Artistic roller skating
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- Figures - the individual follows the figure circle line on a specific edge. Figures become progressively more complex with the addition of turns and the use of the third circle (similar to compulsory or "school" figures on ice).
- Free - the individual performs a solo routine with jumps and spins to their chosen piece of music.
- Duo Free (also called Pairs) - two individuals perform jumps, spins and lifts to their chosen piece of music.
- Couples Compulsory Dance - two people perform a dance consisting of a set sequence of steps in a pattern round the rink to a piece of music to a given tempo. There are no jumps or spins.
- Solo Compulsory Dance - an individual performs a dance consisting of a set series of steps in a pattern round the rink to a piece of music to a given tempo. There are no jumps or spins.
- Quartet - A themed routine performed by a team of four skaters. Team skating, similar to synchronized skating on ice.
- Club Show - A club of skaters perform a themed show routine.
- Original dance - the individual dancer or dance couple performs a routine to a musical medley with a set theme. The original dance includes a section which is a set compulsory dance but the rest of the routine is original choreography in keeping with the given theme. In national and international championships at Junior and Senior level, original dance has replaced compulsory dance.
- Freedance - the individual dancer or dance couple performs a routine to their chosen piece of music. Freedance is heavily focused on footwork and choreography and there are restrictions on jumps and spins, and in couples free dance restrictions on the types of lifts allowed. This is often the final part of a roller dance competition where the first part is compulsory dance or original dance.
A competitor during Artistic Skating World Championship
|Highest governing body||World Skate|
|Team members||Individuals, duos, or groups|
|World Games||1981 – present|
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Artistic roller skaters use either quad or inline skates, though quad skates are more traditional and significantly more common. Generally quad and inline skaters compete in separate events and not against each other. Inline figure skating has been included in the world championships since 2002 in Wuppertal, Germany.
The sport looks very similar to its counterpart on ice, despite some differences, many ice skaters started in roller skating or vice versa. Famous champion ice skaters who once competed in roller skating include Brian Boitano, Tara Lipinski and Marina Kielmann. Artistic Roller skating is often considered to be more difficult because ice allows the skater to draw a deep edge to push off from when performing jumps such as a Lutz or an Axel and roller skates are generally heavier than their ice equivalents, making jumping harder.
Roller skating disciplinesEdit
In figures, skaters trace figure circles painted on the surface of the rink. This is different to compulsory figures on ice, who skate on blank ice and draw their own circles, leaving tracings on the ice as they skate. The official dimension of plain figure circles, measured at their diameter is 6 meters (19 feet, 81⁄4 inches). The official dimension of smaller loop figure circles measure at 2.4 meters (7 feet, 101⁄2 inches). Circles are typically painted in "serpentines"—sets of three circular lobes.
The basic figures skated are typically referred to by numbers, the same as those skated by ice skaters, ranging from simple circle eights through serpentines (figures using one push for a circle and a half), paragraphs (figures using one push for two circles), and loops (smaller circles with a teardrop-shaped loop skated at the top of the circle). There is one category of very simple figures (111 and 112) that are unique to roller skaters; these are serpentines that begin with a half circle skated on one foot, then change to the other foot, for the next circle, then change back to the other foot for another half circle. Some of the more basic figures are numbered 1, 2, 1B, 5A, 5B, 7A, 7B, 111A, 111B, 112A, and 112B, in which the letter B means you start on your left foot. These figures are often taught as beginning figures for those just starting. They include simple circle eights, circle eights with [three turns], and serpentines. The harder figures include counters, brackets, rockers, etc. and they are number 19, 21, 22, 26, etc.
Judges in figure events consider the quality of the skater's tracing of the circle, clean takeoffs, edges and correct placement of turns. The skater's form and posture is emphasized as well.
Dance roller skating contains three major sub-disciplines: Compulsory dance, original dance, and free dance.
Compulsory dance contains prescribed compulsory dances and steps that must be performed, such as the Imperial Tango, the 14 Step, the Keats Foxtrot , or the Flirtation Waltz. Some of the dances are the same as performed in ice dancing competition, while others are unique to roller skating.
