1983 Argentine general election

  (Redirected from Argentine general election, 1983)

The Argentine general election of 1983 was held on 30 October and marked the return of constitutional rule following the self-styled National Reorganization Process dictatorship installed in 1976. Voters fully chose the president, governors, mayors, and their respective national, province and town legislators; with a turnout of 85.6%.

1983 Argentine general election

Presidential election
← Sept. 1973 30 October 1983 1989 →

600 members of the Electoral College
301 votes needed to win
Registered17,929,951
Turnout85.61%
  Alfonsin 1983.jpg Ítalo Argentino Luder.jpg
Candidate Raúl Alfonsín Ítalo Lúder
Party Radical Civic Union Justicialist Party
Running mate Víctor Martínez Deolindo Bittel
Electoral vote 317 259
States carried 15 + CABA 8
Popular vote 7,724,559 5,944,402
Percentage 51.75% 40.16%

Elecciones presidenciales de Argentina de 1983.png
Most voted party by province.

President before election

Reynaldo Bignone
Military

Elected President

Raúl Alfonsín
UCR

Legislative election

← March 1973 30 October 1983 1985 →

254 seats in the Chamber of Deputies
128 seats needed for a majority
Turnout85.61%
Party Leader % Seats
Chamber of Deputies
Radical Civic Union 47.97% 129
Justicialist Party 38.47% 111
Intransigent Party 2.78% 3
Union of the Democratic Centre 1.70% 2
Blockist Party 0.42% 2
Neuquén People's Movement 0.24% 2
Others 8.4% 5
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
Mapa de las elecciones legislativas de Argentina de 1983.png
Results by province

BackgroundEdit

In 1976 the military announced a coup d'état against President Isabel Perón with problems of financial instability, inflation, endemic corruption, international isolation and violence that typified her last year in office. Many citizens believed the National Reorganization Process, the junta's government, would improve the general state of Argentina. As that regime's third dictator, General Leopoldo Galtieri, awoke in the early hours of June 18, 1982, to find a letter requesting he resign, however, he had no doubt that the Process had run its course. Against the wishes of Galtieri's commanders, the Joint Chiefs chose Army General Reynaldo Bignone not so much the new President as the usher towards a democratic transition, which President Bignone announced would take place in March 1984. Inheriting an economy struggling under crushing interest rates imposed by the Central Bank Circular 1050, Bignone's new president of the institution, Domingo Cavallo, rescinded the policy in July, a move towards economic liberalization complemented by Bignone's restoring a limited right of assembly and free speech. Argentina's wide array of political parties, jointly pressing for elections through a "Multiparty" convened by centrist UCR leader Ricardo Balbín in 1981, geared for the imminent return to democracy.[1]

Six years of intermittent wage freezes, policies adverse to industry and restrictive measures like the Circular 1050 had left GDP per capita at its lowest level since 1968 and real wages lower by around 40%. Given these conditions, the return of some freedoms quickly led to a wave of strikes, including two general strikes led by Saúl Ubaldini of the CGT labor federation (then the largest in South America). Fanning antagonism on the part of hard-liners in the regime, this led Admiral Jorge Anaya (later court-martialed for gross malfeasance in the 1982 Falklands War) to announce his candidacy for President in August, becoming the first to do so; amid popular jeers of "Anaya canalla" (Anaya the fiend), Bignone immediately thwarted the move.[1]

Amid growing calls for quicker elections, police brutally repressed a December 16, 1982, demonstration in Buenos Aires' central Plaza de Mayo, resulting in the death of one protester and Bignone's hopes for an indefinite postponement of elections. Devoting themselves to damage control, the regime began preparing for the transition by shredding evidence of their murder of 15–30,000 dissidents (most of which were students, academics and labor union personnel uninvolved in the violence Argentina suffered from 1973 to 1976). Hoping to quiet demands that their whereabouts be known, in February 1983 Buenos Aires Police Chief Ramón Camps publicly recognized the crime and asserted that the "disappeared" were, in fact, dead. Provoking popular indignation, Camps' interview forced President Bignone to cease denying the tragedy and, on April 28, declare a blanket amnesty for those involved (including himself).[2]

 
The closing rally for the UCR campaign on Buenos Aires' 9 de Julio Avenue.

