness (USA)   Sharon Webber (USA)
1968 - Rincon, Puerto Rico, PR   Fred Hemmings (HAW)   Margo Godfrey (USA)
1966 - San Diego, USA   Nat Young (AUS)   Joyce Hoffman (USA)
1965 - Punta Rocas, Peru   Felipe Pomar (PER)   Joyce Hoffman (USA)
1964 - Manly, AUS   Midget Farrelly (AUS)   Phyllis O'Donnell (AUS)

WSL Longboard Championship Tour championsEdit

[29][31]

Year WSL World Longboard Tour[30] WSL Women’s World Longboard Tour[30]
Name Points Name Points
2017   Taylor Jensen[3] (USA) 15,200   Honolua Blomfield (HAW) 16,500
2016   Phil Rajzman[2] (BRA) 10,000   Tory Gilkerson (USA) 10,000
2015   Piccolo Clemente[2] (PER) 10,000   Rachael Tilly (USA) 10,000
2014   Harley Ingleby[2] (AUS) 10,000   Chelsea Williams (AUS) 10,000
2013   Piccolo Clemente (PER) -   Kelia Moniz[2] (HAW) -
2012   Taylor Jensen[2] (USA) -   Kelia Moniz (HAW) -
2011   Taylor Jensen (USA) 16,000   Lindsay Steinriede (USA) 15,200
2010   Duane DeSoto (HAW)   Cori Schumacher[3] (USA)
2009   Harley Ingleby (AUS)   Jennifer Smith[2] (USA)
2008   Bonga Perkins (HAW)   Joy Magelssen Monahan (HAW)
2007   Phil Rajzman (BRA)   Jennifer Smith (USA)
2006   Josh Constable (AUS)   Schuyler McFerran (USA)
2005   Cancelled   Kristy Murphy (USA)
2004   Joel Tudor [2] (USA)   Summer Romero (USA)
2003   Beau Young [2] (AUS)   Daize Shayne[2] (USA)
2002   Colin McPhillips [3] (USA)   Kim Hamrock (USA)
2001   Colin McPhillips [2] (USA)   Cori Schumacher [2] (USA)
2000   Beau Young (AUS)   Cori Schumacher (USA)
1999   Colin McPhillips (USA)   Daize Shayne (USA)
1998   Joel Tudor (USA)
1997   Dino Miranda (HAW)
1996   Bonga Perkins (HAW)
1995   Rusty Keaulana [3] (HAW)
1994   Rusty Keaulana [2] (HAW)
1993   Rusty Keaulana (HAW)
1992   Joey Hawkins (USA)
1991   Martin McMillan (AUS)
1990   Nat Young [4] (AUS)
1989   Nat Young [3] (AUS)
1988   Nat Young [2] (AUS)
1987/88   Stuart Entwistle (AUS)
1986/87   Nat Young (AUS)

WSL World Junior championsEdit

Year WSL Men's World Junior[30] WSL Women’s World Junior[30]
Name Points Name Points
2017   Finn McGill (HAW) -   Vahine Fierro (PYF) -
2016   Ethan Ewing (AUS) -   Macy Callaghan (AUS) -
2015   Lucas Silveira (BRA) -   Isabella Nichols (AUS) -
2014   Vasco Ribeiro (POR) -   Mahina Maeda (HAW) -
2013   Gabriel Medina (BRA) -   Ella Williams (NZL) -
2012   Jack Freestone[2] (AUS) -   Nikki van Dijk (AUS) -
2011   Caio Ibelli (BRA) -   Leila Hurst (HAW) -
2010   Jack Freestone (AUS) -   Alizee Arnaud (FRA) -
2009   Maxime Huscenot (FRA) -   Laura Enever (AUS) -
2008   Kai Barger (HAW)   Pauline Ado (FRA) -
2007   Pablo Paulino[2] (BRA) -   Sally Fitzgibbons (AUS) -
2006   Jordy Smith (ZAF) -   Nicola Atherton (AUS) -
2005   Kekoa Bacalso (HAW) -   Jessi Miley-Dyer (AUS) -
2004   Pablo Paulino (BRA) - - -
2003   Adriano de Souza (BRA) - - -
2002   Cancelled (no dates available) - - -
2001   Joel Parkinson[2] (AUS) - - -
2000   Pedro Henrique (BRA) - - -
1999   Joel Parkinson (AUS) - - -
1998   Andy Irons (HAW) - - -

Multiple world championshipsEdit

[29]

