Open main menu

The Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) is an American global food processing and commodities trading corporation, headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.[2][3][4] The company operates more than 270 plants and 420 crop procurement facilities worldwide, where cereal grains and oilseeds are processed into products used in food, beverage, nutraceutical, industrial, and animal feed markets worldwide.

Archer Daniels Midland Company
Public
Traded asNYSEADM
S&P 500 Component
IndustryFood processing
Commodities
FoundedMinneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.
1902; 117 years ago (1902)
FoundersGeorge A. Archer
John W. Daniels
Headquarters77 West Wacker Drive
Chicago, Illinois, United States
Key people
Juan Luciano
(Chairman and CEO)
ProductsCorn Syrup,
High fructose corn syrup,
Feed,
Ethanol,
Bioenergy
Food
RevenueDecrease US$64.341 billion (2018)[1]
Decrease US$1.822 billion (2016)[1]
Decrease US$1.279 billion (2016)[1]
Total assetsDecrease US$39.769 billion (2016)[1]
Total equityDecrease US$17.181 billion (2016)[1]
Number of employees
32,300 (2016)[1]
Websitewww.adm.com

It was named the world's most-admired food-production company by Fortune magazine for three consecutive years: 2009, 2010 and 2011.[5] ADM ranked No. 48 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.[6]

The company also provides agricultural storage and transportation services. The American River Transportation Company along with ADM Trucking, Inc., are subsidiaries of ADM.

ProductsEdit

Products include oils and meal from soybeans, cottonseed, sunflower seeds, canola, peanuts, flaxseed, Palm kernel and DAG oil, as well as corn germ, corn gluten feed pellets, syrup, starch, glucose, dextrose, crystalline dextrose, high fructose corn syrup sweeteners, cocoa liquor, cocoa powder, cocoa butter, chocolate, ethanol, and wheat flour. End uses are consumption by people, livestock, and additives for fuel.

Long known as a food and ingredients company, it has also invested in fuel production. ADM nearly doubled capital spending in its 2007 budget to an estimated $1.12 billion. The increase is planned for bioenergy projects, focusing on bioethanol and biodiesel.[7]

Oilseeds processingEdit

The Oilseeds Processing segment includes global activities related to the origination, merchandising, crushing, and further processing of oilseeds such as soybeans and soft seeds (cottonseed, sunflower seed, canola, and flaxseed) into vegetable oils and protein meals.[8]

Corn processingEdit

ADM's Corn Processing segment is engaged in corn wet milling and dry milling activities, with its asset base primarily located in the central part of the United States. The Corn Processing segment converts corn into sweeteners and starches, and bioproducts. Its products include ingredients used in the food and beverage industry including sweeteners, starch, syrup, glucose (dextrose). Dextrose and starch are used by the Corn Processing segment as feedstocks for its bioproducts operations.[8]

Agricultural ServicesEdit

ADM's Agricultural Services segment uses its U.S. grain elevator, global transportation network, and port operations to buy, store, clean, and transport agricultural commodities, such as oilseeds, corn, wheat, milo, oats, rice, and barley, and resells these commodities primarily as food and feed ingredients and as raw materials for the agricultural processing industry.[8]

Other productsEdit

Investor servicesEdit

ADM Investor Services, Inc. is a registered futures commission merchant and a clearing member of all principal commodities exchanges in the U.S. ADM Investor Services International, Ltd., a member of commodity exchanges and clearing houses in Europe, and ADMIS Hong Kong Limited, offer broker services in Europe and Asia.[8]

Insurance servicesEdit

ADM's captive insurance services, which include Agrinational Insurance Company (Agrinational), provides insurance coverage for certain property, casualty, marine, credit, and other miscellaneous risks of the Company and participates in certain third-party reinsurance arrangements.

ADM's Crop Risk Services is a managing general agent which sells and services crop insurance policies to farmers.[8]

HistoryEdit

In 1902, George A. Archer and John W. Daniels began a linseed crushing business in Minneapolis, Minnesota. In 1923, Archer-Daniels Linseed Company acquired Midland Linseed Products Company, and the Archer Daniels Midland Company was formed. ADM expanded its agribusiness to include milling, processing, specialty food ingredients, and cocoa.[9]

Chief Executive Officers
Started Name
1970 Dwayne Andreas
1997 G. Allen Andreas
2006 Patricia A. Woertz
2015 Juan Luciano

In 1970, Dwayne Andreas became the chief executive officer of ADM, and is credited with transforming the firm into an industrial powerhouse. Andreas remained CEO until 1997 before his nephew G. Allen Andreas was named to this position.[10] He was one of the most prominent political campaign donors in the United States,[11] having contributed millions of dollars to Democratic and Republican candidates alike.