Among the first prominent political figures to condemn the amnesty was the leader of the UCR's progressive wing, Raúl Alfonsín, who easily secured his party's nomination during their convention in July. Alfonsín chose as his running mate Víctor Martínez, a more conservative UCR figure from Córdoba Province. Their traditional opponents, the Justicialist Party, struggled to find candidates for not only the top of the ticket, but for a number of the more important local races, as well. Following conferences that dragged on for two months after the UCR nominated Alfonsín, the Justicialists' left wing (the target of much of the repression before and after the 1976 coup) proved little match for the CGT's influence within the party. They nominated ideological opposites Ítalo Lúder, who had served as acting President during Mrs. Perón's September 1975 sick leave, for President and former Chaco Province Governor Deolindo Bittel as his running mate; whereas Lúder had authorized repression against the left in 1975, Bittel was a populist renowned for his defense of Habeas Corpus during the subsequent dictatorship.[2]

Constrained by time, Alfonsín focused his strategy on accusing the Justicialists, who had refused to condemn Bignone's military amnesty, of enjoying the dictator's tacit support. Alfonsín enjoyed the valuable support of a number of Argentine intellectuals and artists, including playwright Carlos Gorostiza, who devised the UCR candidate's slogan, Ahora, Alfonsín ("Now is the Time for Alfonsín").[3]

Lúder, aware of intraparty tensions, limited his campaign ads and rhetoric largely to an evocation of the founder of the Justicialist Party, the late Juan Perón. Polls gave neither man an edge for the contest, which was scheduled for October 30. A few days for the elections (which a record turnout), the Justicialist candidate for Governor of Buenos Aires Province, Herminio Iglesias, threw a (premature) "victory rally" in which a coffin draped in the UCR colors was burned before the television cameras.[2]

The bonfire ignited the electorate's bitter memories of Isabel Perón's tenure and helped result in a solid victory for the UCR. The Peronists were given a majority in the Senate and 12 of 22 governorships. The UCR secured only 7 governors, though the nation's largest province, Buenos Aires, would be governed by the UCR's Alejandro Armendáriz. The elections themselves, which allowed Alfonsín to persuade Bignone to advance the inaugural to December 10, 1983, became, in playwright Carlos Gorostiza's words, "more than a democratic way out, a way into life."[3]

Candidates for PresidentEdit

ResultsEdit

PresidentEdit

Presidential
candidate
Vice Presidential
candidate
Party Popular vote Electoral vote
Votes % Votes %
Raúl Alfonsín Víctor Hipólito Martínez Radical Civic Union (UCR) 7,724,559 51.75 317 52.83
Ítalo Lúder Deolindo Bittel Justicialist Party (PJ) 5,995,402 40.16 259 43.17
Oscar Alende Mirto Lisandro Viale Intransigent Party (PI) 347,654 2.33 2 0.33
Rogelio Julio Frigerio Antonio Salonia Integration and Development Movement (MID) 177,426 1.19 2 0.33
Francisco Manrique Guillermo Belgrano Rawson Total Manrique - Rawson 107,188 0.72
Federal Alliance 59,045 0.40
Democratic Party of Mendoza (PD) 17,192 0.12
Democratic Party of Córdoba (PD) 12,232 0.08
Federal Party (PF) 8,129 0.05
Popular Line Movement (MOLIPO) 6,365 0.04
Democratic Party of Entre Ríos 4,225 0.03
No candidates Autonomist - Liberal Alliance 104,052 0.70 6 1.00
Álvaro Alsogaray Jorge S. Oría Total Alsogaray - Oría 62,854 0.42
Union of the Democratic Centre (UCeDe) 52,526 0.35
Center National Confederation 8,736 0.06
Center Party 1,592 0.01
No candidates Blockist Party (PB) 58,038 0.39 4 0.67
Rafael Martínez Raymonda René H. Balestra Total Martínez Raymonda - Balestra 50,184 0.34
Democratic - Socialist Alliance 47,692 0.32
Democratic Progressive Party (PDP) 2,227 0.01
Democratic Socialist Party (PSD) 265 0.00
Francisco Eduardo Cerro Arturo Ponsati Christian Democratic Party (PDC) 46,544 0.31
Luis Zamora Silvia Díaz Movement for Socialism (MAS) 42,500 0.28
No candidates Neuquén People's Movement (MPN) 30,546 0.20 4 0.67
Three Flags Party 22,583 0.15 1 0.17
Jujuy People's Movement (MPJ) 22,303 0.15 2 0.33
Guillermo Estévez Boero Edgardo Rossi Popular Socialist Party (PSP) 21,177 0.14
No candidates Salta Renewal Party (PARES) 18,844 0.13 1 0.17
La Pampa Federalist Movement (MOFEPA) 15,298 0.10 2 0.33
Jorge Abelardo Ramos Elisa Margarita Colombo Popular Left Front (FIP) 14,093 0.10
Gregorio Flores Catalina Guagnini Workers' Party (PO) 13,067 0.09
No candidates Federal Vanguard 12,373 0.08
Renewal Crusade (CR) 5,539 0.04
Catamarca Popular Movement 4,464 0.03
Popular Line 4,044 0.03
Salta Popular Movement 3,197 0.02
Salta Alliance 3,089 0.02
Conservative Principist Party 3,000 0.02
Chaco Unity Movement 2,853 0.02
The People's Voice 2,753 0.02
Chubut Action Party (PACH) 2,640 0.02
Popular Alliance 2,568 0.02
Socialist Party (PS) 2,289 0.02
Rionegrino Provincial Party (PPR) 1,113 0.01
Popular Union (UP) 934 0.01
Authentic Socialist Party (PSA) 585 0.00
Renewal Party 448 0.00
Democratic Party of Catamarca 401 0.00
Nationalist Movement 394 0.00
Provincial Defense - White Flag 264 0.00
Party for Social Democracy 257 0.00
Conservative People's Party (PCP) 13 0.00
Total 14,927,512 100
Positive votes 14,927,512 97.25
Blank votes 334,946 2.18
Invalid votes 87,728 0.57
Total votes 15,350,186 100
Registered voters/turnout 17,929,951 85.61
Sources:[4][5]