American Dance is performed only at the United States National level and below, and emphasizes keeping the upper body upright and free from movement. Some examples of American dances are the Fascination Foxtrot, Progressive Tango, and the California Swing.
Original Dance consists of a dance constructed of two rhythms chosen from a set of rhythms that FIRS changes every year . In 2008 the set rhythms were "Spanish Melody" ( Paso Doble, Flamenco, Tango, and Spanish Waltz ).
Free Dance is similar to the ice free dance, although with some rules changes. Skaters do not need to follow a pattern around the floor, but rather must be creative in their interpretation of the music. Dancers cannot do any jumps or spins that are recognizable in freestyle skating.
Another style similar to free dance is called Creative Solo Dance, or CSD. This has a tighter pattern than a free dance, but is created by the skater or their coach. This pattern can be to any music, as long as it does not change speed. The pattern must be repeated twice, with opening and closing steps.
Solo Dance incorporates all three sub-disciplines. Compulsory dances generally utilise the female steps as these are usually more difficult than the male steps. Original dance is referred to as Creative Solo Dance or CSD, and free dance incorporates up to two spins with no more than 3 revolutions and up to two jumps of no more than 1 revolution.
Artistic freestyle skating incorporates figure skating jumps, spins, and footwork into a program set to music. Most of the jumps done by freestyle roller skaters are similar to those performed in ice skating, with some nomenclature changed. A "toe loop" on ice is often referred to as a Mapes in roller skating, taking its name from the inventor of the jump. Though both ice and roller skaters perform the Euler jump (called a "half-loop" by ice skaters and some roller skaters), it is more common in roller skating programs, as lengthy multi-jump combinations are emphasized in roller skating judging. The Euler is a useful connecting jump in such sequences; for example, a five-jump combination might be Axel, loop, double Mapes, Euler, double flip. The hardest part of a five jump combination is usually keeping up enough speed to complete the fifth jump, which can sometimes be the most technically difficult. the "loop" jump is also performed in roller skating, though ice skaters tend to "take off" with two feet, roller skaters do a one-foot take off.
Roller skating also traditionally emphasizes spins that are uncommon on ice, especially the inverted camel in which the skater is on an outside edge standing on the right foot with their body and left leg extended outward parallel to the floor, the skater then rotates their hips 180 degrees while continuing to spin so that they are spinning upside down  (of course this could also be performed on the left.) The inverted camel is generally performed by women - few men learn to do it and even fewer perform it in competition. Other spins popular in roller skating that would be impossible to do with the blades of an ice skate include the broken ankle, which begins as an inside-edge camel and the skater then pushes the skate over so that the spin is rotating on the edge of the two inner wheels, and the heel camel spin, which is only rotated on the back two wheels, or heel.
Precision roller skating consists of 12-24 athletes skating on the floor at one time moving as one flowing unit at high speeds. This discipline of Precision ´skating is named because of the emphasis on maintaining precise formations and timing of the group.
For a precision team to flow in unison, individual skaters must be competent at a variety of skating skills, including speed, footwork and presentation. The team performs a program set to music, with required formations including circles, lines, blocks, wheels, and intersections. The teams are required to perform difficult step sequences involving a number of complicated turns.
There are international synchronized skating competitions at the Senior level, and the Federation Internationale de Roller Sports (FIRS) held the first World Championship in Precision Roller Skating in 2000. Teams may consist of men and women with Senior Teams having 12-24 team members and Junior Teams having 8-16 team members. Two scores are given, one for technical and one for artistic impression.
Precision Roller Skating owes its origin to Synchronized skating on ice. The first synchronized figure skating team was formed by Dr. Richard Porter, who became known as the 'father of synchronized skating'. The 'Hockettes' skated out of Ann Arbor, Michigan and entertained spectators during the intermissions of the University of Michigan Wolverines men's ice hockey team. In the early days, precision skating resembled a drill team routine, or a precision dance company such as The Rockettes.
