Open main menu

Wikipedia β

The Aravalli Range is a range of mountains running approximately 692 km (430 mi) in a northwest direction, starting in North India from Delhi and passing through southern Haryana,[1] through to Western India across the states of Rajasthan and ending in Gujarat.[2][3]

Aravalli Range
Aravalli.jpg
The Aravali Range in Rajasthan
Highest point
Peak Guru Shikhar, Mount Abu
Elevation 1,722 m (5,650 ft)
Coordinates 24°35′33″N 74°42′30″E / 24.59250°N 74.70833°E / 24.59250; 74.70833
Dimensions
Length 692 km (430 mi)
Naming
Pronunciation Hindustani pronunciation: [ aa ra vli]
Geography
India Geographic Map.jpg
Topographic map of India showing the range
Country  India
States Rajasthan, Haryana, Delhi and Gujarat
Region North India, Western India
Settlement Delhi, Gurugram, Mount Abu
Range coordinates 25°00′N 73°30′E / 25°N 73.5°E / 25; 73.5Coordinates: 25°00′N 73°30′E / 25°N 73.5°E / 25; 73.5
Rivers Banas, Luni, Sakhi and Sabarmati
Geology
Orogeny Aravalli-Delhi Orogen
Age of rock Precambrian
Type of rock Fold mountains from Plate tectonics

Contents

EtymologyEdit

Aravalli, a composite Sanskrit word from "ara" and "vali", literally means the "line of peaks".[4][5]

GeologyEdit

Natural HistoryEdit

The Aravalli range, an eroded stub of ancient mountains, is the oldest range of fold mountains in India.[6] The natural history of the Aravalli Range dates back to a pre-Indian subcontinental collision with the mainland Eurasian Plate. The range rose in a Precambrian event called the Aravalli-Delhi Orogen. This orogen is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle, such as Aravalli and Himalayas fold mountains) due to the interaction between tectonic plates when a continental plate is crumpled and is pushed upwards to form mountain ranges, and involve a great range of geological processes collectively called orogenesis.[7][8] In ancient times, Aravalli were extremely high but since have worn down almost completely by millions of years of weathering, where as the Himalayas being young fold mountains are still continuously rising. Aravalli, being the old fold mountains, have stopped growing higher due to the cessation of upward thrust caused by the stopping of movement of the tectonic plates in the Earth's crust below them.

The Aravalli Range joins two of the ancient earth's crust segments that make up the greater Indian craton, the Aravalli Craton which is the Marwar segment of earths crust to the northwest of the Aravalli Range, and the Bundelkand Craton segment of earths crust to the southeast of the Aravalli Range. Cratons, generally found in the interiors of tectonic plates, are old and stable parts of the continental lithosphere (earth's two topmost layers, the crust and the uppermost mantle) that has remained relatively undeformed during the cycles of merging and rifting of continents.

Geographical featuresEdit

 
The Aravalli Range, seen from the range's highest point at Guru Shikhar, in Rajasthan.

The Aravalli Range, one of the world oldest ranges,[9] can be divided into three parts, each with related but gradually varying climate and ecology: the Northern Aravalli in Delhi and Haryana, the Central Aravalli in Rajasthan, and the Southern Aravalli in Gujrat.

The Delhi Ridge is the northernmost end of the Aravalli range, which begins in Central Delhi at Raisina hill. The ridge diagonally traverses to the South Delhi (hills of Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary), where at the hills of Bandhwari, it meets the Haryana Aravalli range consisting of various isolated hills and rocky ridges passing along the southern border of Haryana.[9]

The Rajasthan Aravalli range passes through Rajasthan state, dividing it into two halves, with three-fifths of Rajasthan on the western side towards Thar Desert and two third on the eastern side consisting of the catchment area of Banas and Chambal rivers bordering the state of Madhya Pradesh. Guru Shikhar, the highest peak in the Aravalli Range at 5650 feet (1722 meters) in Mount Abu of Rajasthan, lies near the south-western extremity of the Central Aravalli range, close to the border with Gujarat state.

The Gujrat Aravalli range enters the northeast of Gujarat near Modasa where it lends its name to the Aravalli district, and ends at the center of the state at Palanpur near Ahmedabad.

MiningEdit

Mining of copper and other metals in the Aravalli range dates back to at least 5th century BC, based on carbon dating.[10][11]

Recent research indicates that copper was already mined here during Sothi-Siswal period going back to c. 4000 BCE. Ancient Kalibangan and Kunal, Haryana settlements obtained copper here.[12]

Human historyEdit

The Aravalli Range has been site of three broad stages of human history, early stone age saw the use of flint stones; mid-stone age starting from 20,000 BP saw the domestication of cattle for agriculture; and post stone age starting from 10,000 BP saw the development of the Kalibangan civilization, 4,000 years old Aahar civilization and 2,800 years old Gneshwar civilization, Aarayan civilization and Vedic era civilizations.

