The Association of American Physicians and Surgeons (AAPS) is a politically conservative non-profit association that promotes conspiracy theories and medical misinformation, such as HIV/AIDS denialism, the abortion-breast cancer hypothesis, vaccine and autism connections. The association was founded in 1943 to oppose a government attempt to nationalize health care. The group has included notable members, including American Republican politicians Ron Paul, Rand Paul and Tom Price.
|Type||Political advocacy group|
|Focus||Opposition to abortion, Medicare and Medicaid, universal health care, and government involvement in health care|
|Headquarters||Tucson, Arizona, United States|
|Paul Martin Kempin|
|Jane M. Orient|
During the winter of 1943, the Lake County (Indiana) Medical Committee opposed the Wagner-Murray-Dingell Bill, proposed legislation that would provide government health care for most U.S. citizens. Also opposed to the bill was the conservative National Physicians Committee. The committee began a membership drive in February 1944. By May 1944, the AAPS claimed members from all 48 states. In 1944, Time reported that the group's aim was the "defeat of any Government group medicine."
In 1966, The New York Times described AAPS as an "ultra-right-wing ... political-economic rather than a medical group", and said some of its leaders were members of the John Birch Society. On October 6, 1978, Ronald Reagan gave an address at the 35th annual meeting of AAPS in Denver, Colorado where he said "Government is not the answer. Government is the problem."
In 2002, AAPS said that its members included Ron Paul, John Cooksey and Paul Broun. Ron Paul's son, Rand Paul, was a member for over two decades until his election to the U.S. Senate. They reportedly had about 4,000 members in 2005, and 5,000 in 2014.
The executive director is Jane Orient, an internist and a member of the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine. She is also a supporter and political donor to conservative interest group Eagle Forum. She has said that government vaccine mandates are "a serious intrusion into individual liberty, autonomy and parental decisions."
AAPS is generally recognized as politically conservative or ultra-conservative, and its positions are fringe and commonly contradict with existing federal health policy. It is opposed to the Affordable Care Act and other forms of universal health insurance.
The Washington Post summarized their beliefs in February 2017 as "doctors should be autonomous in treating their patients — with far fewer government rules, medical quality standards, insurance coverage limits and legal penalties when they make mistakes". The organization requires its members to sign a "declaration of independence" pledging that they will not work with Medicare, Medicaid, or private insurance companies.
During the 2020 presidential election, the group's president, Marilyn Singleton, donated the maximum amount allowed by the Federal Election Commission to the Donald Trump 2020 presidential campaign.
AAPS opposes abortion and over-the-counter access to emergency contraception. The group claims there is a link between abortion and breast cancer. In the fall 2007 Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons, Patrick Carroll hypothesized that abortion for women who have never previously given birth to a child is a risk factor that most predicts the likelihood of breast cancer.
The AAPS opposes gun control and does not recognize handgun violence as a public health problem. Instead, the AAPS says that handguns save lives, and that gun research sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is politically motivated "junk science".
In a 1954 Senate Finance Committee hearing, then president-elect of AAPS, James L. Doenges, said that social security was un-American and part of a "socialistic scheme" to destroy liberty.
"Contrary to some thinking, social security is not a permanent part of the American way of life. It is foreign-spawned and nurtured, the parent of socialism, and one of every socialistic scheme for obtaining and keeping control of the citizenry by destroying individual liberty."
AAPS opposed the Social Security Act of 1965 which established Medicare and Medicaid, encouraging member physicians to boycott Medicare and Medicaid. They went to court to block enforcement of a Social Security amendment that would monitor the treatment given to Medicare and Medicaid patients; in November 1975 the Supreme Court let stand a lower-court decision upholding the Social Security legislation.
Opposition to health-care reformEdit
With several other groups, AAPS filed a lawsuit in 1993 against Hillary Clinton and Secretary of Health and Human Services Donna Shalala over closed-door meetings related to the 1993 Clinton health care plan. The AAPS sued to gain access to the list of members of President Bill Clinton's health care task force. Judge Royce C. Lamberth initially found in favor of the plaintiffs and awarded $285,864 to the AAPS for legal costs; Lamberth also harshly criticized the Clinton administration and Clinton aide Ira Magaziner in his ruling. Subsequently, a federal appeals court overturned the award and the initial findings on the basis that Magaziner and the administration had not acted in bad faith.
