Assamese cinema, also known as Jollywood cinemas, is cinema in the Assamese language, watched primarily in Assam, India. The industry was born in 1935 when Jyoti Prasad Agarwala released his movie Joymoti. Since then Assamese cinema has developed a slow-paced, sensitive style, especially with the movies of Bhabendra Nath Saikia and Jahnu Barua. The industry is called Jollywood, named for Agarwala and his Jyoti Chitraban Film Studio.
|Cinema of Assam|
|No. of screens||Approx. 82 in the state of Assam|
Dolphin Films Pvt. Ltd
|Produced feature films (2017)|
|Total||16 in the year 2017|
|Gross box office (2017)|
|Total||₹10 crore (US$1.4 million)|
Despite its long history and its artistic successes, for a state that has always taken its cinema seriously, Assamese cinema has never really managed to break through on the national scene despite its film industry making a mark in the National Awards over the years. Although the beginning of the 21st century has seen Bollywood-style Assamese movies hitting the screen, the industry has not been able to compete in the market, significantly overshadowed by the larger industries such as Bollywood.
The origins of Assamese cinema can be traced back to Rupkonwar Jyotiprasad Agarwala, who was also a noted poet, playwright, composer and freedom fighter. He was instrumental in the production of the first Assamese Film Joymati in 1935, under the banner of Chitralekha Movietone. Due to the lack of trained technicians, Jyotiprasad, while making his maiden film, shouldered the added responsibilities as the scriptwriter, producer, director, choreographer, editor, set and costume designer, lyricist, and music director. The film, completed with a budget of 60,000 rupees was released on 10 March 1935. The picture failed. Like so many early Indian films, the negatives and complete prints of Joymati are missing. Some effort has been made privately by Altaf Mazid to restore and subtitle whatever is left of the prints. Despite the significant financial loss from Joymati, the second picture Indramalati was filmed between 1937 and 1938 finally released in 1939. Pramathesh Barua released his Assamese version of Devdas (1937 film) in 1937. It was the last of the 3 language version following Bengali and Hindi.
Agarwala made another film after a lapse of two years titled Indramalati. It was his second and last film. The eminent composer and singer of Assam Bhupen Hazarika, played a prominent role in the play. With the passing away of Jyotiprasad, the Assamese film scene witnessed a temporary lull for about a couple of years. But things changed with the onset of World War II, Taking advantage of this, Rohini Kr. Baruah made a film on a relevant historical topic called Manomati in 1941. It was followed by films like Parvati Prasad Baruwa's Rupahi (1946), Kamal Narayan Choudhury's Badan Barphukan (1947), Phani Sharma's Siraj, Asit Sen's Biplabi, Prabin Phukan's Parghat and Suresh Goswami's Runumi.
In the 1950s, Piyali Phukan went on to win a National award. The movie was produced by Gama Prasad Agarwalla under the aegis of Rup Jyoti Productions. The film was directed by Phani Sharma and the music was composed by Bhupen Hazarika. The film was about the life of the freedom fighter Piyali Phukan, who stood against the British Rule. He was executed by the British on charges of treason. This film technically was advanced for that time.[clarification needed] In 1955, a new talent Nip Barua made his directorial debut with Smrit Paras. His subsequent films Mak Aaru Moram and Ranga Police won many state awards and the silver medal at the national level. Bhupen Hazarika also produced and directed his first film Era Bator Sur. Prabhat Mukherjee made a film on the universality of motherhood, Puberun (1959), which was shown in the Berlin Film Festival.
The next notable film production was Lachit Borphukan by Sarbeswar Chakraborty. Bhupen Hazarika made his musical Shakuntala in 1961, which proved equally successful with critics and the press, winning the president's silver medal. Following this, a chain of films went into regular production and got released, including Nip Barua's Narakasur, Anil Choudhury's Matri Swarga, Brojen Barua's Itu Situ Bahuto and Mukta and Anwar Hussain's Tejimala.
By the middle of the sixties, film began to be produced in Assam on a regular basis. However, between 1935 and 1970 a total of 62 films were produced. Besides the film makers already referred to, many others engaged in film making during the period included Pravin Sharma, Saila Barua, Amar Pathak, Indukalpa Hazarika, Brajen Barua, Dibon Barua, Debkumar Basu, Amulya Manna, Gauri Barman, Atul Bardoloi, Sujit Singha, Nalin Duara and Prafulla Barua.
During the period of 1970-82 a total of 57 Assamese films were made. New directors started emerging. Samarendra Narayan Dev's Aranya (1970), Kamal Choudhury's Bhaity (1972, the first colour film of Assam), Manoranjan Sur's Uttaran (1973), Prabin Bora's Parinam (1974), Deuti Barua's Bristi (1974), Pulok Gogoi's Khoj (1974), Padum Barua's Gonga Silonir Pakhi (1976), Bhabendranath Saikia's Sandhya Raag (1977) and Atul Bordoloi's Kollol (1978) are films worth mentioning.