In 2001, Paul B. Mulhollem became the company's president.[12] Under his guidance, the company was the first U.S. company to sign a contract with Cuba since the embargo against Cuba was imposed October 1960.[13]

In May 2006, Patricia A. Woertz became the company's chief executive officer.[14][15] Formerly of Chevron, she was expected to focus on developing ethanol and biofuels. In February 2007, Ms. Woertz was elected Chairman of the Board at ADM.[16]

Starting in October 2012, the company sought to acquire strategic holdings to support serving Asian markets through acquisition of GrainCorp, an Australian grain firm with a network of storage and port facilities in Australia.[15] On 29 Nov 2013, this acquisition was blocked by the Australian Treasurer.

On July 7, 2014, the company said that it will buy Swiss-German natural ingredient company Wild Flavors for $3 billion, a move aimed at diversifying the company and helping brands appeal to consumers who increasingly favor foods with natural ingredients and flavorings.[17]

On November 5, 2014, ADM announced that effective January 1, 2015, Juan Luciano will become the company's new CEO.[18] Luciano was hired on in 2011 as the company's Chief Operating Officer. Woertz will retain the position of Chairman of the Board until 2016 when she is expecting to retire.[citation needed]

In October 2015, ADM announced the sale of its global cocoa business to Olam. The sale is valued at about $1.2 billion. Approximately 1,500 employees transferred to Olam with the sale.[19]

In January 2017, Archer Daniels Midland agreed to sell its crop risk services (insurance) unit to Validus Holdings for $127.5 million.[20] On January 19, 2018, it was reported that Archer Daniels Midland Co. (ADM) had approached Bunge Ltd. about a takeover, with details "unclear." At that point, Bunge had a market value of about $9.8 billion, and was also being pursued by Glencore PLC for an acquisition, since May 2017.[21]

CriticismEdit

Sherman Antitrust Law ViolationEdit

In 1920 the US Department of Justice brought suit against the National Linseed Oil Trust for violating the Sherman Antitrust Act. Several co-defendants were named, including the Archer-Daniels Manufacturing Company. The suit alleged all of these companies were acting in collusion to raise prices, citing a spike in linseed oil costs between 1916 and 1918, when the price rose from $.50 per gallon to $1.80.[22]

Price fixingEdit

In 1993, the company was the subject of a lysine price-fixing investigation by the U.S. Justice Department. Senior ADM executives were indicted on criminal charges for engaging in price-fixing within the international lysine market. Three of ADM's top officials, including vice chairman Michael Andreas were eventually sentenced to federal prison in 1999. Moreover, in 1997, the company was fined $100 million, the largest antitrust fine in U.S. history at the time.[23] Mark Whitacre, FBI informant and whistleblower of the lysine price-fixing conspiracy, would also find himself in legal trouble for embezzling money from ADM during his time as an informant for the FBI. In addition, according to ADM's 2005 annual report, a settlement was reached under which ADM paid $400 million in 2005 to settle a class action antitrust suit.[24]

The Informant is a nonfiction thriller book [25] that documents the mid-1990s lysine price-fixing conspiracy case and the involvement of ADM executive Mark Whitacre. The book was adapted into the 2009 film The Informant!. This case has also been featured on episode 168 of This American Life called The Fix Is In.

Tax dodgingEdit

A noteworthy case of transfer mispricing came to light in 2011 in Argentina involving the world’s four largest grain traders: ADM, Bunge, Cargill and LDC. Argentina’s revenue and customs service began an investigation into the four companies when prices for agricultural commodities spiked in 2008 and yet very little profit for the four companies had been reported to the office. As a result of the investigation, it was alleged that the companies had submitted false declarations of sales and routed profits through tax havens or through their headquarters. In some cases, they were said to have used phantom firms to buy grain and had inflated costs in Argentina in order to reduce the recorded profits earned in the country.[26] According to the country’s revenue and customs service, the outstanding taxes amounted to almost USD 1 billion.[27] The companies involved have denied the allegations. To date, the Argentinian tax authorities have not replied to the Swiss NGO Public Eye’s request regarding the current state of the case.[28] In its 2018 annual report to the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), Bunge mentioned provisions which suggest that the case is still ongoing: “[A]s of December 31, 2018, Bunge’s Argentine subsidiary had received income tax assessments relating to 2006 through 2009 of approximately 1,276 million Argentine pesos (approximately $34 million), plus applicable interest on the outstanding amount of approximately 4,246 million Argentine pesos (approximately $113 million[29]).”[30]