The AAPS was involved in litigation in 2001 against the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), arguing that it violated the Fourth Amendment by allowing government access to certain medical data without a warrant. (Title II of HIPAA, known as the Administrative Simplification (AS) provisions, requires the establishment of national standards for electronic health care transactions and national identifiers for providers, health insurance plans, and employers, and is intended to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the US's health care system by encouraging the widespread use of electronic data interchange in the health care system.)
The AAPS campaigned against President Barack Obama's Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare). An AAPS lawsuit opposing the act, and seeking to invalidate it, was dismissed in March 2014 for lack of standing and failure to state a valid cause of action. Andrew Schlafly, a Christian conservative activist, was general counsel to the AAPS, and the lead counsel in the effort to bring the lawsuit before the United States Supreme Court.
Scope of practiceEdit
The group is opposed to increasing access to healthcare through expanded scope of practice. In 2020, AAPS worked with the California Medical Association to oppose California Assembly Bill 890, which aimed to increase the number of primary care providers in the state. The bill was proposed by Jim Wood, a Democratic member of the California State Assembly.
In March 2021, the group supported Physicians for Patient Protection and the Texas Medical Association in their opposition to Texas House Bill 2029, which was written to address the medical workforce shortage and improve public access to healthcare. The bill was proposed by Stephanie Klick, a Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives.
In 2007, AAPS assisted in the appeal against the conviction of Virginia internist William Hurwitz, who was sentenced to 25 years in federal prison for prescribing excessive quantities of narcotic drugs after 16 former patients testified against him. Hurwitz was granted a retrial in 2006, and his 25-year prison sentence was reduced to 4 years and 9 months.
In July 2019, AAPS co-signed a letter to the Surgeon General of the United States Jerome Adams with the anti-LGBT group American College of Pediatricians, the Catholic Medical Association, and the pro conversion therapy group the Alliance for Therapeutic Choice and Scientific Integrity. The letter asked Adams to not support affirming care for gender dysphoric children. The letter claimed that health professionals who don't provide care for gender dysphoria were at risk of discrimination.
Barack Obama hypnosisEdit
Leading up to the 2008 presidential election, AAPS published an article claiming that then-candidate Barack Obama was captivating his audiences through hypnosis. The article was based on an unsigned 67-page paper anonymously published online in Arizona. Obama's speeches were analyzed for neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) techniques, based on the work of 20th century American psychologist Milton Erickson, including "extra slow speech, rhythm, tonalities, vagueness, visual imagery, metaphor, and raising of emotion", as well as the use of the "O" in Obama's logo as a "point of visual fixation".
Barack Obama as "witch doctor"Edit
In September 2009, St. Petersburg neurosurgeon and future president of the Florida AAPS David McKalip received significant public criticism for emailing a falsified photo showing President Barack Obama as a witch doctor with an exotic headdress, loin cloth, and bones in his nose. He was criticized by several liberal publications like the Talking Points Memo and Daily Kos.
COVID-19 and hydroxychloroquineEdit
Hydroxychloroquine was an early failed experimental treatment for COVID-19. It is not effective for preventing infection. Several countries initially used chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine for treatment of persons hospitalized with COVID‑19, and from April to June 2020, there was an emergency use authorization (EUA) for its use in the United States, and was used off label for potential treatment of the disease. On 24 April 2020, citing the risk of "serious heart rhythm problems", the FDA posted a caution against using the drug for COVID‑19 "outside of the hospital setting or a clinical trial".
In June, hydroxychloroquine proved to have no benefit for hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 illness in the international Solidarity trial and UK RECOVERY Trial. On 15 June, the FDA revoked a previously-granted EUA, stating that it was "no longer reasonable to believe" that the drug was effective against COVID-19 or that its benefits outweighed "known and potential risks".