During the 1970s, the interest for this new sport spawned tremendous growth and development. In each season, teams developed more creative and innovative routines incorporating stronger basic skating skills, new maneuvers and more sophisticated transitions with greater speed, style and agility. Due to the interest in the sport in North America, other countries took notice, leading to the World Championships. With the internationalization of the sport, it has evolved rapidly, with increasing emphasis on speed and skating skills.
Although not currently an Olympic sport, fans and participants of this fast-growing discipline have begun to strive for recognition by the rest of the athletic world. Precision Roller Skating has been covered by Roller Skating and the USARS magazine since the sport's inception. It is a varsity sport at a few colleges, and both Precision Roller Skating and its ice counterpart are being reviewed for Olympic eligibility.
Artistic roller skaters who participate in this event most likely does solo dance or team dance. This event requires the coach and skater to think of a song that can stay appropriate for any age. For example, pick songs from Mary Poppins, Singin' In The Rain etc. It is up to the coach or choreographer to design a routine that has a maximum of three jumps and two spins and has some dance moves such as swings, runs, etc. As of the 2016–2017 season USARS has decided to add tumbling to their total score, allowing skaters to do optional cartwheels, splits and other forms of tumbling.
This event is taken to the World Championships, however, only for Junior World Class and World Class Skaters only, these skaters are asked to compete in an international-style creative which can be French theme, African Theme, European Theme and the most popular - Spanish Themed. As of the 2015-2016 skating season, USARS opened up an Elementary International Creative Solo/Freedance event which allows 12 year olds and under to participate in an international-style routine that would be taken to regional and national championships. This event can be a combined, combining with international solo dance scores as a potential spot to go to nationals.
To skate the combined event at regionals/nationals, skater must pay a separate entry free to have the scores for International Freedance and International Solo Dance combined for a chance to get an extra medal and extra ticket to nationals.
The style dance, not to be mistaken for the Creative freedance, is an event only participants can compete in for Junior and Senior World Class (the skaters trying to make it on the world team for their country). The style dance is international, which means it must have an international flare. Music can be in any language, and costume has to match the music theme.
The style dance does not need to have jumps or spins but does require repetitions of the given dance. This event is dance but does require a toestop as there is footwork that needs to be included.
Artistic roller skaters most commonly skate on traditional quad skates. Skates designed for artistic skating typically have leather boots, a strong sole plate, and a jump bar for reinforcement. The plate has to be made from a strong material as it has to be able to withstand the shock of jumping and landing. Artistic roller skates usually have stainless steel or aluminum plates for that reason, even though these are heavier than ones made from other materials such as plastic. Free skaters usually use a toe stop, which can be used in the take-off in certain jumps such as the toe-loop or the flip. Dance skaters sometimes substitute for toe plugs, as the large toe stops are cumbersome when performing dance footwork. Figure skaters generally have specially made plates for figure skating which have no receptacle for the toe stop.
Some artistic skaters use inline skates. Skates designed for inline artistic skating have leather boots (as ice and quad figure skates do), and usually have rockered wheels and a toe stop or toe "pic". Rockered wheels (wheels which are arranged at different heights so that the baseline of the wheels forms a curve instead of a flat line) are more suitable to skate the curved "edges" which are typical of artistic skating than un-rockered inline wheels are.
Roller skate wheels and bearingsEdit
Roller skate wheels come in many different sizes and hardnesses. Typically a 62mm wheel is used for dance, 60mm to 63mm used for figures, and a smaller 57mm wheel used for freestyle. The hardness of the wheel determines the grip or slip of the wheel. Normally a harder wheel having more slip is used for turn figures. A softer wheel with more grip is used for dance. Freestyle skaters tend to use both on the skates, using a harder wheel on the edge they need to spin and a softer wheel on the other edges. Typically 7mm bearings are used because competitive artistic skates have a smaller axle. Most inline skates use an 8mm bearing. The abec rating determines the tolerances in the bearing and most people can use an Abec3; however, most people believe the extra cost of Abec 7 or 9 bearings is worth paying for a better bearing. There are also other kinds of bearings such as Swiss Bones, which are also a very high quality.
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