Early stone ageEdit

Mid-stone ageEdit

Post stone ageEdit

Ganeshwar sunari Cultural ComplexEdit

Ganeshwar sunari Cultural Complex (GSCC) is a collection of third millennium BC settlements in the area of the Aravalli Hill Range. Among them, there are similarities in material culture, and in the production of copper tools. They are located near the copper mines.

"The GSCC is east of the Harappan culture, to the north-east of Ahar-Banas Complex, north/north west to the Kayatha Culture and at a later date, west of the OCP-Copper Hoard sites (Ochre Coloured Pottery culture-Copper Hoard Culture). Located within the regions of the Aravalli Hill Range, primarily along the Kantli, Sabi, Sota, Dohan and Bondi rivers, the GJCC is the largest copper producing community in third millennium BC South Asia, with 385 sites documented. Archaeological indicators of the GSCC were documented primarily in Jaipur, Jhunjhunu, and Sikar districts of Rajasthan, India ..."[13]

Among their pottery, we find the incised ware, and reserved slip ware.

There are two main type sites, Ganeshwar, and Sunari, in Tehsil Kot Putli, Jaipur District (geo coordinates: N 27° 35' 51", 76° 06' 85" E).

EnvironmentEdit

 
A lake nested within Aravali Hills.

ClimateEdit

The Northern Aravalli range in Delhi and Haryana has humid subtropical climate and hot semi-arid climate continental climate with very hot summers and relatively cool winters.[14] The main characteristics of climate in Hisar are dryness, extremes of temperature, and scanty rainfall.[15] The maximum daytime temperature during the summer varies between 40 and 46 °C (104 and 115 °F). During winter, its ranges between 1.5 and 4 °C.[16]

The Central Aravalli range in Rajasthan has an arid and dry climate.

The Southern Aravalli range in Gujrat has a tropical wet and dry climate

RiversEdit

Following rivers flow from the Aravalli range.

EcologyEdit

FloraEdit

Aravalli range has several forests with a diversity of environment.[22]

FaunaEdit

 
Ranthambore National Park, in Rajasthan.

Aravalli range is rich in wildlife. The first ever 2017 wildlife survey of 200 square meter area cross five districts (Gurgaon, Faridabad, Mewat, Rewari and Mahendergarh) of Haryana done by the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) found 14 species, including leopards, striped hyena (7 sightings), golden jackal (9 sightings, with 92% occupancy across the survey area), nilgai (55 sightings), palm civet (7 sightings), wild pig (14 sightings), rhesus macaque (55 sightings), peafowl (57 sightings) and Indian crested porcupine (12 sightings). Encouraged by first survey, wildlife deprtment has prepared a plan for the comprehensive study and census of wildlife across the whole aravalli range, including radio collar tracking of the wild animals.[22]

ConcernsEdit

In May 1992, some parts of the Aravalli hills in Rajasthan and Haryana were protected from mining through the Ecologically Sensitive Areas clauses of Indian laws. In 2003, the central government of India prohibited mining operations in these areas. In 2004, India's Supreme Court banned mining in the notified areas of Aravalli range. In May 2009, the Supreme Court extended the ban on mining in an area of 448 km2 across Faridabad, Gurgaon and Mewat districts in Haryana, covering Aravalli range.[23][24]

A 2013 report used high resolution Cartosat-1 & LISS-IV satellite imaging to determine the existence and condition of mines in Aravalli range. In Guru Gram district, the Aravalli hills occupy an area of 11,256 hectares, of which 491 (4.36%) hectares had mines, of which 16 hectares (0.14%) were abandoned flooded mines. In Faridabad district and Mewat districts, about 3610 hectares were part of mining industry, out of a total of 49,300 hectares. These mines were primarily granite and marble mines for India's residential and real estate construction applications.[25] In Central Rajasthan region, Sharma states that the presence of some mining has had both positive and negative effect on neighboring agriculture and ecosystem. The rains induced wash brings nutrients as well as potential contaminants.[26]

EconomyEdit

Aravali range has 100s of rivers originating from here, resulting in development of human settlements with sustainable economy since pre-historic times. The Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project, Western Dedicated Freight Corridor, Mumbai–Ahmedabad high-speed rail corridor, North Western Railway network, Jaipur-Kishangarh Expressway and Delhi-Jaipur Expressway, all running parallel to the whole length of Aravalli range, provide the economic boost.[27]

TourismEdit

Aravali range is the home of several forests, wildlife and protected areas, UNESCO heritage listed forts, hundreds of rivers and ancient history to sustain a large tourism industry.

