Arthur was platted in 1881 when the Missouri Pacific Railroad was extended to that point. A post office called Arthur was established in 1881, and remained in operation until 1936. The community has the name of Arthur Talmadge, the son of a railroad official.
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Arthur, Missouri
- "Vernon County Place Names, 1928–1945". The State Historical Society of Missouri. Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
- "Post Offices". Jim Forte Postal History. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
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