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An article processing charge (APC), also known as a publication fee, is a fee which is sometimes charged to authors to make a work available open access in either an open access journal or hybrid journal.[1][2][3] This fee is usually paid by an author's institution or research funder rather than by the author themselves.[4] Some publishers waive the fee in cases of hardship.[5] An article processing charge does not guarantee that the author retains copyright to the work, or that it will be made available under a Creative Commons license.[citation needed]

Journals use a variety of ways to generate the income required to cover publishing costs (including editorial costs, any costs of administering the peer review system), such as subsidies from institutions[6] and subscriptions. A majority of open access journals do not charge article processing charges,[7] but a significant and growing number of them do.[8] They are the most common funding method for professionally published open access articles.[9]

Article Processing Charge fees and APC's underlining neoliberal ideology applied to academic research and its relative, usually extremely expensive and thus exclusive pay-walled access limiting the circulation and use of research among less affluent institutions, scholars, and students - among other controversies - is part of the wider and increasing global Open Access OA's ethics debate (see for example Kember, S., 2014, 'Opening Out from Open Access: Writing and Publishing in Response to Neoliberalism'; Kember, S. 2016, 'How Open is Open Access?'; Page, B. 2018, 'Angry Publishers Debate OA monographs at IPG')[10].

Different academic publishers have widely varying levels of fees, from under $100 to over $3000.[1][11][12] High fees are sometimes charged by traditional publishers in order to publish in a hybrid open access journal, which make an individual article in a subscription journal open access. The average APC for hybrid journals has been calculated to be almost twice as high as APCs from full open access publishers.[13] Journals with high impact factors from major publishers tend to have the highest APCs.[1] Many open access publishers, such as PLOS, waive their APCs for those who cannot afford to pay them.[5]

Open access articles often have a surcharge compared to a closed-access APC; for example the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences regularly charges $1700 per article, with a surcharge of $1350 for open-access.[14] Similarly, AGU's Journal of Geophysical Research charges $1000 for closed-access and $3500 for open-access.[15]

Even when publishers do not charge standard fees, excess or overlength fees might still apply after a certain number of pages or publication units is exceeded;[15][16] additional fees might exist for color figures,[14] primarily for print journals that are not online-only.

While publication charges occur upon article acceptance, article submission fees are charged prior to the start of peer review; they are not uncommon among journals in some fields, e.g., finance and economics.[17] Page charge may refer to either publication or submission fees.

CriticismEdit

The "article processing charges" which are often used for open access journals shift the burden of payment from readers to authors (or their funders), which creates a new set of concerns.[18] One concern is that if a publisher makes a profit from accepting papers, it has an incentive to accept anything submitted, rather than selecting and rejecting articles based on quality. This could be remedied, however, by charging for the peer-review rather than acceptance.[19] Another concern is that institutional budgets may need to be adjusted in order to provide funding for the article processing charges required to publish in many open access journals (e.g. those published by BioMed Central[20]). It has been argued that this may reduce the ability to publish research results due to lack of sufficient funds, leading to some research not becoming a part of the public record.[21]

Unless discounts are available to authors from countries with low incomes or external funding is provided to cover the cost, article processing charges could exclude authors from developing countries or less well-funded research fields from publishing in open access journals. However, under the traditional model, the prohibitive costs of some non-open access journal subscriptions already place a heavy burden on the research community; and if green open access self-archiving eventually makes subscriptions unsustainable, the cancelled subscription savings can pay the gold open access publishing costs without the need to divert extra money from research.[22] Moreover, many open access publishers offer discounts or publishing fee waivers to authors from developing countries or those suffering financial hardship. Self-archiving of non-open access publications provides a low cost alternative model.[23]

Another concern is the redirection of money by major funding agencies such as the National Institutes of Health and the Wellcome Trust from the direct support of research to the support of open access publication. Robert Terry, Senior Policy Advisor at the Wellcome Trust, has said that he feels that 1–2% of their research budget will change from the creation of knowledge to the dissemination of knowledge.[24]

