'Asir Province

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ʿAsir (Arabic: عَسِيْر, romanizedʿAsīr) is a province (Arabic: مِنْطَقَةُ, romanizedminṭaqah) in the southwest of Saudi Arabia, which is named after the ʿAsīr tribe. It has an area of 76,693 square kilometres (29,611 sq mi), and an estimated population of 2,024,285 (in 2022).[1] 'Asir is surrounded by Mecca Province to the north and west, Al-Bahah Province to the northwest, Riyadh Province to the northeast, Najran Province to the southeast, and Jazan Province and the Yemeni Muhafazah (Governorate) of Sa'dah to the south.

Minṭaqat ʿAsīr (مِنْطَقَةُ عَسِيْرٌ)
ʿAsir Province
Jabal Atherb of the Asir Mountains near Ḥawālah in Bareq, 2013
Jabal Atherb of the Asir Mountains near Ḥawālah in Bareq, 2013
Map of Saudi Arabia with 'Asīr highlighted
Map of Saudi Arabia with 'Asīr highlighted
Coordinates: 19°0′N 43°0′E / 19.000°N 43.000°E / 19.000; 43.000
Country Saudi Arabia
 • GovernorTurki bin Talal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
 • Total76,693 km2 (29,611 sq mi)
 (2022 census)
 • Total2,024,285
ISO 3166-2

Abha is the provincial capital, and other towns include Khamis Mushait, Bisha and Bareq. The regional governor is Turki ibn Talal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud. He replaced his cousin, Faisal bin Khalid bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, after being appointed on 27 December 2018.[2]

Geography edit

Habalah Valley near Abha City

The ʿAsir Region is situated on a high plateau that receives more rainfall than the rest of the country and contains the country's highest peaks, which rise to almost 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) at Jabal Sawda near Abha. Though data is exceedingly sparse and unreliable, the average annual rainfall in the highlands probably ranges from 300–500 millimetres (12–20 in). It falls in two rainy seasons, the chief one being in March and April, with some rain in the summer. Temperatures are very extreme, with diurnal temperature ranges in the highlands the greatest in the world. It is common[clarification needed] for afternoon temperatures to be over 30 °C (86 °F), yet mornings can be extremely frosty and fog can cut visibility to near zero percent. As a result, there is much more natural vegetation in ʿAsir than in any other part of Saudi Arabia, with sheltered areas even containing areas of dense coniferous forests, though more exposed ridges still are very dry. ʿAsir is home to many farmers who chiefly grow wheat and fruit crops. Irrigation has greatly expanded production in modern times. Asir National Park was established in 1981, and extends from the Red Sea coast through the western foothills to the Asir escarpment.[citation needed]

Demographics edit

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.

Governorates edit

The regional capital of Abha

The region is divided into sixteen governorates (with the populations of the Census of 2010):[4]

History edit

In 25 B.C., Aelius Gallus marched his legions south from Egypt on an expedition of 1,300 miles (2,100 kilometres), to take control of the ancient overland trade routes between the Mediterranean Sea and what is now Hadhramaut in Yemen. The Romans wanted control of those routes because they were desperate for money and hoped to raise some by capturing Ma'rib, capital of Sabaʾ, and taking control of the trade in incense – then a priceless commodity – and other valuable aromatics. As it turned out, however, the expedition was a disaster and little information about ʿAsir emerged.

By 1920, however, Ibn Saud, the founder of the modern Saudi state, had begun to recoup the losses of the House of Saud, and to unify most of the peninsula under his rule. As part of this campaign, he sent his Bedouin warriors also known as the Ikhwan to occupy ʿAsir, and the ruler of the region, Hasan Al Idrissi, had to leave.[5] Therefore, he asked for protection from Imam Yahya, the ruler of Yemen and went there.[5] From then on ʿAsir has been controlled by the House of Saud, a situation formalized in 1934 with the signing of the Treaty of Taʾif between Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Even then the region was still largely unknown to the West. In 1932, St John Philby, one of the first Europeans to explore and map the peninsula, did enter ʿAsir, but as he did not publish his observations until 1952, the area remained one of the blank spots on the world's map.[citation needed] In 1935 ʿAsir was made a separate governorate.[6]

Economy edit

Historically, ʿAsir was known for producing coffee, wheat, alfalfa, barley, senna, and frankincense.[7][8][9] Wheat was grown in the summer and sesame has been grown in wetter areas of the region.[8][10] Straw was used to make mats, hats, and baskets. Tribes in the area also wove tents from straw.[11]

Development project edit

In 2019, the Saudi government launched an infrastructure development project in ʿAsir Region. The project is expected to cost more than 1 billion Saudi Riyals. The provided projects will include health care, transportation and municipal services.[12] The project is in line with the Saudi Vision 2030 to diversify non-petroleum income and activate new resources in Saudi Arabia.[12]

Mass shootings of Ethiopian refugees edit

Since 2014 refugees get killed after crossing the Saudi border by the Saudi Border Guard. Since 2023 at least several hundred Ethiopian refugees are killed at the border between Yemen and the provinces Jazan, Asir and Najran. The saudis also used explosive weapons.[13][14]

List of governors edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Population Characteristics surveys" (PDF). General Authority for Statistics. 2017.
  2. ^ "A number of Royal Orders Issued 9 Riyadh". The Saudi Press Agency. 27 December 2018.
  3. ^ "Saudi Arabia: Regions & Major Cities – Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". www.citypopulation.de.
  4. ^ "board game".
  5. ^ a b Jerald L. Thompson (1981). H. ST. John Philby, Ibn Saud and Palestine (PDF) (Master of Arts thesis). University of Kansas. p. 31. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 29, 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  6. ^ A. Nassir Saleh (October 1975). The emergence of Saudi Arabian administrative areas: A study in political geography (PDF) (PhD thesis). Durham University. p. 76. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  7. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 83. Archived from the original on 2016-12-27. Retrieved 2016-08-15.
  8. ^ a b Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 84. Archived from the original on 2016-12-27. Retrieved 2016-08-15.
  9. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 86. Archived from the original on 2016-12-27. Retrieved 2016-08-15.
  10. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 85. Archived from the original on 2016-11-15. Retrieved 2016-08-15.
  11. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 99. Archived from the original on 2016-08-22. Retrieved 2016-08-15.
  12. ^ a b "Saudi Arabia to launch plan for multibillion infrastructure projects in Asir". Arab News. 2019-03-11. Retrieved 2019-03-12.
  13. ^ Beaumont, Peter (2023-08-21). "'Fired on like rain': Saudi border guards accused of mass killings of Ethiopians". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2023-08-21.
  14. ^ "Saudi Arabia: Mass Killings of Migrants at Yemen Border". Human Rights Watch. 2023-08-21. Retrieved 2023-08-21.
  15. ^ a b Gary Samuel Samore (1984). Royal Family Politics in Saudi Arabia (1953–1982) (PhD thesis). Harvard University. p. 260. Retrieved 20 May 2021.

External links edit