Notable directors of contemporary Assamese cinema are Jahnu Barua (who directed Aparoopa, Papori, Halodhia Choraye Baodhan Khai, Bonani, Firingoti and Xagoroloi Bohu Door); Sanjeev Hazarika (Haladhar, Meemanxa) and Bhabendra Nath Saikia who directed Sandhya Raag, Anirbaan, Agnisnaan, Sarothi, Kolahol, Abartan, Itihaas and Kaal Sandhya). Other directors include Santwana Bordoloi who directed Adajya, Bidyut Chakraborty who made Rag Birag, both of which have won national and international awards, and Manju Borah with her multiple award-winning films such as Baibhab, Akashitarar Kathare, and Laaz.
Halodhia Choraye Baodhan Khai became the first Assamese film to win the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in 1988 and also won multiple awards at the Locarno International Film Festival in 1988.
The 2010s saw the release of two Assamese blockbusters - Raamdhenu and Mission China, each collecting over ₹1 crore in the box office. Tumi Aahibane and Priyaar Priyo became the third and fourth film respectively to cross the one crore mark while Doordarshan Eti Jantra have almost reached the one crore mark.
The 2010s also saw the loss of many prominent personalities like director Munin Baruah, actor Biju Phukan, musician Bhupen Hazarika, who have played an important role in shaping Assamese cinema.
In 2018, Village Rockstars won the Best Feature Film ‘Swarna Kamal’ award at the 65th National Film Awards in Delhi, hence becoming the second Assamese film after Halodhia Choraye Baodhan Khai to win this award. The film also won awards in the categories of Best Child Artist, Best Audiography and Best Editing. The film is also selected for India's official entry to 91st Academy Awards making it the first film from Assam to do this.
On 28 July 2018, another Assamese film Xhoixobote Dhemalite received three awards for Best Film, Best Actress and Best Music in 3rd Love International Film Festival in Los Angeles, US. The film also got 8 nominations. It also became the first Assamese film to release in the US.
All time highest grossing Assamese filmsEdit
- Background color indicates the now running on theaters. This list also include some old films with their box office collection inflation adjusted
|1||Mission China||2017||I Creation Production||₹6 crore (US$870,000)|||
|2||Raamdhenu||2011||Pride East Entertainment||₹2.04 crore (US$300,000)|
|3||Tumi Aahibane||2017||Prerana Creations||₹1.94 crore (US$280,000)|||
|4||Priyaar Priyo||2017||Azaan Films||₹1.80 crore (US$260,000)|||
|-||Joymoti||1935||Chitralekha Movietone||₹1.48 crore (US$210,000) (Estimated and inflation adjusted)|
|5||Hiya Diya Niya||2000||Pooja Motion Pictures||₹1 crore (US$140,000) (Inflation adjusted)|
|6||Doordarshan Eti Jantra||2016||AM Television||₹90 lakh (US$130,000)|
|7||Village Rockstars||2018||₹80 lakh (US$120,000)|
|8||Bahniman||2016||Santoshi Maa Production||₹65 lakh (US$94,000)|
|9||Nayak||2001||Pooja Motion Pictures||₹57 lakh (US$82,000) (Inflation adjusted)|
|10||Kanyadaan||2002||₹55 lakh (US$80,000) (Inflation adjusted)|
|11||Ruff & Tuff||2017||Norman Studio Works||₹45 lakh (US$65,000)|
|12||Jeevan Baator Logori||2009||Hills Motion Picture Association||₹41 lakh (US$59,000)|
Assam State Film AwardsEdit
Assam State Film Award is an award ceremony for Assamese Films in Guwahati
Prag Cine AwardsEdit
Prag Cine Awards are presented annually by Prag News. The aim of the award is to give support, recognition and inspiration to the Assamese film industry and honour some of the eminent film personalities who have contributed to the cause of Assamese cinema. The award was first instituted in the year 2003. Starting from 2015, films produced in other Northeastern states were also honored in this ceremony.
Brahmaputra Valley Film FestivalEdit
Brahmaputra Valley Film Festival is a homage to the rich culture of Northeast India. The festival is dedicated to the film fraternity of the Northeast region of India, especially Assam. It is an initiative for new filmmakers to come together and rediscover various aspects of film making. The film festival is in Guwahati, Assam, India annually since 2013. It is an initiative of Tattva Creations.
National Film AwardEdit
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- "'Village Rockstars' is India's official entry to Oscars 2019". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 22 September 2018. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 25 September 2018.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Assamese film wins 3 top awards at US fest - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
- "Assamese film 'Xhoixobote Dhemalite' gets 8 nominations at US film festival". The Economic Times. 17 April 2018. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
- "In a first, Assamese film 'Rainbow Fields' to get US release - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
- "US debut for Assam film". The Telegraph. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
- "Mission China 1st 2nd 3rd day collection". Desigyan.in. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
- "Priyaar Priyo Assamese movie". moviesfyi. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
- "Nominations of Prag Cine Award 2014". Archived from the original on 15 November 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cinema of Assam.|
- Assamese film at the Internet Movie Database
- Tracing the history of Assamese Cinema at Indian Auteur
- History of Assamese Cinema from rupaliparda.com