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Asian Australians are Australians who trace their ancestry back to Asia.

Asian Australians
Total population
At least 2,665,814 (2016)
~16.15% of Australia's population[1][2]
Regions with significant populations
Capital cities of Australia
Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide and Canberra
External territories of Australia
Christmas Island and Cocos Islands (More than 90%)[A]
Languages
Australian English · Asian languages
Religion
Buddhism · Christianity · Islam · Hinduism · Sikhism · East Asian religions · Indian religions · other religions

For the purposes of aggregating data, the Australian Bureau of Statistics in its Australian Standard Classification of Cultural and Ethnic Groups (ASCCEG) has grouped certain ethnic groups into certain categories, including East Asian (e.g. Chinese Australians, Korean Australian), Southeast Asian (e.g. Vietnamese Australians, Filipino Australian) and South Asian (e.g. Indian Australians, Sri Lankan Australian). Notably, Western Asian ancestries are separately classified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and 'Middle Eastern and North African' and are not included in statistics for Asian Australians.[6] While for statistical purposes, 'Asian Australian' includes East Asians, Southeast Asians and South Asians, in general Australian English parlance, 'Asian' generally refers to persons of East Asian and Southeast Asian ancestry, with persons of South Asian ancestry generally referred to by their specific national ancestral origin, e.g. 'Indian' or 'Pakistani'.

Notably, Australia does not collect statistics on the racial origins of its residents, instead collecting data at each five-yearly census on ancestry (i.e. national ethnic rather than racial origin).[7] At the 2016 census, there were 3,514,915 nominations of ancestries classified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics as falling within the geographical categories of East Asia, Southeast Asia and Central and Southern Asia.[2] This represents 16.15% of persons who nominated their ancestry.[7] 2,665,814 persons claimed one of the six most commonly nominated Asian ancestries, namely Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Sri Lankan, at the 2016 census.[1] Persons claiming one of these six ancestries alone represented 12.25% of the total population who nominated their ancestry.[1][B]

Contents

History of immigrationEdit

Gold rushEdit

Although the Chinese had been arriving in Australia as early as 1818 (e.g. John Shying), Chinese immigration to Australia increased dramatically as a result of the Victorian gold rushes (c. 1850s to 1860s). New Chinese and Australian communities came into conflict due to prejudice and misunderstanding, resulting in several riots at Lambing Flat and Buckland. Earlier anti-Chinese laws enacted by the individual Australian colonies were the background to the White Australia policy (1901-1973).

Immigration restrictionEdit

In the 1870s and 1880s, the trade union movement began a series of protests against foreign labour. The union movement was critical of Asians, mainly Chinese, who did not join unions, and who were prepared to work for lower wages and conditions.[dubious ][8] Wealthy land owners in rural areas countered with the argument Asians working on lower wages and conditions were necessary for development in tropical Queensland and the Northern Territory.[8] It was claimed that without Asian workers these regions would be abandoned.[dubious ][9] Under growing pressure from the union movement, each Australian colony enacted legislation between 1875-1888 excluding further Chinese immigration.[dubious ][9]

Post-war immigrationEdit

The government began to expand access to citizenship for non-Europeans in 1957 by allowing access to 15-year residents, and in 1958 by reforming entry permits via the Migration Act 1958. In March 1966, the immigration ministry began a policy of allowing the immigration of skilled and professional non-Europeans, and of expanding the availability of temporary residency to these groups. These cumulatively had the effect of increasing immigration numbers from non-European countries. In 1973 Whitlam took steps to bring about a more non-discriminatory immigration policy—temporarily bringing down overall immigration numbers. The eventual evolution of immigration policy has been along a trajectory of non-discrimination, dismantling European-only policies, and the broadening of pathways to citizenship for Asians.[10] During the Fraser government, with the increasing intake of Vietnamese refugees in the aftermath of the Vietnam War, Australia experienced the largest intake of Asian immigrants since the arrival of the Chinese gold miners during the gold rush of the 1850s and 1860s.[citation needed] In 1983, the level of British immigration was below the level of Asian immigration for the first time in Australian history.[11]

DemographicsEdit

YearPop.±%
2001982,519—    
20061,696,568+72.7%
20162,665,814+57.1%

Notably, Australia does not collect statistics on the racial origins of its residents, instead collecting data at each five-yearly census on ancestry (i.e. national ethnic rather than racial origin).[7] At the 2016 census, there were 3,514,915 nominations of ancestries classified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics as falling within the geographical categories of East Asia, Southeast Asia and Central and Southern Asia.[2] This represents 16.15% of persons who nominated their ancestry.[7] 2,665,814 persons claimed one of the six most commonly nominated Asian ancestries, namely Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Sri Lankan, at the 2016 census.[1] Persons claiming one of these six ancestries alone represented 12.25% of the total population who nominated their ancestry.[1][C]

Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Sri Lankan are the most commonly nominated Asian ancestries in Australia.[1] Chinese Australians constituted 5.6% of the Australian population and Indian Australians constituted 2.8 percent at the 2016 census.[12] 30% of Asians in Australia go to university, 20% of all Australian doctors are Asian, and 37% of Asian Australians take part in some form of organised sport.[dubious ][13] Second and third generation Chinese and Indian Australians are already present in large numbers.[13] Sydney and Melbourne have made up a large proportion of Asian immigration, with Chinese Australians constituting Sydney's fourth largest ancestry (after English, Australian and Irish). Chinese, Indian and Vietnamese-Australians are among Sydney's five largest overseas-born communities.[14]

Metropolitan areas with significant Asian Australian populations (2016 Census)[2]
Metropolitan area Asian ancestry responses Asian ancestry responses (% of population nominating ancestry)
Sydney 1,264,242 28%
Melbourne 1,026,536 24.4%
Brisbane 294,389 13.9%
Perth 319,302 17.6%
Adelaide 169,018 13.8%

Asian Australians by Greater Sydney region (2011 census):[15]

Region Asian population Asian people as % of total population
Parramatta 132,663 33.61
Ryde 52,975 32.53
South West 102,583 28.48
Inner South West 137,251 26.21
Blacktown 77,866 25.65
Inner West 65,922 25.01
City and Inner South 55,028 20.80
North Sydney and Hornsby 72,786 19.43
Baulkham Hills and Hawkesbury 37,585 17.86
Eastern Suburbs 29,293 11.74
Outer South West 23,357 9.91
Northern Beaches 14,362 6.04
Outer West and Blue Mountains 15,127 5.25
Sutherland 9,712 4.62
Central Coast 6,459 2.07

Asian Australians by Melbourne region (2011 census):[15]

Region Asian population Asian people as % of total population
South East 169,302 25.73
Inner East 74,477 21.90
West 126,787 20.58
Inner Melbourne 73,188 14.58
North East 48,858 11.18
Outer West 49,335 10.30
Inner South 38,088 10.07
North West 38,088 9.74
Mornington Peninsula 7,884 2.91
Population of Various Asian Australian Groups[citation needed]
Ethnic Origins Population
Chinese Australians 1,213,903
Indian Australian 619,163
Filipino Australians 304,015
Vietnamese Australian 294,798
Malaysian Australian 138,364
Korean Australian 123,017
Sri Lankan Australian 109,853
Japanese Australian 71,013
Thai Australian 70,234
Indonesian Australian 65,881
Pakistani Australian 64,346
Nepalese Australian 62,806
Bangladeshi Australian 50,072
Burmese Australian 49,178
Cambodian Australian 45,720
Laotian Australian
Tibetan Australian
Singaporean Australian

Notable peopleEdit

For a more comprehensive viewing of notable people, view: Chinese Australians, Indian Australians, Vietnamese Australians, Malaysian Australians, Filipino Australians, Korean Australians and more from the above table in Demographics.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The population of Christmas Islanders of full or partial Asian descent consists mainly of Australians of Malaysian descent particularly Malaysian Chinese and Malay descent but also some individuals of Malaysian Indian descent.[3][4] The majority of inhabitants on the Cocos Islands are the Cocos Malays, who are the indigenous people of Cocos Island. There are also minority populations of ethnic Chinese and Indian descent.[5]
  2. ^ As such, this represents the lowest possible proportion of the Australian population constituted by persons claiming an Asian ancestry as defined by the Australian Bureau of Statistics.
  3. ^ As such, this represents the lowest possible proportion of the Australian population constituted by persons claiming an Asian ancestry as defined by the Australian Bureau of Statistics.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/communityprofile/036?opendocument
  2. ^ a b c d https://guest.censusdata.abs.gov.au/webapi/jsf/tableView/tableView.xhtml#
  3. ^ "Island induction - Christmas Island District High School". Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  4. ^ Simone Dennis (2008). Christmas Island: An Anthropological Study. Cambria Press. pp. 91–. ISBN 9781604975109.
  5. ^ https://www.cocoskeelingislands.com.au/culture-and-language
  6. ^ http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/1249.0
  7. ^ a b c d http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/censushome.nsf/4a256353001af3ed4b2562bb00121564/f31b4dddfa48a2a8ca257a75002adec8!OpenDocument
  8. ^ a b Markey, Raymond (1 January 1996). "Race and organized labor in Australia, 1850–1901". Highbeam Research. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  9. ^ a b Griffiths, Phil (4 July 2002). "Towards White Australia: The shadow of Mill and the spectre of slavery in the 1880s debates on Chinese immigration" (RTF). 11th Biennial National Conference of the Australian Historical Association. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  10. ^ "Fact Sheet - 8. Abolition of the 'White Australia' Policy". Australian Department of Immigration. Archived from the original on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  11. ^ Price, CA (September 1998). "POST-WAR IMMIGRATION: 1945-1998". Journal of the Australian Population Association. 15 (2): 17.
  12. ^ https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/2071.0~2016~Main%20Features~Cultural%20Diversity%20Article~60
  13. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference bbc.co.uk was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ "2011 Census QuickStats: Greater Sydney".
  15. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference censusdata.abs.gov.au was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

External linksEdit