CorruptionEdit

The Swiss NGO Public Eye has recently elaborated on a corruption case involving grain giant ADM.[31] An ADM subsidiary pleaded guilty and agreed to pay criminal fines in excess of USD 17 million in 2013 to resolve charges that it had paid bribes, via vendors, to Ukrainian government officials in order to obtain value-added tax refunds.[32] In a parallel action, the grain trader consented to a judgment that ordered ADM to pay close to USD 37 million in “disgorgement and pre-judgement interest” which brought the total amount of penalties to more than USD 54 million.[33] Entanglement with government officials can even go a step further. In November 2017, in the wake of the revelations dubbed the Paradise Papers about dubious offshore schemes, the French TV broadcast Cash Investigation[34] reported on the problematic dealings of LDC in Brazil. In 2010, the Geneva-based trader joined forces with a subsidiary of the world’s biggest soy producer Amaggi to form Amaggi & LD Commodities Ltda. Amaggi is owned by Blairo Maggi, former Minister of Agriculture and a large landowner known as the “king of soy” who was Governor of the state of Mato Grosso when the joint venture with LDC was established. Amaggi & LD Commodities Ltda opened a trust based in the Cayman Islands the same year. The beneficial owners of the trust were all members of the Maggi family. Blairo Maggi himself has claimed never to have received any money from the trust. But allegations against him should have raised a red flag: Maggi was under investigation by the Brazilian judiciary for corruption and money laundering for his time as Governor of Mato Grosso. The administration under Maggi “is suspected of having enforced a scheme of monthly bribes paid to state lawmakers in exchange for political support”.[35] Brazilian prosecutors filed charges against Blairo Maggi in May 2018, accusing him of orchestrating a bribery scheme in 2009.[36] LDC thus knowingly relied on an individual classified as a PEP for its business activities in Brazil.[37] When it set up the joint venture in 2010, Blairo Maggi had an important role in government, which he had already mixed with his private-sector activities, creating clear conflicts of interest.

Violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices ActEdit

On December 20, 2013 the SEC announced that it had charged ADM for failing to prevent illicit payments (bribes) made by its foreign subsidiaries to Ukrainian government officials in violation of the FCPA. ADM agreed to pay more than $36 million to settle the SEC's charges.[38]

Environmental recordEdit

The company has been the subject of several major federal lawsuits related to air pollution. In 2001, it agreed to pay a $1.46 million fine for violating federal and Illinois clean-air regulations at its Decatur feed plant and to spend $1.6 million to reduce air pollution there.[39] In 2003, the company settled federal air pollution complaints related to its efforts to avoid New Source Review provisions of the Clean Air Act that require pollution control upgrades when a plant is modernized. The company paid $4.5 million in penalties and more than $6 million to support environmental projects. In addition, ADM agreed to eliminate more than 60,000 tons of emissions of carbon monoxide, particulate matter, organic volatile chemicals and other pollutants from 42 plants in 17 states at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars.[40]

ADM is involved in a joint project with Daimler AG and Bayer CropScience to develop jatropha as a biofuel.[41]

In an attempt to reduce its carbon footprint, the company has partnered with the Midwest Geological Sequestration Association and other organizations to test the disposal of carbon dioxide emissions underground. If testing is successful, beginning in late 2010 the company expected to dispose of 1,000 metric tons per day of carbon dioxide emissions currently being released to the atmosphere.[42]