Results by provinceEdit

Alfonsín/Martínez
(UCR)
Lúder/Bittel
(PJ)
Alende/Viale
(PI)
Friegrio/Salonia
(MID)
Others Blank/Invalid Turnout
Province El. Votes % El. Votes % El. Votes % El. Votes % El. Votes % El. Votes % Votes %
Buenos Aires 144 2,878,858 51.41 79 2,364,585 42.23 65 181,488 3.24 47,004 0.84 356,099 2.28 127,607 2.77 5,759,215 87.69
Buenos Aires City 54 1,269,352 64.26 37 540,389 27.36 15 88,480 4.48 2 14,480 0.73 62,556 3.17 33,422 1.66 2,008,679 85.78
Catamarca 14 48,595 46.79 7 45,329 43.65 7 602 0.58 805 0.78 8,526 8.20 3,762 3.50 107,619 81.34
Chaco 18 153,971 46.55 9 158,721 47.98 9 1,391 0.42 7,141 2.16 9,556 2.89 10,656 3.12 341,436 75.90
Chubut 14 56,912 50.85 8 46,400 41.46 6 1,957 1.75 2,362 2.11 4,281 3.82 5,167 4.41 117,079 80.63
Córdoba 40 791,470 56.22 23 561,954 39.92 17 12,245 0.87 13,078 0.93 29,089 2.06 33,381 2.32 1,441,217 88.35
Corrientes 18 112,216 33.84 7 94,105 28.38 5 2,467 0.74 11,662 3.52 111,117 33.51 6[6] 8,232 2.42 339,799 77.26
Entre Ríos 22 251,811 49.53 12 224,778 44.21 10 7,558 1.49 7,949 1.56 16,301 3.21 11,769 2.26 520,166 83.70
Formosa 14 45,065 37.20 5 54,660 45.12 7 560 0.46 16,680 13.77 2 4,188 3.46 5,369 4.24 126,522 75.92
Jujuy 16 61,173 35.46 6 84,051 48.72 8 877 0.51 1,421 0.82 24,979 14.48 2[7] 8,852 4.88 181,353 84.32
La Pampa 14 50,753 41.38 6 50,138 40.88 6 1,922 1.57 3,294 2.69 16,540 13.48 2[8] 5,350 4.18 127,997 89.52
La Rioja 14 35,534 41.04 6 48,073 55.52 8 462 0.53 1,588 1.83 925 1.08 9,285 9.69 95,867 89.31
Mendoza 24 368,484 57.81 15 233,035 36.56 9 6,073 0.95 7,233 1.13 22,566 3.55 11,680 1.80 649,071 86.63
Misiones 18 118,676 49.56 9 114,454 47.79 9 738 0.31 3,885 1.62 1,717 0.72 11,359 4.53 250,829 80.15
Neuquén 14 48,279 45.31 7 23,653 22.20 3 2,114 1.98 904 0.85 31,594 29.66 4[9] 6,006 5.34 112,550 86.80
Río Negro 14 84,226 53.57 8 62,801 39.94 6 2,868 1.82 2,616 1.66 4,725 3.01 10,447 6.23 167,683 85.84
Salta 18 135,398 44.62 8 137,369 45.27 9 1,340 0.44 1,774 0.58 27,537 9.08 1[10] 7,677 2.47 311,095 80.07
San Juan 16 98,916 40.23 7 75,368 30.65 5 2,152 0.88 2,940 1.20 66,505 27.04 4[11] 4,724 1.89 250,605 86.40
San Luis 14 58,723 48.58 8 50,095 41.44 6 549 0.45 4,434 3.67 7,075 5.86 4,138 3.31 125,014 84.99
Santa Cruz 14 19,077 44.01 7 22,324 51.50 7 668 1.54 844 1.95 437 1.01 1,850 4.09 45,200 82.22
Santa Fe 42 719,186 50.21 23 615,007 42.94 19 26,835 1.52 20,519 1.43 50,672 3.89 47,401 3.20 1,479,620 88.28
Santiago del Estero 18 109,012 40.57 8 130,411 48.53 9 1,146 0.43 1,106 0.41 27,030 10.06 1[12] 8,794 3.17 277,499 69.89
Tierra del Fuego 4 5,410 50.40 2 4,180 38.94 2 406 3.78 329 3.07 409 3.81 3,166 22.78 13,900 90.56
Tucumán 22 203,462 41.55 10 253,522 51.78 12 2,756 0.56 3,378 0.69 26,539 5.42 10,514 2.10 500,171 81.67
Total 600 7,724,559 51.75 317 5,995,402 40.16 259 347,654 2.33 2 177,426 1.19 2 682,471 4.57 20 422,674 2.75 15,350,186 85.61