In the same month, AAPS filed a lawsuit against the Food and Drug Administration to "end its arbitrary interference with the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ)." The group's position was used to justify President Donald Trump taking HCQ as protection against COVID-19 by his campaign manager Brad Parscale. Several AAPS members and supporters went on the record advocating for HCQ as an effective treatment against COVID-19, led by Ukrainian-American physician Vladimir Zelenko with a three-drug regimen of off-label hydroxychloroquine, zinc, and Azithromycin as part of an experimental outpatient treatment for COVID-19 that became known as the Zelenko Protocol. Early in the pandemic, the experimental treatment had received broad recognition from Sean Hannity, Rudy Giuliani, and Mark Meadows, elevating Zelenko to minor celebrity status in conservative political circles. Other prominent AAPS-affiliated advocates include Simone Gold of America's Frontline Doctors, Niran Al-Agba of Physicians for Patient Protection, and former AAPS president Marilyn Singleton.
Electronic medical recordsEdit
AAPS has claimed that computers and the digitization of medical records provides an opportunity for the government to acquire massive amounts of private data on American citizens. The group's executive director, Jane Orient, submitted their official statement to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics on December 8, 1998. The statement said the benefits of computerized patient records were "based on assumptions that are implausible" and would "violate constitutional rights." AAPS compared electronic medical records to the data surveillance methods of the East German Stasi.
Immigration and leprosyEdit
In a 2005 article, Madeleine Cosman argued that illegal immigrants were carriers of disease, and that immigrants and "anchor babies" were launching a "stealthy assault on [American] medicine." In the article, Cosman claimed that "Suddenly, in the past 3 years America has more than 7,000 cases of leprosy" because of illegal aliens. The journal's leprosy claim was cited and repeated by Lou Dobbs as evidence of the dangers of illegal immigration.
Publicly available statistics show that the 7,000 cases of leprosy occurred during the past 30 years, not the past three as Cosman claimed. James Krahenbuhl, director of the U.S. government's leprosy program, stated that there had been no significant increase in leprosy cases, and that "It [leprosy] is not a public health problem—that's the bottom line." National Public Radio reported that the article "had footnotes that did not readily support allegations linking a recent rise in leprosy rates to illegal immigrants." The article's erroneous leprosy claim was pointed out by 60 Minutes, National Public Radio, and The New York Times. As of 2020, the article remained on the journal's website without having been corrected.
Rush Limbaugh drug chargesEdit
In 2004, AAPS filed a brief on behalf of conservative talk show host Rush Limbaugh in Florida's Fourth District Court of Appeal, opposing the seizure of his medical files in an investigation of drug charges for Limbaugh's alleged misuse of prescription drugs. The AAPS stated the seizure was a violation of state law and that "It is not a crime for a patient to be in pain and repeatedly seek relief, and doctors should not be turned against patients they tried to help."
Philip Morris executives worked with AAPS executive director Jane Orient to help oppose growing support for indoor smoking bans in the early 2000s. In the fall of 2009, economist Michael Marlow published an article in AAPS' journal arguing that tobacco tax would decrease public health when people "switch to higher tar and nicotine brands as they smoke less."
Journal of American Physicians and SurgeonsEdit
Association of American Physicians and Surgeon
|ISO 4||J. Am. Physicians Surg.|
The association's Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons (JP&S) was previously named the Medical Sentinel from 1996 to 2003. It is not listed in academic literature databases such as MEDLINE, PubMed, or the Web of Science. The quality and scientific validity of articles published in the journal have been criticized by medical experts, and some of the viewpoints advocated by AAPS are rejected by other scientists and medical groups. The U.S. National Library of Medicine declined repeated requests from AAPS to index the journal, citing unspecified concerns.
As of September 2016, JP&S was listed on Beall's List of potential or probable predatory open-access journals. Quackwatch lists JP&S as an untrustworthy, non-recommended periodical. An editorial in Chemical & Engineering News described the journal as a "purveyor of utter nonsense." Investigative journalist Brian Deer wrote that the journal is the "house magazine of a right-wing American fringe group [AAPS]" and "is barely credible as an independent forum." Writing in The Guardian, science columnist Ben Goldacre described the journal as the "in-house magazine of a rightwing US pressure group well known for polemics on homosexuality, abortion and vaccines."
