Araneomorphae

The Araneomorphae (also called the Labidognatha) are an infraorder of spiders. They are distinguished by having chelicerae (fangs) that point diagonally forward and cross in a pinching action, in contrast to the Mygalomorphae (tarantulas and their close kin), where they point straight down. Most of the spiders that people encounter in daily life belong to the Araneomorphae.

Araneomorph spiders
Temporal range: Triassic–present
Nephila inaurata1.JPG
Nephila inaurata (Nephilidae)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Suborder: Opisthothelae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Families

see Table of families

Diversity
95 families
Hippasa agelenoides—common funnel web spider

Distinguishing characteristicsEdit

Note the difference in the orientations of the chelicerae (fangs) of the two spiders below, representatives of the Mygalomorphae and the Araneomorphae. The number of book-lungs (when present) can also help distinguish between members of these two major groups.

MygalomorphaeEdit

This Atrax robustus (a member of the Hexathelidae) is presenting a defensive posture, and by so doing clearly shows the orientation of its chelicerae, which go up and down and parallel to the long axis of the spider's body, as with other representatives of the Mygalomorphae.

AraneomorphaeEdit

In the Araneomorphae, the fangs slope towards each other, giving these spiders many more possibilities than the Mygalomorphae, which can only bite top down. In contrast to the Mygalomorphae, where females can live for many years, most Araneomorphae die after about a year.[1]

Spiders includedEdit

Almost all of the familiar spiders are included in this group. The major exception is the Tarantulas, which have become so common as pets that many people have seen them. There are a few other members of Mygalomorphae that one might see around homes or gardens, but they typically are relatively small and not easily noticed. For instance, the females of one such species lives and hunts from within a long silken tube, so unless one opens the tube or chances upon a male looking for a mate, one will never see them. The Araneomorphae, to the contrary, include the weavers of spiral webs, the cobweb spiders that live in the corners of our rooms and between windows and screens, the crab spiders that lurk on the surfaces of the flowers in our gardens, the jumping spiders that look back at us curiously from walls and tree trunks, the wolf spiders that sometimes carpet good hunting sites in a sunny spot in the lawn, the large Huntsman spiders that sometimes frighten people by getting into their cars or taking up residence behind wall clocks.

SystematicsEdit

In older schemes, the Araneomorphae are divided into two lineages, the Hypochilae (containing only the family Hypochilidae), and the Neocribellatae. The Neocribellatae are in turn divided into the Austrochiloidea, and the two series Entelogynae and Haplogynae, each containing several superfamilies:

A cladogram shows the relation among taxa:[2]

   Opisthothelae   

Mygalomorphae

   Araneomorphae   
   

Hypochilidae

   Austrochiloidea   
   

Gradungulidae

Austrochilidae

   Araneoclada   

Haplogynae

Entelegynae

Most spiders in the Haplogynae series have six eyes, while most of those in the Entelegynae series have eight.