Agricultural subsidiesEdit

The company lobbies for agricultural subsidies and price supports including sugar and ethanol. According to a 1995 report by the libertarian think tank Cato Institute, "ADM has cost the American economy billions of dollars since 1980 and has indirectly cost Americans tens of billions of dollars in higher prices and higher taxes over that same period. At least 43 percent of ADM's annual profits are from products heavily subsidized or protected by the American government. Moreover, every $1 of profits earned by ADM's corn sweetener operation costs consumers $10, and every $1 of profits earned by its bioethanol operation costs taxpayers $30."[43]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f [file:///C:/Users/lialo/Downloads/ArcherDanielsMidlandCompany_10K_20190219.pdf "Archer Daniels Midland, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Aug 27, 2012"] Check |url= value (help) (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  2. ^ "Corporate Headquarters Archived December 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine." Archer Daniels Midland. Retrieved December 23, 2010. "Corporate Headquarters Archer Daniels Midland Company 4666 Faries Parkway Decatur, IL 62526 United States of America."
  3. ^ "Zoning Map" (PDF). City of Decatur. March 17, 2008 Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  4. ^ "Decatur city, Illinois Archived May 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  5. ^ Press release (March 3, 2011). "ADM Again Named World's Most Admired Food Production Company" Archived October 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Archer Daniels Midland. Retrieved July 24, 2013.
  6. ^ "Fortune 500 Companies 2018: Who Made the List". Fortune. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
  7. ^ Fusaro, Dave (March 26, 2007). "ADM’s big bet on fuel". Food Processing . Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  8. ^ a b c d e "UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION : WASHINGTON, D. C. 20549 : FORM 10-K". Sec.gov. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
  9. ^ "History". ADM. August 17, 2007. Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
  10. ^ "Archer Daniels Midland, Form DEF 14A, Filing Date Sep 17, 1997". secdatabase.com. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  11. ^ "Dwayne Andreas", So You Want to Buy a President?, Frontline
  12. ^ "Archer Daniels Midland, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Sep 20, 2002". secdatabase.com. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  13. ^ [failed verification] Roney, Marty (undated). "Alabama Farmers Want to Export More to Cuba". USA Today (via ABC News). Retrieved July 24, 2013.
  14. ^ "Archer Daniels Midland, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date May 1, 2006" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  15. ^ a b Henshaw, Caroline; Berry, Ian (December 20, 2012). "ADM, Graincorp CEOs Square Off". The Wall Street Journal. p. B2.
  16. ^ "Archer Daniels Midland, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Feb 6, 2007". secdatabase.com. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  17. ^ "ADM buys ingredients company Wild Flavors for about $3 billion". Chicago Tribune. July 7, 2014.
  18. ^ "Pat Woertz retiring; ADM names new CEO". Chicago Tribune. November 6, 2014.
  19. ^ "ADM Completes Sale of Global Cocoa Business". Adm.com. Archived from the original on November 20, 2015. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
  20. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/deals-day-idUSL4N1FL1ZL Reuters Deals
  21. ^ Bunge, Jacob; Mattioli, Dana (January 19, 2018). "ADM Has Made Takeover Approach to Bunge Ltd". The Wall Street Journal. The New York Times, New York City, United States. Retrieved January 21, 2018.
  22. ^ "Sues to dissolve Trust", New York Times. July 1, 1920. Retrieved 7/26/2015.
  23. ^ Hunter-Gault, Charlayne (October 15, 1996). "ADM: Who's Next?". MacNeil/Lehrer Newshour (PBS). Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2007.
  24. ^ "Archer Daniels Midland Company. 2005 Annual Report". Adm.com. p. 52. Archived from the original on January 21, 2009. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
  25. ^ Webber, Susan (September 25, 2000). "Tale of the Tapes". The Daily Deal. Aurora Advisors, Inc. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved October 2, 2008.
  26. ^ Lawrence, Felicity (June 1, 2011). "Argentina accuses world's largest grain traders of huge tax evasion". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  27. ^ Bloomberg (March 25, 2013). "Grain exporters owe Argentina 951 million in taxes". Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  28. ^ Public Eye (June 2019). "Agricultural Commodity Traders in Switzerland" (PDF). Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  29. ^ Meredith, Sam (August 31, 2018). "Argentina's peso has now fallen 52% against the dollar this year". CNBC. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  30. ^ "Bunge Ltd (BG) 10K Annual Reports & 10Q SEC Filings". Last10K. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  31. ^ Public Eye (June 2019). "Agricultural Commodity Traders in Switzerland" (PDF). Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  32. ^ "ADM Subsidiary Pleads Guilty to Conspiracy to Violate the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act". www.justice.gov. December 20, 2013. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  33. ^ "ADM Subsidiary Pleads Guilty to Conspiracy to Violate the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act". www.justice.gov. December 20, 2013. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  34. ^ ""Cash Investigation". "Paradise Papers" : au cœur d'un scandale mondial". Franceinfo (in French). October 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  35. ^ "Brazilian government officials cited in the Paradise Papers". The Brazilian Report. November 6, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  36. ^ "Brazil agriculture minister faces corruption charge". Reuters. May 2, 2018. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  37. ^ "Brazil's Amaggi and Big 4 grain traders mull road, railway venture". Reuters. March 11, 2019. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  38. ^ "SEC Charges Archer-Daniels-Midland Company With FCPA Violations, Filing Date Dec 20, 2013". SEC. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
  39. ^ "Archer Daniels Fined Over Clean-Air Rules". Los Angeles Times. January 13, 2001.
  40. ^ Lee, Jennifer 8. (April 9, 2003). "2 Companies Said to Agree to Settle Suits on Emission". The New York Times. Retrieved July 24, 2013.
  41. ^ "Archer Daniels Midland Company, Bayer CropScience and Daimler to Cooperate in Jatropha Biodiesel Project". DaimlerChrysler. Archived from the original on March 23, 2009.
  42. ^ "Carbon-Sequestration Projects Put Innovative Emissions-Reduction Technology to the Test" Archived January 3, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Archer Daniels Midland. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
  43. ^ Bovard, James (September 26, 1995). "Archer Daniels Midland: A Case Study In Corporate Welfare" Archived July 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Cato Policy Analysis No. 241. Cato Institute. Retrieved July 24, 2013.

External linksEdit