Chamber of DeputiesEdit

Party Votes % Seats
1983-1985
Seats
1983-1987
Total seats
Radical Civic Union (UCR) 7,104,748 47.97 64 65 129
Justicialist Party (PJ) 5,697,610 38.47 56 55 111
Intransigent Party (PI) 411,883 2.78 2 1 3
Union of the Democratic Centre (UCeDe) 251,541 1.70 1 1 2
Integration and Development Movement (MID) 223,763 1.51
Communist Party (PC) 182,296 1.23
Federal Alliance 169,585 1.14
Christian Democratic Party (PDC) 139,881 0.94 1 1
Democratic - Socialist Alliance 125,085 0.84
Autonomist Party of Corrientes (PACo) 67,259 0.45 1 1
Blockist Party (PB) 61,737 0.42 1 1 2
Movement for Socialism (MAS) 56,193 0.38
Liberal Party of Corrientes (PLCo) 46,223 0.31 1 1
Neuquén People's Movement (MPN) 36,168 0.24 1 1 2
Popular Socialist Party (PSP) 35,631 0.24
Jujuy People's Movement (MPJ) 26,535 0.18 1 1
Three Flags Party 24,923 0.17
Salta Renewal Party (PARES) 22,453 0.15
Popular Left Front (FIP) 18,750 0.13
Federal Vanguard - Christian Democratic Party 17,926 0.12
Workers' Party (PO) 17,720 0.12
La Pampa Federalist Movement (MOFEPA) 16,490 0.11 1 1
Catamarca Popular Movement 10,049 0.07
Renewal Crusade (CR) 7,065 0.05
Chubut Action Party (PACH) 5,544 0.04
Popular Alliance 5,377 0.04
Salta Alliance 4,656 0.03
Conservative Principist Party 3,728 0.03
Salta Popular Movement 3,387 0.02
Chaco Unity Movement 3,254 0.02
The People's Voice 3,075 0.02
Socialist Party (PS) 2,573 0.02
Neighborhood Association - Fueguino Popular Union 1,940 0.01
Popular Union (UP) 1,490 0.01
Rionegrino Provincial Party (PPR) 1,453 0.01
Authentic Socialist Party (PSA) 797 0.01
Democratic Party of Catamarca 688 0.00
Renewal Party 587 0.00
Nationalist Movement 474 0.00
Provincial Defense - White Flag 415 0.00
Party for Social Democracy 266 0.00
Conservative People's Party (PCP) 13 0.00
Total 14,811,231 100 127 127 254
Positive votes 14,811,231 96.49
Blank votes 451,756 2.94
Invalid votes 87,199 0.57
Total votes 15,350,186 100
Registered voters/turnout 17,929,951 85.61
Sources:[13][5]

