Armenian Cathedral of Moscow

The Armenian Cathedral of Moscow,[6][7] officially known as Holy Transfiguration Cathedral (Armenian: Սուրբ Պայծառակերպության եկեղեցի,[8] Surb paytsarakerputyan yekeghetsi; Russian: Собор Преображения Господня), is the seat of the Diocese of Russia of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Constructed in seven years, it was consecrated in September 2013 by leaders of the Armenian Apostolic and Russian Orthodox churches. It is considered the largest Armenian church[a] and church complex[b] outside Armenia.

Holy Transfiguration Church
AffiliationArmenian Apostolic Church
Year consecratedSeptember 17, 2013
Location24 Trifonovskaya Street, Meshchansky District, Moscow, Russia
Geographic coordinates55°47′17″N 37°37′16″E / 55.788060°N 37.621194°E / 55.788060; 37.621194
Architect(s)Artak Ghulyan
StyleClassical Armenian
Construction costup to $35 million (estimated)[1]
Height (max)58 metres (190 ft)[4][5]

History edit

In the pre-Soviet period, Moscow had three Armenian Apostolic churches—two of which, built in the 18th century, were demolished by the Soviet authorities by the 1930s.[15] The sole church to survive was the small 19th century Holy Resurrection Church at the Moscow Armenian Cemetery (part of the larger Vagankovo Cemetery).[2][15] Holy Resurrection was returned to the Armenian Church in 1956 and served as the city's sole Armenian church for more than five decades.[15][9][4] In post-Soviet period, the Armenian population of Moscow increased significantly, reaching as many as 500,000,[6] while the 2010 Russian census recorded around 170,000 Armenians in the city of Moscow and Moscow Oblast.[16][17]

The church was conceived in 1996.[9] Moscow authorities allotted land plot for the church complex in the same year.[18] It was initially planned to complete construction by 2001. However, further controversy ensued in 2001 when Archbishop Tigran Kyureghian was accused of embezzling $3 million[1] and was replaced by Catholicos Garegin II with the latter's brother—Yezras Nersisian. Subsequently, the new bishop began to raise funds for its construction.[1]

In October 2004 Catholicos Garegin II and Patriarch Alexy II of Moscow ceremonially set the cornerstone of the church complex.[19][5] The construction of the church itself began in 2006 and lasted seven years.[15][3][7] The construction was extended due to various reasons.[20][1][21]

Various individuals contributed to the construction, including wealthy Russian-Armenian businessmen such as Samvel Karapetyan and Ruben Vardanyan.[15][6] Yezras Nersisian, primate of Russia, stated that an unknown amount of money was spent on the construction of the church because many individuals provided not money, but construction material.[15] However, an estimated $30–35 million is believed to have been spent on construction of the complex.[1]

The consecration ceremony took place on September 17, 2013 and was presided by Catholicos Garegin II.[22][23] In attendance were Patriarch Kirill of Moscow,[24] President of Armenia Serzh Sargsyan,[7] President of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Bako Sahakyan,[7][25] dozens of Armenian bishops from Armenia and the diaspora,[2] representatives of Russia's Muslim, Buddhist and Jewish communities,[6] and many others.

The first Divine Liturgy took place on September 22, 2013.[12]

In January 2017 pieces from the relics of Gregory the Illuminator, Armenia's patron saint, were presented to the church by Artur Janibekyan, Armenia-born TV producer and manager of Russia's most popular TV channels.[26][27]

Complex edit

The cathedral is a part of a larger complex that covers an area of 2.5 hectares (6.2 acres).[13][10][1][12] Besides the cathedral, it includes the chapel of the Holy Cross (Surb Khach), an Armenian school, the headquarters of the diocese of Russia and Nor Nakhijevan, an underground museum and exhibition hall and several monuments, and a parking lot for 200-300 cars.[5][6]

Architecture edit

The church complex and the cathedral were designed by Artak Ghulyan,[18][28] who took over in 2004.[28]

The cathedral was built in traditional Armenian architecture[10][3] and faced with tuff stone, brought from Anipemza, Armenia—near the medieval Armenian capital of Ani—with over 100 railroad cars.[3][5][7] The cathedral is 58 metres (190 ft) tall,[4][5] including the 7 metres (23 ft) cross.[28] It is thus the tallest Armenian church of the diaspora.[c] St. Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral in Yerevan is only slightly taller, at 60 metres (200 ft).[29] The diameter of the dome is 21 metres (69 ft).[4][5][13] The church has a capacity of between 1,000[2][5][18] to 1,200 people.[3] While as many as 2,400 people can fit inside the complex.[3]

The exterior of the cathedral is richly decorated with extensive bas-reliefs of Armenian (Mesrop Mashtots, Saint Sarkis, Gregory the Illuminator, Gregory of Narek, etc.) and non-Armenian (Saint George, etc.) saints and crosses.[7][2]