Publishing of scientifically discredited claimsEdit
Articles and commentaries published in the journal have argued a number of scientifically discredited claims, including:
- That human activity has not contributed to climate change, and that global warming will be beneficial and thus is not a cause for concern.
- That HIV does not cause AIDS.
- That there is a link between abortion and the risk of breast cancer.
- That there are possible links between autism and vaccinations.
- That government efforts to encourage smoking cessation and emphasize the addictive nature of nicotine are misguided.
A series of articles by anti-abortion authors published in the journal argued for a link between abortion and breast cancer. Such a link has been rejected by the scientific community, including the U.S. National Cancer Institute, the American Cancer Society, and the World Health Organization, among other major medical bodies.
A 2003 paper published in the journal, claiming that vaccination was harmful, was criticized for poor methodology, lack of scientific rigor, and outright errors, according to the World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics. A National Public Radio piece mentioned inaccurate information published in the journal and said: "The journal itself is not considered a leading publication, as it's put out by an advocacy group that opposes most government involvement in medical care."
The journal has also published articles advocating politically and socially conservative policy positions, including:
- That the Food and Drug Administration and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services are unconstitutional;
- That "humanists" have conspired to replace the "creation religion of Jehovah" with evolution;
- That "anchor babies" are valuable to undocumented immigrants, particularly if the babies are disabled.
The organization published on its website an article claiming that Obama hypnotized audiences with his speeches (see above).
This section needs additional citations for verification. (December 2021)
- Paul Broun, physician and member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Georgia
- Madeline Cosman, medical lawyer and faculty member of City College of New York
- John Cooksey, member of the U.S. House of Representatives
- Paul Driessen, attorney, author, and climate change denier
- Simone Gold, physician, attorney, activist and founder of America's Frontline Doctors
- William Hurwitz, physician convicted by U.S. government for prescribing opioids
- Stella Immanuel, Cameroonian-American physician and pastor
- Peter A. McCullough, former cardiologist at Baylor University Medical Center and advocate for COVID-19 hydroxychloroquine off-label medication
- Joseph Mercola, American alternative medicine proponent and purveyor of anti-vaccination misinformation
- Rand Paul, United States Senator
- Ron Paul, member of the U.S. House of Representatives
- Art Robinson, biochemist and member of Oregon State Senate
- Tom Price, Secretary of Health and Human Services under Donald Trump
- Andrew Schlafly, American lawyer and Christian conservative activist
- Vladimir Zelenko, Ukrainian-American physician
- Khazan, Olga (February 25, 2020). "The Opposite of Socialized Medicine". The Atlantic. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
- "2019 Form 990 for Association of American Physicians and Surgeons (AAPS)". Cause IQ. February 22, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
- Mencimer, Stephanie (January 24, 2017). "Donald Trump's health secretary pick has long belonged to a fringe group that defends bad doctors". Mother Jones. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
- "Portent". Time. May 8, 1944. Archived from the original on August 26, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
- "New Power in A.M.A.; Milford Owen Rouse". The New York Times. June 30, 1966. Retrieved March 16, 2007.
- "Ronald Reagan Address To AAPS Annual Meeting". Scribd. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
- Jeremy Peters; Barry Meier (February 5, 2015). "Rand Paul Is Linked to Doctors' Group That Supports Vaccination Challenges". The New York Times.
- Pinsker, Beth (August 20, 2014). "'I don't take insurance' not always a doctor deal breaker". Reuters. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
- Pinsker, Beth (August 20, 2014). "What It Really Means When Your Doctor Says He Doesn't Take Insurance". Money.com. Archived from the original on August 11, 2020. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
- Chu, Jeff (August 7, 2005). "Doctors Who Hurt Doctors". Time. Archived from the original on February 16, 2007. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
- Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (December 7, 2020). "Anti-Vaccine Doctor Has Been Invited to Testify Before Senate Committee". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
- Hall, Mimi (July 22, 2002). "Many states reject bioterrorism law". USA Today. Retrieved August 22, 2008.
- Goldstein, Amy (February 9, 2017). "Tom Price belongs to a doctors group with unorthodox views on government and health care". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
- Mencimer, Stephanie (November 18, 2009). "The Tea Party's Favorite Doctors". Mother Jones. Archived from the original on November 21, 2009. Retrieved November 19, 2009.
