|Up to 3,550,882 (2016)|
Up to 16.3% of Australia's population
|Regions with significant populations|
|Capital cities of Australia:|
Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Darwin and Canberra
Australian towns and regions:
Notably Broome and the Torres Strait Islands[A]
External territories of Australia:
Christmas Island and Cocos Islands (More than 90% of the total populations of the two territories)[B]
|Australian English · Asian languages|
|Buddhism · Christianity · Hinduism · Sikhism · Islam · East Asian religions · Indian religions · other religions|
The Australian Bureau of Statistics and Australian Census does not collect data on based on race. Instead, it collects information on distinct ethnic ancestries, of which census respondents can select up to two. For the purposes of aggregating data, the Australian Bureau of Statistics in its Australian Standard Classification of Cultural and Ethnic Groups (ASCCEG) has grouped certain ancestries into certain categories, including:
- East Asian (Chinese Australians, Korean Australian, Japanese Australian etc.);
- Southeast Asian (Vietnamese Australians, Malaysian Australian, Filipino Australian, Indonesian Australians etc.); and
- Southern and Central Asian (Indian Australians, Nepalese Australians, Pakistani Australians, Sri Lankan Australians, Afghan Australians etc.).
Notably, Middle East ancestries are separately classified under Middle Eastern and North African and not as a subset of Asian ancestries. This includes people of Arab, Turkish and Iranian ancestries, but not for example Armenian which are classified as Central Asian and therefore Asian Australian.
In general Australian English parlance (rather than statistical usage), 'Asian' generally refers to persons of East Asian and Southeast Asian ancestry, with persons of South Asian ancestry generally referred to by their specific national ancestral origin, e.g. 'Indian' or 'Pakistani'.[failed verification]
Given that ancestry is the primary statistical measure of ethnicity or cultural origins in Australia, and that the distinct ancestry groups may be historically, culturally and geographically far-removed from each other, information on Australians with ancestry from Asia are found at the respective articles for each separate article (e.g. Chinese Australian, Indian Australian, etc.).
At the 2016 census, there were 3,550,882 nominations of ancestries classified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics as falling within the ASCCEG geographical categories of East Asia, Southeast Asia and Central and Southern Asia. This represents 16.3% of the 21,769,209 persons who nominated their ancestry, and therefore represents the maximum proportion of the population with ancestry from one of the above Asian geographical categories given that some respondents may have nominated two ancestries from the Asian geographical categories. 2,665,814 persons claimed one of the six most commonly nominated Asian ancestries, namely Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Sri Lankan, at the 2016 census. Persons claiming one of these six ancestries alone represented 12.25% of the total population who nominated their ancestry.
History of immigrationEdit
Although the Chinese had been arriving in Australia as early as 1818 (e.g. John Shying), Chinese immigration to Australia increased dramatically as a result of the Victorian gold rushes (c. 1850s to 1860s). New Chinese and Australian communities came into conflict due to prejudice and misunderstanding, resulting in several riots at Lambing Flat and Buckland. Earlier anti-Chinese laws enacted by the individual Australian colonies were the background to the White Australia policy (1901-1973).
In the 1870s and 1880s, the trade union movement began a series of protests against foreign labour. The union movement was critical of Asians, mainly Chinese, who did not join unions, and who were prepared to work for lower wages and conditions.[dubious ] Wealthy land owners in rural areas countered with the argument Asians working on lower wages and conditions were necessary for development in tropical Queensland and the Northern Territory. It was claimed that without Asian workers these regions would be abandoned.[dubious ] Under growing pressure from the union movement, each Australian colony enacted legislation between 1875 and 1888 excluding further Chinese immigration.[dubious ]
The government began to expand access to citizenship for non-Europeans in 1957 by allowing access to 15-year residents, and in 1958 by reforming entry permits via the Migration Act 1958. In March 1966, the immigration ministry began a policy of allowing the immigration of skilled and professional non-Europeans, and of expanding the availability of temporary residency to these groups. These cumulatively had the effect of increasing immigration numbers from non-European countries. In 1973 Whitlam took steps to bring about a more non-discriminatory immigration policy—temporarily bringing down overall immigration numbers. The eventual evolution of immigration policy has been along a trajectory of non-discrimination, dismantling European-only policies, and the broadening of pathways to citizenship for Asians. During the Fraser government, with the increasing intake of Vietnamese refugees in the aftermath of the Vietnam War, Australia experienced the largest intake of Asian immigrants since the arrival of the Chinese gold miners during the gold rush of the 1850s and 1860s. In 1983, the level of British immigration was below the level of Asian immigration for the first time in Australian history.
Notably, Australia does not collect statistics on the racial origins of its residents, instead collecting data at each five-yearly census on distinct ancestries, of which each census respondent may choose up to two.
At the 2016 census, there were 3,550,882 nominations of ancestries classified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics as falling within the ASCCEG geographical categories of East Asia, Southeast Asia and Central and Southern Asia. This represents 16.3% of the 21,769,209 persons who nominated their ancestry, and therefore represents the maximum proportion of the population with ancestry from one of the above Asian geographical categories given that some respondents may have nominated two ancestries from the Asian geographical categories.
2,665,814 persons claimed one of the six most commonly nominated Asian ancestries, namely Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Sri Lankan, at the 2016 census. Persons claiming one of these six ancestries alone represented 12.25% of the total population who nominated their ancestry.