Results by provinceEdit

Province UCR PJ PI UCeDe PDC PACo PLCo PB MPN MPJ MOFEPA
Buenos Aires 37 31 2
Buenos Aires City 14 7 1 2 1
Catamarca 2 3
Chaco 3 4
Chubut 3 2
Córdoba 11 7
Corrientes 3 2 1 1
Entre Ríos 5 4
Formosa 2 3
Jujuy 2 3 1
La Pampa 2 2 1
La Rioja 2 3
Mendoza 6 4
Misiones 4 3
Neuquén 2 1 2
Río Negro 3 2
Salta 3 4
San Juan 2 2 2
San Luis 3 2
Santa Cruz 2 3
Santa Fe 10 9
Santiago del Estero 3 4
Tierra del Fuego 1 1
Tucumán 4 5
Total 129 111 3 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1

SenateEdit

Party Seats
1983-1986
Seats
1983-1989
Seats
1983-1992
Total seats
Justicialist Party (PJ) 7 7 6 20
Radical Civic Union (UCR) 6 6 6 18
Neuquén People's Movement (MPN) 1 1 2
Blockist Party (PB) 1 1 2
Autonomist Party of Corrientes (PACo) 1 1
Liberal Party of Corrientes (PLCo) 1 1
Integration and Development Movement (MID) 1 1
Conservative People's Party (PCP) 1 1

Results by provinceEdit

Province PJ UCR MPN PB PACo PLCo MID PCP
Buenos Aires 2
Buenos Aires City 2
Catamarca 1 1
Chaco 1 1
Chubut 2
Córdoba 2
Corrientes 1 1
Entre Ríos 2
Formosa 1 1
Jujuy 2
La Pampa 1 1
La Rioja 2
Mendoza 2
Misiones 2
Neuquén 2
Río Negro 2
Salta 2
San Juan 2
San Luis 2
Santa Cruz 2
Santa Fe 2
Santiago del Estero 2
Tucumán 2
Total 20 18 2 2 1 1 1 1

Provincial GovernorsEdit

Election of Provincial Governors
Elected: 22 provincial governors, 24 legislative bodies
Presidential appointment: Mayor of the City of Buenos Aires and Territorial Governor of Tierra del Fuego
Province Elected Party Map
Buenos Aires Alejandro Armendáriz Radical Civic Union  
Catamarca Ramón Saadi Justicialist Party
Chaco Florencio Tenev Justicialist Party
Chubut Atilio Viglione Radical Civic Union
Córdoba Eduardo Angeloz Radical Civic Union
Corrientes José Antonio Romero Feris Autonomist Party
Entre Ríos Sergio Montiel Radical Civic Union
Formosa Floro Bogado Justicialist Party
Jujuy Carlos Snopek Justicialist Party
La Pampa Rubén Marín Justicialist Party
La Rioja Carlos Menem Justicialist Party
Mendoza Santiago Llaver Radical Civic Union
Misiones Ricardo Barrios Arrechea Radical Civic Union
Neuquén Felipe Sapag Neuquén People's Movement
Río Negro Osvaldo Álvarez Guerrero Radical Civic Union
Salta Roberto Romero Justicialist Party
San Juan Leopoldo Bravo Blockist Party
San Luis Adolfo Rodríguez Saá Justicialist Party
Santa Cruz Arturo Puricelli Justicialist Party
Santa Fe José María Vernet Justicialist Party
Santiago del Estero Carlos Juárez Justicialist Party
Tucumán Fernando Riera Justicialist Party
Buenos Aires City Julio César Saguier Radical Civic Union
Tierra del Fuego Ramón Alberto Trejo Noel Radical Civic Union

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Todo Argentina: 1982 (in Spanish)
  2. ^ a b c Todo Argentina: 1983 (in Spanish)
  3. ^ a b Página/12: El marketing que acompañó al candidato (in Spanish)
  4. ^ "Recorriendo las Elecciones de 1983 a 2013 - Presidenciales". Dirección Nacional Electoral.
  5. ^ a b "Elecciones Nacionales ESCRUTINIO DEFINITIVO 1983" (PDF). Ministry of the Interior. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2018.
  6. ^ Autonomist - Liberal Alliance
  7. ^ Jujuy People's Movement
  8. ^ La Pampa Federalist Movement
  9. ^ Neuquén People's Movement
  10. ^ Salta Renewal Party
  11. ^ Blockist Party
  12. ^ Three Flags Party
  13. ^ "Recorriendo las Elecciones de 1983 a 2013 - Diputados Nacionales". Dirección Nacional Electoral.