- A 501tax-exempt, OpenSecrets; NW, charitable organization 1300 L. St; Washington, Suite 200; info, DC 20005 telelphone857-0044. "OpenSecrets". OpenSecrets. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
- A 501tax-exempt, OpenSecrets; NW, charitable organization 1300 L. St; Washington, Suite 200; info, DC 20005 telelphone857-0044. "Association of American Physicians & Surgeons PAC Profile". OpenSecrets. Retrieved June 8, 2021.
- Mencimer, Stephanie. "The Tea Party's Favorite Doctors". Mother Jones. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
- Simons, Margaret (February 21, 2021). "Melbourne doctors under review for promoting discredited Covid treatment". The Guardian. Australia.
- "News of the Day #471 - New study supports abortion/breast cancer link". www.aapsonline.org. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
- Carroll, Patrick. "The Breast Cancer Epidemic: Modeling and Forecasts Based on Abortion and Other Risk Factors" (PDF).
- Carter, Gregg Lee (2002). Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781576072684.
- "Research Fails to Support Gun Control Agenda, According to Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons" (Press release). September 2013. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved October 21, 2010.
- "Doctors to Ask Patients About Gun Ownership". Journal of the American Physicians and Surgeons. Retrieved December 30, 2018.
- "Public Health and Gun Control --- A Review (Part I: The Benefits of Firearms)". Journal of the American Physicians and Surgeons. Retrieved December 30, 2018.
- "Doctor Calls Social Security 'Socialistic Scheme'". The Washington Post and Times-Herald. July 7, 1954.
- "Medicare Boycott Urged for Doctors". The New York Times. August 5, 1965. Retrieved March 16, 2007.
- "Review for Doctors". Time. December 1, 1975. Archived from the original on August 26, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
- Pear, Robert (December 19, 1997). "Judge Rules Government Covered Up Lies on Panel". The New York Times. Retrieved January 3, 2008.
- Lewis, Neil (August 25, 1999). "Court Clears Clinton Aide In Lying Case". The New York Times. Retrieved January 3, 2008.
- Peters, Sally (November 1, 2001). "Physicians Sue to Block HIPAA Privacy Rule. (Texas OB.GYN. A Coplaintiff)". OB GYN News.
- "FindLaw's United States DC Circuit case and opinions". Findlaw. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
- "District Of Columbia Appeals Panel Affirms Dismissal Of ACA Suit - ACA and Healthcare Reform Blog - ACA and Healthcare Reform - LexisNexis® Legal Newsroom". LexisNexis. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
- "ALERT: Tell Gov. Newsom to VETO AB 890". AAPS | Association of American Physicians and Surgeons. September 3, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
- Bollag, Sophia (September 29, 2020). "New California law aims for more medical providers by giving nurse practitioners more authority".
- Zamarripa, Fabriana. "Nurse Practitioners are vital to healthcare". Napa Valley Register. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
- "Bill Text - AB-890 Nurse practitioners: scope of practice: practice without standardized procedures". leginfo.legislature.ca.gov. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
- "Texas House holds first discussion on Klick's bill to eliminate APRN restrictions". State of Reform. March 25, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
- "Texas HB2029 | 2021-2022 | 87th Legislature". LegiScan. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
- Admin, P. P. P. (January 15, 2020). "Does Science Support NP Independence?". Physicians for Patient Protection. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
- "'A staggering disappointment': 16 Texas nursing groups react to budget cuts, failed bills in 87th legislative session". KXAN Austin. June 11, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
- Roosevelt, Margot (July 18, 2005). "Why Is The DEA Hounding This Doctor?". Time. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
- Markon, Jerry (July 14, 2007). "Va. Pain Doctor's Prison Term Is Cut to 57 Months". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
- "American College of Pediatricians". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
- "Joint Letter to the Surgeon General" (PDF).
