Ardanuç (Georgian: არტანუჯი, Artanuji; Armenian: Արտանուջ, Artanuj) is a town and district in Artvin Province in Turkey's Black Sea region of Turkey, 32 km east of Artvin. The name Ardanuç derives from Lazuri language and Armenian (Laz: Artanish-Uji; lit. "edge of Ardahan” in Lazuri and “Ard” meaning field in Armenian").

Ardanuç
Ardanuc.jpg
Ardanuç is located in Turkey
Ardanuç
Ardanuç
Coordinates: 41°07′43″N 42°03′33″E / 41.12861°N 42.05917°E / 41.12861; 42.05917Coordinates: 41°07′43″N 42°03′33″E / 41.12861°N 42.05917°E / 41.12861; 42.05917
CountryTurkey
ProvinceArtvin
Government
 • MayorYıldırım Demir (CHP)
 • KaymakamCüneyt Epçim
Area
 • District989.18 km2 (381.92 sq mi)
Elevation
558 m (1,831 ft)
Population
 (2012)[2]
 • Urban
6,332
 • District
11,406
 • District density12/km2 (30/sq mi)
Post code
08300
ClimateCfb

HistoryEdit

The history of this area goes back to the settlement of the banks of the Çoruh River by the Hurri and Mitanni branches of the Hittites in 2000 BC. The first mention of Ardanuç was in a Urartu monument to the defeat of the local people in battle by King Sarduri II in 753 BC. Then in the 7th century BC the Saka or Scythians are known to have settled and they dominated Artanuj. From the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD this region formed a part of Greater Armenia. The castle of Artanuj was built by Georgian king Vakhtang Gorgasali (5th century AD).[3] The castle was besieged by Arab caliph Marwan II (688-750) Ummayad in 744 AD. and was restored by Ashot I Bagrationi in the 8th century.[4] He also founded a city, which became the center of the "Kingdom of Georgians" of Tao-Klarjeti.[5][6]

Fighting between the Bagrationi and Anatolian beyliks began in 1080. Artanuj being a mountain stronghold was hard to capture, although it did fall to the Mongols during their wars with the Turks and Georgians in the 13th century and was brought into the Ottoman Empire in 1551 by Suleiman the Magnificent following yet another siege, this time to overturn the local ruler, Atabeg of Samtskhe Jakeli.

Following the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878) Artanuj/Ardanuç was ceded to Russia. During the early stages of the First World War, Ottoman irregular forces carried out massacres of the local Armenian and other members of the Christian population.[7]

After the Russian Revolution Artanuj became part of Democratic Republic of Georgia. The young state placed itself under German protection and ceded its largely Muslim-inhabited regions (including the cities of Batum, Ardahan, Artvin, Akhaltsikhe and Akhalkalaki) to the Ottoman government (Treaty of Batum, June 4). Following the end of the war, in 1920 Georgia regained control over Artvin, Ardahan, Akhaltsikhe and Akhalkalaki. However, after the Red Army's invasion of Georgia, the region was occupied by the newly formed Republic of Turkey.

Iskender Pasha MosqueEdit

The Iskender Pasha Mosque and Tombs (İskender Paşa Camii ve Türbeleri) was commissioned by Iskender Pasha and opened in 1553. It is built in a classical Ottoman style and has four domes. It also contains the tombs of Hatice Hanım, Ali Pasha and Süleyman Pasha.

GeographyEdit

Ardanuç is a mountainous district, rising from 250 m (820 ft) in the Şavşat River basin (Şavşat district) up to the highest point, 3,050 m (10,010 ft) Mount Çadır. Other high mountains are Kürdevan, Yalnızçam and Mount Horasan. The town of Ardanuç is on the western side of Yalnızçam Mount and at the conjunction of Bulanık, Aydın and Horhot streams.

The Cehennem Deresi Canyon, located 7 km (4.3 mi) north of Ardanuç, is a tourist attraction.[8]

ClimateEdit

Ardanuç has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb).

Climate data for Ardanuç
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.2
(31.6)
1.5
(34.7)
5.5
(41.9)
10.9
(51.6)
14.9
(58.8)
18.1
(64.6)
20.9
(69.6)
21.0
(69.8)
17.7
(63.9)
12.9
(55.2)
7.4
(45.3)
2.4
(36.3)
11.1
(52.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 80
(3.1)
70
(2.8)
56
(2.2)
63
(2.5)
63
(2.5)
67
(2.6)
49
(1.9)
54
(2.1)
67
(2.6)
88
(3.5)
91
(3.6)
101
(4.0)
849
(33.4)
Source: Climate-Data.org[9]

VillagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^ Dzhuansher Dzhuansheriani, Zhizn' Vakhtanga Gorgasala, trans. and ed. G.V. Tsulaia, Tbilisi, 1986, p. 79.
  4. ^ Robert W. Edwards, “The Fortifications of Artvin: A Second Preliminary Report on the Marchlands of Northeast Turkey,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 39 (1985): pp.171-174, pls.20-30.
  5. ^ Sumbat Davitis-dze, Istoriia i povestovanie o Bagrationakh, trans. М. D. Lordpanikidze, р. 31.
  6. ^ Д. Л. Мусхелишвили, Основные вопросы исторической географии Грузии, II, p. 174-176 (in russian)
  7. ^ Candan Badem, “The War at the Caucasus Front: A Matrix for Genocide,” in The End of the Ottomans: The Genocide of 1915 and the Politics of Turkish Nationalism, eds. Hans-Lukas Kieser et al. (London: I.B. Tauris, 2019), 47-66.
  8. ^ "Artvin'deki Cehennem Deresi Kanyonu'nda 'büyüleyen' yolculuk". NTV (in Turkish). 3 May 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  9. ^ "Climate:Ardanuç". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 11 April 2014.

External linksEdit