Table of familiesEdit

Key
Genera 1 ≥2 ≥10 ≥100
Species 1–9 ≥10 ≥100 ≥1000
Araneomorphae families[note 1]
Family Genera Species Common name Example
Agelenidae 78 1282 araneomorph funnel-web spiders Hobo spider
Amaurobiidae 49 274 tangled nest spiders Callobius claustrarius
Ammoxenidae 4 18
Anapidae 58 223
Anyphaenidae 56 563 anyphaenid sac spiders Yellow ghost spider
Araneidae 174 3128 orb-weaver spiders Zygiella x-notata
Archaeidae 5 90 pelican spiders Eriauchenius gracilicollis
Arkyidae 2 37
Austrochilidae 3 10 Tasmanian cave spider
Caponiidae 18 119 Diploglena capensis
Cheiracanthiidae
(syn. Eutichuridae)
12 351 Cheiracanthium mildei
Cithaeronidae 2 8
Clubionidae 15 618 sac spiders Clubiona trivialis
Corinnidae 67 779 dark sac spiders Castianeira sp.
Ctenidae 47 525 tropical wolf spiders Brazilian wandering spiders
Cyatholipidae 23 58
Cybaeidae 19 259
Cycloctenidae 8 80
Deinopidae 2 65 net-casting spiders Rufous net-casting spider
Desidae 60 297 intertidal spiders Phryganoporus candidus
Dictynidae 52 464 Nigma walckenaeri
Diguetidae 2 15 coneweb spiders
Drymusidae 2 17 false violin spiders
Dysderidae 24 564 woodlouse hunter spiders Woodlouse spider
Eresidae 9 98 velvet spiders Eresus sandaliatus
Filistatidae 19 164 crevice weavers Southern house spider
Gallieniellidae 10 56
Gnaphosidae[note 2] 158 2532 flat-bellied ground spiders Drassodes cupreus
Gradungulidae 7 16 large-clawed spiders Carrai cave spider
Hahniidae 23 346 dwarf sheet spiders
Hersiliidae 16 181 tree trunk spiders Hersilia savignyi
Homalonychidae 1 3
Huttoniidae 1 1 Huttonia palpimanoides
Hypochilidae 2 12 lampshade spiders Hypochilus thorelli
Lamponidae 23 192 White-tailed spider
Leptonetidae 21 346 Tooth cave spider
Linyphiidae 607 4566 dwarf / money spiders Linyphia triangularis
Liocranidae 31 272 liocranid sac spiders
Lycosidae 124 2419 wolf spiders Lycosa tarantula
Malkaridae 11 46 shield spiders
Mecysmaucheniidae 7 25
Megadictynidae 2 2
Mimetidae 12 152 pirate spiders Oarces reticulatus
Miturgidae 29 130 long-legged sac spiders
Mysmenidae 13 137 spurred orb-weavers
Nesticidae 16 278 cave cobweb spiders Nesticella marapu
Nicodamidae 7 27
Ochyroceratidae 20 216 midget ground weavers Theotima minutissima
Oecobiidae 6 113 disc web spiders Oecobius navus
Oonopidae 114 1801 dwarf hunting spiders Oonops domesticus
Orsolobidae 30 188
Oxyopidae 9 457 lynx spiders Green lynx spider
Pacullidae 4 38
Palpimanidae 18 150 palp-footed spiders
Penestomidae 1 9
Periegopidae 1 3
Philodromidae 30 539 philodromid crab spiders Philodromus dispar
Pholcidae 77 1666 daddy long-legs spiders Pholcus phalangioides
Phrurolithidae 13 205
Physoglenidae 13 72
Phyxelididae 14 64
Pimoidae 4 41 Pimoa cthulhu
Pisauridae 51 356 nursery web spiders Pisaura mirabilis
Plectreuridae 2 31
Psechridae 2 61
Salticidae 635 6080 jumping spiders Zebra spider
Scytodidae 5 248 spitting spiders Scytodes thoracica
Segestriidae 4 130 tubeweb spiders Segestria florentina
Selenopidae 10 257 wall spiders Selenops radiatus
Senoculidae 1 31
Sicariidae 3 1623 recluse spiders Brown recluse
Sparassidae 88 1224 huntsman spiders Avondale spider
Stenochilidae 2 13
Stiphidiidae 20 125 Tartarus mullamullangensis
Symphytognathidae 8 73 dwarf orb-weavers Patu digua
Synaphridae 3 13
Synotaxidae 1 11
Telemidae 10 79 long-legged cave spiders
Tetrablemmidae 27 129 armored spiders
Tetragnathidae 48 996 long jawed orb-weavers Orchard spider
Theridiidae 124 2503 cobweb spiders Redback spider
Theridiosomatidae 19 124 ray spiders Theridiosoma gemmosum
Thomisidae 170 2171 crab spiders Goldenrod spider
Titanoecidae 5 53 Goeldia obscura
Toxopidae 14 82
Trachelidae 18 232
Trechaleidae 16 120
Trochanteriidae 19 153
Trogloraptoridae 1 1 Trogloraptor marchingtoni
Udubidae 4 15
Uloboridae 19 283 hackled orb-weavers Uloborus walckenaerius
Viridasiidae 2 9
Xenoctenidae 4 33
Zodariidae 85 1141 ant spiders Zodarion germanicum
Zoropsidae 26 180 Zoropsis spinimana

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://www.publish.csiro.au/samples/spiders/html/SPIDERS.HTM
  2. ^ Coddington, Jonathan A.; Levi, Herbert W. (1991). "Systematics and Evolution of Spiders (Araneae) STOR". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 22: 565–592. doi:10.1146/annurev.es.22.110191.003025. ISSN 0066-4162. JSTOR 2097274.
  3. ^ World Spider Catalog (2018), Currently valid spider genera and species.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Unless otherwise shown, currently accepted families and counts based on the World Spider Catalog version 19.0 as of 11 July 2018.[3] In the World Spider Catalog, "species" counts include subspecies. Assignment to sub- and infraorders based on Coddington (2005, p. 20) (when given there).
  2. ^ June 2019 data