- "Paul medical group: HIV doesn't cause AIDS, abortion increases breast cancer risk | Kentucky Politics". October 3, 2010. Archived from the original on October 3, 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
- Gilson, Dave. "Conspiracy Watch: Obama, Hypnotist in Chief". Mother Jones. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
- Anonymous. "An Examination of Obama's Use of Hidden Hypnosis Techniques in His Speeches". www.FreedomsPhoenix.com. Archived from the original on November 2, 2008.
- "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: Daily Roundup March 30, 2020". FDA. March 30, 2020.
- Company, Tampa Publishing. "Doctor Chastised Over Obama Image". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
- "Conservative Activist Forwards Racist Pic Showing Obama As Witch Doctor". Talking Points Memo. July 23, 2009. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
- Smit M, Marinosci A, Agoritsas T, Calmy A (April 2021). "Prophylaxis for COVID-19: a systematic review". Clinical Microbiology and Infection (Systematic review). 27 (4): 532–537. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2021.01.013. PMC 7813508. PMID 33476807.
- Meyerowitz EA, Vannier AG, Friesen MG, Schoenfeld S, Gelfand JA, Callahan MV, et al. (May 2020). "Rethinking the role of hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19". FASEB Journal. 34 (5): 6027–6037. doi:10.1096/fj.202000919. PMC 7267640. PMID 32350928.
- "Assessment of Evidence for COVID-19-Related Treatments: Updated 4/3/2020". American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- Yazdany J, Kim AH (June 2020). "Use of Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine During the COVID-19 Pandemic: What Every Clinician Should Know". Annals of Internal Medicine. 172 (11): 754–755. doi:10.7326/M20-1334. PMC 7138336. PMID 32232419.
- "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. February 11, 2020. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- Kalil AC (May 2020). "Treating COVID-19-Off-Label Drug Use, Compassionate Use, and Randomized Clinical Trials During Pandemics". JAMA. 323 (19): 1897–1898. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4742. PMID 32208486.
- "FDA cautions against use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for COVID-19 outside of the hospital setting or a clinical trial due to risk of heart rhythm problems". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). April 24, 2020.
- Mulier T (June 17, 2020). "Hydroxychloroquine halted in WHO-sponsored COVID-19 trials". Bloomberg. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
- "No clinical benefit from use of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalised patients with COVID-19". Recovery Trial, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, UK. June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
- "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Revokes Emergency Use Authorization for Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
- "Frequently Asked Questions on the Revocation of the Emergency Use Authorization for Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate and Chloroquine Phosphate" (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
- "AAPS Sues the FDA to End Its Arbitrary Restrictions on Hydroxychloroquine". AAPS | Association of American Physicians and Surgeons. December 17, 2020. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
- Erman, Allison Martell, Michael (June 5, 2020). "U.S. doctors group sues FDA for limiting access to drug touted by Trump for COVID-19". Reuters. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
- "The US doctors taking Trump's lead on hydroxychloroquine – despite mixed results". The Guardian. May 24, 2020. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
- "COVID-19 Outpatients - Early Risk-Stratified Treatment with Zinc plus Low-Dose Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin: A Retrospective Case Series Study". BioSpace. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
- Roose, Kevin; Rosenberg, Matthew (April 2, 2020). "Touting Virus Cure, 'Simple Country Doctor' Becomes a Right-Wing Star". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
- "EXCLUSIVE: Dr. Simone Gold discusses benefits of Hydroxychloroquine after video promoting drug was censored -". McKinnon Broadcasting. August 1, 2020. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
- "Malaria drug prescriptions surge after Trump praised chloroquine as coronavirus cure". The Independent. April 26, 2020. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
- "Computer-Based Patient Records". www.aapsonline.org. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
- Madeleine Cosman. (Spring 2005). "Illegal Aliens and American Medicine". Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons. 10 (1): 6–10.
- David Folkenflik (May 11, 2007). "Broken Borders? CBS Lambastes, Hires Dobbs". All Things Considered. National Public Radio. Retrieved August 29, 2008.
- David Leonhardt (May 30, 2007). "Truth, Fiction, and Lou Dobbs". The New York Times. Retrieved August 29, 2008.
- "New U.S. Reported Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Cases by Year, 1979–2009", from the U.S. National Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Program. Retrieved June 16, 2014
- "Lou Dobbs' Opinion". 60 Minutes. (May 17, 2007). Retrieved August 29, 2008.