Research institutions could cover the cost of open access by converting to an open access journal cost-recovery model, with the institutions' annual tool access subscription savings being available to cover annual open access publication costs.[25] A 2017 study by the Max Planck Society the annual turnovers of academic publishers amount to approximately EUR 7.6 billion. It is argued that this money comes predominantly from publicly funded scientific libraries as they purchase subscriptions or licenses in order to provide access to scientific journals for their members. The study was presented by the Max Planck Digital Library and found that subscription budgets would be sufficient to fund the open access publication charges.[26]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Solomon, David J.; Björk, Bo-Christer (August 2012). "A study of open access journals using article processing charges". Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 63 (8): 1485–1495. doi:10.1002/asi.22673. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ "The Potential Role for Intermediaries in Managing the Payment of Open Access Article Processing Charges (APCs)" (PDF). Research Information Network. October 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  3. ^ Richard Van Noorden, "Open access: The true cost of science publishing", Nature 495, 426–429 (28 March 2013) doi:10.1038/495426a [1]
  4. ^ Suber, Peter (2012). Open access. MIT Press. pp. 138–139. ISBN 9780262517638. 
  5. ^ a b "Publication fees". PLOS. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  6. ^ Suber, Peter (2012). Open access. MIT Press. p. 136. ISBN 9780262517638. 
  7. ^ Kozak, Marcin; Hartley, James (December 2013). "Publication fees for open access journals: Different disciplines—different methods". Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64 (12). doi:10.1002/asi.22972. 
  8. ^ Laakso, Mikael; Björk, Bo-Christer (2012). "Anatomy of open access publishing: a study of longitudinal development and internal structure". BMC Medicine. 10 (1): 124. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-124. PMC 3478161 . PMID 23088823. Retrieved 26 November 2013.   
  9. ^ Björk, Bo-Christer; Solomon, David (2012). "Pricing principles used by Scholarly Open Access Publishers" (PDF). Learned Publishing. 25 (3). Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  10. ^ Kember, Sarah. "Opening Out from Open Access: Writing and Publishing in Response to Neoliberalism". ADA. Retrieved 2018-03-12. 
  11. ^ Socha, Beata (20 April 2017). "How Much Do Top Publishers Charge for Open Access?". OpenScience. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  12. ^ García Martín, Miguel (2015-12-30). "Las revistas de Geografía en el Journal Citation Reports: lucro económico versus acceso abierto". Revista española de Documentación Científica (in Spanish). 38 (4): 105. doi:10.3989/redc.2015.4.1248. ISSN 1988-4621. 
  13. ^ Björk, Bo-Christer; Solomon, David (March 2014). "Developing an Effective Market for Open Access Article Processing Charges" (PDF). Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  14. ^ a b PNAS, Procedures for Submitting Manuscripts
  15. ^ a b American Geophysical Union publication fee table
  16. ^ "(IEEE) 2014 Voluntary Page and Overlength Article Charges" (PDF). Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  17. ^ "Journals with Fees for Submitted Paper". Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  18. ^ Socha, Beata (20 April 2017). "How Much Do Top Publishers Charge for Open Access?". openscience.com. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  19. ^ Harnad, S. (2010) No-Fault Peer Review Charges: The Price of Selectivity Need Not Be Access Denied or Delayed Archived 2011-05-01 at the Wayback Machine.. D-Lib Magazine 16 (7/8)
  20. ^ "Article-processing charges FAQ". BioMed Central. 1970-01-01. Archived from the original on 2011-11-26. Retrieved 2014-01-01. 
  21. ^ Eftekhari, A (2012) Open Access Dream. Critic Pen. Archived May 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  22. ^ Harnad, S. (2011). "Gold Open Access Publishing Must Not Be Allowed to Retard the Progress of Green Open Access Self-Archiving". Logos. 21 (3–4): 86–93. doi:10.1163/095796511x559972. Archived from the original on 2011-09-01. 
  23. ^ Corrado, E. (Spring 2005). The importance of Open Access, Open Source, and Open Standards for libraries Archived 2011-12-16 at the Wayback Machine.. Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship.
  24. ^ Open Access Now. "Interview – Wellcome support for Open Access". Archived from the original on August 21, 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  25. ^ Harnad, S (2007) "The Green Road to Open Access: A Leveraged Transition" Archived 2017-01-23 at the Wayback Machine.. In: Anna Gacs. The Culture of Periodicals from the Perspective of the Electronic Age. L'Harmattan. 99–106. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
  26. ^ "Area-wide transition to open access is possible: A new study calculates a redeployment of funds in Open Access". www.mpg.de/en. Max Planck Gesellschaft. 27 April 2015. Archived from the original on 16 June 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-12. 

Further readingEdit