Surfer Gender Championship Tour (CT)
(Men & Women)
Junior Championships (JC)
(Boys & Girls)
Longboard Championships (LC)
(Men & Women)
Masters Grandmasters Total
  Kelly Slater (USA) Male 11 - - - - 11
  Layne Beachley (AUS) Female 7 - - - - 7
  Stephanie Gilmore (AUS) Female 6 - - - - 6
  Mark Richards (AUS) Male 4 - - - 1 5
  Nat Young (AUS) Male 1 - 4 - - 5
  Lisa Andersen (USA) Female 4 - - - - 4
    Wendy Botha (RSA) (AUS) Female 4 - - - - 4
  Freida Zamba (USA) Female 4 - - - - 4
  Andy Irons (HAW) Male 3 1 - - - 4
  Margo Oberg (HAW) Female 3 - - - - 3
  Tom Curren (USA) Male 3 - - - - 3
  Mick Fanning (AUS) Male 3 - - - - 3
  Carissa Moore (HAW) Female 3 - - - - 3
  Wayne Bartholomew (AUS) Male 1 - - - 2 3
  Joel Parkinson (AUS) Male 1 2 - - - 3
  Colin McPhillips (USA) Male - - 3 - - 3
  Rusty Keaulana (HAW) Male - - 3 - - 3
  Gary Elkerton (AUS) Male - - - 3 - 3
  Lynne Boyer (HAW) Female 2 - - - - 2
  Damien Hardman (AUS) Male 2 - - - - 2
  Tom Carroll (AUS) Male 2 - - - - 2
  John John Florence (HAW) Male 2 - - - - 2
  Tyler Wright (AUS) Female 2 - - - - 2
  Adriano de Souza (BRA) Male 1 1 - - - 2
  Gabriel Medina (BRA) Male 1 1 - - - 2
  Pablo Paulino (BRA) Male - 2 - - - 2
  Jack Freestone (AUS) Male - 2 - - - 2
  Joel Tudor (USA) Male - - 2 - - 2
  Piccolo Clemente (PER) Male - - 2 - - 2
  Beau Young (AUS) Male - - 2 - - 2
  Jennifer Smith (USA) Female - - 2 - - 2
  Bonga Perkins (HAW) Male - - 2 - - 2

Qualifier for list is to hold a minimum of two world championship titles across the categories.[23]

Calculations include world championship titles outside of the WSL as discussed in Predecessors to the WSL section.

Top NationsEdit

[29]

Country Championship Tour (CT)
(Men & Women)
Junior Championships (JC)
(Boys & Girls)
Longboard Championships (LC)
(Men & Women)
Masters Grandmasters Total
  United States 50 5 31 - - 86
  Australia 44 10 12 3 3 72
  Brazil 2 7 2 - - 11
  Peru 2 - 2 - - 4
  France - 3 - - - 4
  South Africa 3 - - - - 3
  United Kingdom 1 - - - - 1
  Portugal - 1 - - - 1
  New Zealand - 1 - - - 1


WSL Big Wave Championship Tour championsEdit

WSL Big Wave Championship Tour champions

Year WSL World Longboard Tour[30] WSL Women’s World Longboard Tour[30]
Name Points Name Points
2017   Billy Kemper (HAW) 27,140   Paige Alms (HAW) 10,000
2016   Grant Baker (ZAF) 25,018   Paige Alms (HAW) 12,500
2015   Greg Long (USA) 21,266
2014   Makuakai Rothman (HAW) 20,833
2013   Grant Baker (ZAF) 2,459
2012   Greg Long (USA) 2,155
2011   Peter Mel (USA) 1,472
2010   Jamie Sterling (HAW) 2,509
2009   Carlos Burle (BRA) 2,443

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "World Surf League". www.worldsurfleague.com/. Retrieved 1 December 2016. 
  2. ^ "World Surf League, Frequently Asked Questions, What is the WSL?". Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  3. ^ a b "ASP History". ASP World Tour. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  4. ^ "What is the World Surf League?". Disrupt Surfing. Retrieved 2015-12-21. 
  5. ^ "ASP World Surfing Tour taken over by US media company Zo-Sea for 2014 season". ABC News AU. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  6. ^ a b ASP Announces World Surf League: Letter from CEO, 12 September 2014 (accessed 28 November 2014)
  7. ^ "Sophie Goldschmidt Appointed CEO of World Surf League". WSL. July 19, 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017. 
  8. ^ http://www.coastalwatch.com/surfing/21020/wsl-ceo-paul-speaker-steps-down
  9. ^ ISA President's Message. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  10. ^ Surfing And The Olympics . Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  11. ^ WSL Rulebook
  12. ^ "2015 Men's Samsung Galaxy Championship Tour". World Surf League. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  13. ^ "2015 Women's Samsung Galaxy Championship Tour". World Surf League. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  14. ^ a b c "2015 Men's Qualifying Series". World Surf League. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  15. ^ a b c "2015 Women's Qualifying Series". World Surf League. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  16. ^ "2015 Men's Longboard Tour". World Surf League. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  17. ^ "2015 Women's Longboard Tour". World Surf League. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  18. ^ "2015 Men's Junior Tour". World Surf League. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  19. ^ "2015 Women's Junior Tour". World Surf League. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  20. ^ "2015 Big Wave Tour". World Surf League. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  21. ^ WSL CT Jeep Leading Rankings . (accessed 30 August 2015)
  22. ^ ASP Returns To Jeffreys Bay (accessed 30 August 2015)
  23. ^ a b c WSL Commissioner's Address: "Performance Rules Everything" . Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  24. ^ a b "ASP Announces Changes to Qualifying Series". World Surf League. 4 November 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  25. ^ a b "2015 Men's Championship Tour Jeep Leaderboard". World Surf League. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  26. ^ "2015 Women's Championship Tour Jeep® Leaderboard". World Surf League. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k WSL Rulebook (accessed 30 April 2015)
  28. ^ "Rules and Regulations". World Surf League. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  29. ^ a b c d "History - Historic Results". World Surf League. Retrieved 23 February 2017. 
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h "ASP World Tour Champions". ASP World Tour. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  31. ^ http://surf.transworld.net/1000004912/features/encinitas-schuyler-mcferran-crowned-first-ever-asp-womens-world-longboard-champion/
  32. ^ "ISA Member Directory". International Surfing Association. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 

External linksEdit