The Aro-Ibibio Wars were a series of conflicts between the Aro people (subgroup of the Igbo) and a Ibibio in present-day Southeastern Nigeria at Ibom Kingdom from 1630 to 1902. These wars led to the foundation of the Arochukwu kingdom.
|The Aro-Ibibio wars|
Eze Agwu clan|
Obong Okon Ita rebels
|Commanders and leaders|
Osim and Akuma Nnubi
Akpan Okon |
|Casualties and losses|
The Arochukwu conquest Edit
Before Igbo arrival in the Aro territory, a group of proto Ibibio migrated to the area and established the Ibom Kingdom. This proto Ibibio group originally came from Usak Edet (Isanguele) in present-day Southern Cameroon. The Eze Agwu clan from Abiriba, initiated Igbo migration into the region around the mid-17th century. The Ibibio clan welcomed all until some started rebelling against the ruling house. The Eze Awgu group who lead the rebellion against the ruling family aligned with several outside forces like the Priest Nnachi from the Edda group near Afikpo, was called by their king Awgu Inobia (Eze Agwu) for help. When he arrived, Nnachi and Eze Agwu allied with prince Akakpokpo Okon of the Ibibio kingdom of Ibom Kingdom. Akakpokpo Okon was the son of a marriage between an Igbo woman of the Eze Agwu clan and the King Obong Okon Ita in an attempt of a peace treaty for a war that have been fought between the Igbo subgroup and Ibibio. The Eze Agwu/Nnachi faction decided to help Akakpokpo attempt to overthrow his brother king Akpan Okon.
The coup was heavily resisted which called for even more help. Through Nnachi, an Eastern Cross river group answered the call for help. They were known as the Akpa who were living at today Akwa Akpa before the arrival of the Efik people in that region. These warriors and traders, may have had European guns which were new to the territory. Being the Igbo allies, the Akpas were led by the royal Nnubi family. Osim and Akuma Nnubi led Akpa soldiers to help fight against the ruling household. Together with Igbo forces and rebels, they fought against the Ibom Kingdom forces (1690). During the final battles, Osim Nnubi was slain in Oror city state making it the capital of Arochukwu. The forces of the Ibom Kingdom later withdrew when they discovered that the Aro Confederacy had breached the principles of the ancient worriors code by using foreign weapons and hiring mercenaries. The Ibibio worriors had also heard that some of the mercenaries were men with Efik ancestry, and therefore withdrew because the Ibibio would not shed the blood of their Efik kinsmen. But at the end of the war, Osim and Akakpokpo were dead. In order to honor Osim's legacy, his brother Akuma was crowned the first EzeAro (king). After his death, Nnachi's descendants took the throne starting with his first son Oke Nnachi. The Arochukwu kingdom, was founded.
After Arochukwu was formed, it began to expand because of the growing population and territorial protection. Ibibio groups sporadically attacked Arochukwu shortly after its formation. Aro forces formed vigilante camps which eventually grew into communities on the Arochukwu-Ibibio boundaries.
See also Edit
- http://www.aronetwork.org/others/arohistory.htmlhttp:/[permanent dead link]/www.aronewsonline.com/origincivilization.html
- Talbot, Percy Amaury (8 October 2013). Life in Southern Nigeria: The Magic, Beliefs and Customs of the Ibibio Tribe. ISBN 9781136968822.
- "The Confederation of Three Dynasties". Editorial Suite. 8 March 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-02.[permanent dead link]