- Oreskes, Naomi; Conway, Erik M. (2010). Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming. Bloomsbury. p. 245.
- Marlow, Michael (Fall 2009). "Anatomy of Public Health Research: Tobacco Control as a Case Study" (PDF). Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons.
- Meier, Barry (January 18, 2011). "Vocal Physicians Group Renews Health Law Fight". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
- Lapowsky, Issie (September 23, 2016). "The Rogue Doctors Spreading Right-Wing Conspiracy Theories about Clinton's Health". Wired. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
- Barrett, S. "Nonrecommended Periodicals". Quackwatch. Archived from the original on March 28, 2007. Retrieved February 12, 2007.
- Baum, Rudy (June 2008). "Defending Science". Chemical & Engineering News. 86 (23): 5. doi:10.1021/cen-v086n023.p005.
- "Bitter Heather Mills defends credibility as Wakefield anti-MMR campaign crumbles". Brian Deer. Archived from the original on February 4, 2007. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
- Goldacre, Ben (November 1, 2005). "The MMR sceptic who just doesn't understand science". The Guardian.
- Arthur B. Robinson, Noah E. Robinson, and Willie Soon. (2007). "Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide". The Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons. 12 (3), 79.
- Lindzen, Richard S. (2013). "Science in the Public Square: Global Climate Alarmism and Historical Precedents" (PDF). Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons. 18 (3): 70–73.
- Henry Bauer (2007). "Questioning HIV/AIDS: Morally Reprehensible or Scientifically Warranted?". Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons. 12 (4): 116.
- Gerth, Joe (September 25, 2010). "From the archives: Paul in group with offbeat views". USA Today. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
- Malec, Karen (2003). "The Abortion-Breast Cancer Link: How Politics Trumped Science and Informed Consent" (PDF). Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons. 8 (2): 41–45.
- Brind, Joel (2005). "Induced Abortion as an Independent Risk Factor for Breast Cancer: A Critical Review of Recent Studies Based on Prospective Data" (PDF). Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons. 10 (4): 105–110.
- "Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk". National Cancer Institute. Archived from the original on March 9, 2007. Retrieved March 11, 2007.
- "Can Having an Abortion Cause or Contribute to Breast Cancer?". American Cancer Society. Archived from the original on March 25, 2008. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
- "WHO – Induced abortion does not increase breast cancer risk". who.int. Archived from the original on January 13, 2011. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- Jasen, P. (2005). "Breast cancer and the politics of abortion in the United States". Medical History. 49 (4): 423–44. doi:10.1017/S0025727300009145. PMC 1251638. PMID 16562329.
- "Position of the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety regarding concerns raised by paper about the safety of thiomersal-containing vaccines". WHO. Archived from the original on October 17, 2007. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
- "Study Fails to Show a Connection Between Thimerosal and Autism". American Academy of Pediatrics. May 16, 2003. Archived from the original on April 20, 2008. Retrieved October 27, 2008.
- James A. Albright (2000). "The FDA and HCFA (Part II): Unconstitutional Regulatory Agencies" Archived April 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Medical Sentinel. 5 (6): 205–208.
- Curtis W. Caine (1999). "Conspiracy --- Part III". Medical Sentinel 4 (6): 224.
- "'Junk Science' and Roundup Verdicts Examined in the Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons". AAPS | Association of American Physicians and Surgeons. September 22, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
- "A Guide to Home-Based COVID Treatment" (PDF). Association of American Physicians and Surgeons.
- "COVID-19: No Right to Try Treatment?". Association of American Physicians and Surgeons. November 23, 2020. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
- Holmes, Jack (July 8, 2021). "Fox News Is Moving From 'Just Asking Questions' to Full-On Anti-Vax Crapola". Esquire.
- Peters, Jeremy W.; Meier, Barry (February 4, 2015). "Rand Paul Is Linked to Doctors' Group That Supports Vaccination Challenges". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
- Gerth, Joseph. "From the archives: Paul in group with offbeat views". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
- Official website
- Association of American Physicians and Surgeons PAC Profile - OpenSecrets.org