Gallery edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "...новый кафедральный собор - самый большой из тех, что построены вне Армении..."[9]
    • "Собор, способный вместить под своими сводами одновременно более тысячи прихожан, является самым большим сооружением Армянской Апостольской Церкви за пределами Армении."[10]
    • "The Cathedral of the complex will become the biggest structure of the Armenian Apostolic Church outside Armenia."[11]
    • "Здание Собора - самое большое сооружение Армянской Апостольской церкви вне Армении."[12]
  2. ^ "самого большого комплекса ААЦ вне территории Армении"[2]
    • "Этот храм является самым крупным армянским духовным комплексом за пределами Армении..."[13]
    • "Церковного комплекса епархии, ставшего самым большим сооружением ААЦ вне территории Армении."[5]
    • "Это крупнейший духовный центр Армении за пределами страны..."[14]
  3. ^ "Благодаря ему московский кафедральный собор станет самым высоким армянским храмом в мире."[28]
  1. ^ a b c d e f "Մոսկվայում հայկական եկեղեցու շինարարությունը կավարտվի 2010 թվականին" (in Armenian). 24 February 2009. Archived from the original on 3 November 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Sopova, Aleksandra (17 September 2013). "В Москве освящен кафедральный собор Армянской церкви". Izvestia (in Russian). Archived from the original on 10 September 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Kaystro, Dmitriy (17 September 2013). "В Москве открылся крупнейший духовный центр Армянской церкви" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 18 September 2013.
  4. ^ a b c d Hakobyan, Julia (18 September 2013). "Holy Transfiguration: A new Armenian Cathedral in Moscow is called to strengthen the faith and Armenian-Russian relations". ArmeniaNow. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "В Москве открылся церковный комплекс Российской и Ново-Нахичеванской Епархии Армянской Апостольской Церкви". (in Russian). No. 224. October 2013. Archived from the original on 15 February 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d e Perezluha, Ashley (17 September 2013). "New Armenian Cathedral Opens in Moscow". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 10 September 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d e f "President participated at the ceremony of consecration of the Armenian Cathedral in Moscow and opening of the Church compound". Office to the President of the Republic of Armenia. 16 September 2013. Archived from the original on 10 September 2019.
  8. ^ "Մոսկվայում բացվեց հայկական եկեղեցական համալիրը". (in Armenian). RFE/RL. 17 September 2013. Archived from the original on 12 September 2019.
  9. ^ a b c Yakovleva, Yelena (18 September 2013). "Родник веры". Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Archived from the original on 10 September 2019.
  10. ^ a b c "В Москве открылся армянский церковный комплекс". (in Russian). RFE/RL. 17 September 2013. Archived from the original on 1 September 2019.
  11. ^ "Consecration of Armenian church launched in Moscow: LIVESTREAM". Armenpress. 17 September 2013. Archived from the original on 10 September 2019.
  12. ^ a b c Bychkov, Sergei (17 September 2013). "Собор освящен: Армянский собор принял первых гостей". Moskovskij Komsomolets (in Russian). Archived from the original on 12 September 2019.
  13. ^ a b c "По московским меркам: Самый высокий армянский храм в столице". (in Russian). Moscow 24. 14 April 2015. Archived from the original on 10 September 2019.
  14. ^ "В Москве открыли армянский храм". Vedomosti (in Russian). 17 September 2013. Archived from the original on 10 September 2019.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Mukhametshina, Yelena (10 September 2013). "Случаи могут определять судьбу" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 1 September 2019.
  16. ^ Национальный состав населения по субъектам Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Archived from the original on 1 June 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  17. ^ "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 г. // Население по национальности, полу и субъектам Российской Федерации". (in Russian). Demoscope Weekly. Archived from the original on 19 August 2019.
  18. ^ a b c "Armenian President attends consecration of Cathedral of Armenian Apostolic Church in Moscow". Serbian Orthodox Church. 17 September 2013. Archived from the original on 10 September 2019.
  19. ^ "В Москву прибыла делегация Армянской Апостольской церкви, возглавляемая Католикосом всех армян Гарегином II" (in Russian). Russkaya liniya. 18 October 2004. Archived from the original on 10 September 2019. Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Алексия II освятил 16 закладных камней в основании нового московского храма «Сурб Хач» («Святой Крест») и резиденции епископа Ново-Нахичеванской и Российской епархии Армянской Апостольской церкви.
  20. ^ "Лужков обещает достроить армянский храм в Москве в этом году" (in Russian). Interfax. 29 January 2010. Archived from the original on 10 September 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2019.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)()
  21. ^ "Construction of a new Armenian Church in Moscow nearing its completion". Mediamax. 31 March 2011. Archived from the original on 10 September 2019.
  22. ^ "New Armenian Cathedral Opens In Moscow". RFE/RL. 17 September 2013. Archived from the original on 10 September 2019.
  23. ^ "Ն.Ս.Օ.Տ.Տ. Գարեգին Բ. Ամենայն Հայոց Կաթողիկոսի խոսքը Մոսկվայի Սուրբ Պայծառակերպություն նորակառույց եկեղեցու օծման առիթով (17 սեպտեմբերի, 2013 թ.)". Etchmiadzin (in Armenian). Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin. 69 (9): 48–50. 2013.
  24. ^ "Святейший Патриарх Кирилл принял участие в торжествах по случаю освящения храмового комплекса Армянской Апостольской Церкви в Москве". (in Russian). Russian Orthodox Church. Archived from the original on 10 September 2019.
  25. ^ "Արցախի Հանրապետության Նախագահ Բակո Սահակյանը սեպտեմբերի 17-ին ներկա է գտնվել Մոսկվա քաղաքում Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցու նորակառույց Սուրբ Պայծառակերպության Մայր տաճարի բացման հանդիսավոր". (in Armenian). 17 September 2013.
  26. ^ Atanesian, Grigor (17 May 2017). "Russian Armenians: Navigating Identity". EVN Report. Archived from the original on 12 September 2019.
  27. ^ "Армянской церкви Москвы подарили мощи просветителя Армении" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 9 January 2017. Archived from the original on 12 September 2019.
  28. ^ a b c d "В Москве построен самый высокий храм Армянской апостольской церкви" (in Russian). RBK. 25 October 2011. Archived from the original on 10 September 2019. Retrieved 12 September 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)()
  29. ^ Karapetian, Anna (24 September 2001). "Armenia Consecrates New Cathedral". RFE/RL. Archived from the original on 15 July 2019. The 60 meter-high cathedral of Saint Gregory the Illuminator...