30% of Asians in Australia go to university, 20% of all Australian doctors are Asian, and 37% of Asian Australians take part in some form of organised sport.[dubious ] Second and third generation Chinese and Indian Australians are already present in large numbers. Sydney and Melbourne have made up a large proportion of Asian immigration, with Chinese Australians constituting Sydney's fourth largest ancestry (after English, Australian and Irish). Chinese, Indian and Vietnamese-Australians are among Sydney's five largest overseas-born communities.
|Sri Lankan Australian||109,853|
|Other Indian subcontinent||56,400|
|Other Central Asian||25,166|
|Other Southeast Asian||7,023|
|Other North Asian||5,595|
|Metropolitan area||Asian ancestry responses||Asian ancestry responses (% of population nominating ancestry)|
For principal lists of notable people, see the relevant articles for each relevant ethnicity, for example: Chinese Australians, Indian Australians, Vietnamese Australians, Malaysian Australians, Filipino Australians, Korean Australians and Indonesian Australians.
- Adam Hollioake, Australian-born England international cricketer
- Adam Liaw, chef, media personality
- Alex Silvagni, Australian rules footballer
- Andrew Embley, Australian rules footballer
- Andrew Everingham
- Anh Do, Australian author, actor, and comedian.
- Anne Curtis, actress and model
- Anthony Brandon Wong, actor
- Ashton Agar
- Ben Hollioake, Australian-born England international cricketer
- Benjamin Law, writer
- Bill O'Chee, former Senator (Qld) in Federal Parliament
- Billy Sing, World War I soldier
- Bobby Morley, actor in Home and Away
- Brian Castro, writer
- Catriona Bisset, middle-distance runner
- Chen Shaoliang, Australian rules footballer
- Christabel Chamarette
- Christian John Li, Australian young violinist
- Clancee Pearce, Australian rules footballer
- Craig Wing, Rugby League player
- Dami Im, singer-songwriter
- Daniel Kerr, Australian rules footballer
- Dannie Seow, Australian rules footballer
- David de Kretser, former Governor of Victoria
- David Flint
- Deepak Vinayak, Public figure from Melbourne
- Dichen Lachman
- Eddie Jones, rugby union player
- Eric Pearce, field hockey player
- Fred Pringle, Australian rules footballer
- Gemma Pranita
- Geoff Huegill
- Guy Sebastian, Singer
- Henry Smith, long jumper
- Hoa Pham, Writer
- Iain Ramsay, soccer player
- Jamie Durie
- L. Janusz Hooker, chair of LJ Hooker
- Jasmine Curtis, actress and model
- Jason Day, golfer
- Jason Keng-Kwin Chan, Actor
- Jenny Kee, fashion designer
- Jessica Gomes
- Jessica Mauboy, singer; actress (Indonesian father)
- John Williams, guitarist
- Jordan McMahon, Australian rules footballer
- Jordan Rodrigues, actor and dancer known for Dance Academy
- Julian Pearce
- Kate Ceberano, singer
- Kevin Gordon, rugby league player
- Sir Leslie Joseph Hooker, founder of L.J. Hooker
- Lin Jong, Australian rules footballer
- Lisa Singh, senator (Tas)
- Luke Nguyen, chef
- Mahalia Barnes, singer, daughter of Jimmy Barnes
- Maria Tran, Vietnamese actress, filmmaker
- Matt Hsu's Obscure Orchestra, musician, composer, multi-instrumentalist
- Matthew Victor Pastor, writer, film director
- Michael Johnson, former politician
- Michael Letts, rugby player
- Nadya Hutagalung
- Natalie Tran, video blogger
- Nick Kyrgios, tennis player
- Paul Medhurst, Australian rules footballer
- Penny Wong, senator (SA) in federal parliament
- Peter Bell, Australian rules footballer
- Rex Sellers
- Rhys Williams
- Richard Chee Quee, cricketer
- Roger Kerr
- Rosé Park, Korean singer and model
- Sam Kerr, international soccer player
- Samantha Downie
- Sean Wroe, sprinter
- Shiori Kutsuna, actress
- Simone Lazaroo, writer
- Stuart Clark, cricketer
- TwoSetViolin, violin duo
- Trent Dennis-Lane, Australian rules footballer
- Usman Khawaja, cricketer
- Van Thanh Rudd
- Vanessa Woods, scientist, author
- Victor Chang, cardiac surgeon
- Wally Koochew, Australian rules footballer
- Zinnia Kumar, model & scientist
- Broome and the Torres Strait Islands were historically home to thousands of Asian migrants that settled in northern Australia as part of the pearling industry. These Asian migrants were of Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Malay and Sri Lankan (mostly Sinhalese descent). These migrants integrated into local society marrying Indigenous Australians (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders), which was very common at the time, and European Australians later on. Today, many long time residents in Broome and the Torres Strait Islands have partial Asian ancestry tracing back to these early migrants.
- The population of Christmas Islanders of full or partial Asian descent consists mainly of Australians of Malaysian descent particularly Malaysian Chinese and Malay descent but also some individuals of Malaysian Indian descent. The majority of inhabitants on the Cocos Islands are the Cocos Malays, who are the indigenous people of Cocos Island. There are also minority populations of ethnic Chinese and Indian descent.
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- "Island induction - Christmas Island District High School". Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Simone Dennis (2008). Christmas Island: An Anthropological Study. Cambria Press. pp. 91–. ISBN 9781604975109. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
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