ConcernsEdit

Damage to the environment and ecology from the unorganised urbanisation, overexploitation of the natural resources including water and minerals, mining, untreated human waste and disposal, pollution, loss of forest cover and wildlife habitat, unprotected status of most of the Aravalli and the lack of an integrated Aravalli management agency are the major causes of concern.

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

BooksEdit

  • Watershed Management in Aravali Foothills, by Gurmel Singh, S. S. Grewal, R. C. Kaushal. Published by Central Soil & Water Conservation Research & Training Institute, 1990.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Aravalli Biodiversity Park, Gurgaon". 
  2. ^ Kohli, M.S. (2004), Mountains of India: Tourism, Adventure, Pilgrimage, Indus Publishing, pp. 29–, ISBN 978-81-7387-135-1 
  3. ^ Dale Hoiberg; Indu Ramchandani (2000). "Aravali Range". Students' Britannica India. Popular Prakashan. pp. 92–93. ISBN 0-85229-760-2. 
  4. ^ George Smith (1882). The Geography of British India, Political & Physical. J. Murray. p. 23. 
  5. ^ "Aravali Range". Britannica.com. 
  6. ^ Roy, A. B. (1990). Evolution of the Precambrian crust of the Aravalli Range. Developments in Precambrian Geology, 8, 327-347.
  7. ^ Tony Waltham (2009). Foundations of Engineering Geology (3rd ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 20. ISBN 0-415-46959-7. 
  8. ^ Philip Kearey; Keith A. Klepeis; Frederick J. Vine (2009). "Chapter 10: Orogenic belts". Global Tectonics (3rd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 287. ISBN 1-4051-0777-4. 
  9. ^ a b Bhuiyan, C., Singh, R. P., & Kogan, F. N. (2006). Monitoring drought dynamics in the Aravalli region (India) using different indices based on ground and remote sensing data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 8(4), 289-302
  10. ^ SM Gandhi (2000) Chapter 2 – Ancient Mining and Metallurgy in Rajasthan, Crustal Evolution and Metallogeny in the Northwestern Indian Shield: A Festschrift for Asoke Mookherjee, ISBN 978-1842650011
  11. ^ Shrivastva, R. (1999). Mining of copper in ancient India. Indian Journal of History of Science, 34, 173-180
  12. ^ Jane McIntosh, The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives. Understanding ancient civilizations. ABC-CLIO, 2008 ISBN 1576079074 p77
  13. ^ Uzma Z. Rizvi (2010) Indices of Interaction: Comparisons between the Ahar-Banas and Ganeshwar Jodhpura Cultural Complex Archived May 9, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., in EASAA 2007: Special Session on Gilund Excavations, edited by T. Raczek and V. Shinde, pp. 51-61. British Archaeological Reports: ArchaeoPress
  14. ^ "Climate of Hisar". PPU. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  15. ^ "Climate of Hisar". District Administration, Hisar. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  16. ^ "More snowfall in Himachal". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  17. ^ Gupta, S.P. (ed.) (1995), The lost Sarasvati and the Indus Civilization, Jodhpur: Kusumanjali Prakashan 
  18. ^ Cultural Contours of India: Dr. Satya Prakash Felicitation Volume, Vijai Shankar Śrivastava, 1981. ISBN 0391023586
  19. ^ Sahibi river
  20. ^ Google Books: Page 41, 42, 43, 44, 47 (b) Sahibi Nadi (River), River Pollution, By A.k.jain
  21. ^ Minerals and Metals in Ancient India: Archaeological evidence, Arun Kumar Biswas, ‎Sulekha Biswas, University of Michigan. 1996. ISBN 812460049X.
  22. ^ a b Aravalis in Gurugram, Faridabad core area for leopards, finds survey, The Times of India, 17 June 2017
  23. ^ SC bans all mining activity in Aravali hills area of Haryana, May 9, 2009.
  24. ^ Mission Green: SC bans mining in Aravali hills Hindustan Times, May 9, 2009.
  25. ^ Rai and Kumar, MAPPING OF MINING AREAS IN ARAVALLI HILLS IN GURGAON, FARIDABAD & MEWAT DISTRICTS OF HARYANA USING GEO-INFORMATICS TECHNOLOGY, International Journal of Remote Sensing & Geoscience, Volume 2, Issue 1, Jan. 2013
  26. ^ Sharma, K. C. (2003). Perplexities and Ecoremediation of Central Aravallis of Rajasthan. Environmental Scenario for 21st Century, ISBN 978-8176484183, Chapter 20
  27. ^ Jha, Bagis, TNN. 195-km super expressway to link Delhi, Jaipur, [[The Economic Times], 21 March 2017, Accessed on 20 June 2017.